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Pudukkottai - Its contribution to Tamil Culture

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Pudukkottai, a princely state during the British time is rich in archaeological monuments. It has produced eminent people in many walks of life

Pudukkottai, a princely state during the British time is rich in archaeological monuments. It has produced eminent people in many walks of life

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  • Pudukkottai is no doubt a great storehouse of culture. there is so much that despite two long visits I have yet to finish my research on the early Tamil art. I love the kind, helping people and young children all going to schools and colleges. But one thing i hate that it is a shame. On Pudukkopttai bus stand all men stand by the drain and urinate, the stench is unbearable, people eat food just near this open urinal. I found that thee is a toilet but is dirty and without water. Can the authorities not put an end to this shameful activity by creating many nice and clean toilets. I understand people travel from long distance place to Puddukkottai but they should be stopped and toilets built. Of course in my travels across India I find this story repeated in many places.
    UI hope someone does something and when i come to Pudukkottai next it will be a civilized space of a toilet for people to use.
    .
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  • 1. Click anywhere to start the presentation
  • 2. India, our motherland,
    can boast of an unbroken tradition
    of 5000 years.
    Truly, a nation of unity in diversity.
    by
    S. Swaminathan
    (sswami99@gmail.com)
  • 3. Tamilnadu, the land of our forefathers,
    is a land of culture and arts.
    Tamil, our language, is ancient and classical, and at the same time modern.
  • 4. Our tradition has a hoary past.
    It is unique;
    unique in many respects.
  • 5. Thol-kaappiyam
    not just a treatise on grammar;
    but a treasure-house of
    contemporary Tamil tradition...
    Sangam poetry, a collection of
    marvelous dramatic monologues.
    Kural
    won the appellation of ‘world gospel’.
    Bharathi
    not only the morning star
    of modern Tamil literature,
    but also a leading light of the 20th century renaissance in Indian life and letters.
  • 6. Thus would go on our unique culture
  • 7. PUDUKKOTTAI
    Public Office Building, Pudukkottai
    PUDUKKOTTAI,
    a district of Tamilnadu,
    is a museum of South Indian arts and
    can be called an archaeological paradise.
  • 8. PUDUKKOTTAI
    This tiny slice of South India
    has a glorious past and
    can be proud of its contributions
    to Indian culture,
    especially to Tamil culture.
    The palace of the last Maharajah (present Collectorate) in Indo-Saracenic style
  • 9. THIRUVARANGULAM
    This is Lord Nataraja performing the cosmic dance.
    This beautiful bronze is
    from Tiruvaran-gulam,
    Pudukkottai
    One may see
    this imposing bronze
    at the entrance of
    the National Museum,
    New Delhi.
    Some even say that
    this the second best bronze
    ever sculpted by humankind.
  • 10. AVUDAIYARKOIL
    Thiru-p-perum-thurai,
    a place blessed by the Saint
    Manikka-vasagar.
    A great story of
    great significance is
    attached to this place.
    Every one knows the story
    how jackals became horses.
    Manikka-vasagar
    Now known as
    Avudaiyarkoil,
    the temple in addition,
    is well known for
    its exquisite sculptures.
  • 11. SITTANNAVASAL
    A scene from the Sittannavasal painting
    Sittannavasal
    the best known archaeological site of
    the district.
    The celebrated paintings here of
    the 9th century AD
    are considered to be second only
    in importance to
    the paintings in
    the Ajanta caves.
  • 12. SITTANNAVASAL
    This is a pre-historical burial site,
    at least 3000 years old.
    A Pre-Historic burial site
  • 13. SITTANNAVASAL
    Here are some highly polished stone beds
    in which the Jain sages
    fasted unto death as religious austerity
    from the 3rd century BC onwards.
    The famous inscriptions in Tamil-Brahmi of the 3rd century,
    Vattezhuththu of the 2nd century AD &
    later Tamil inscriptions are milestones in
    Tamil history
    Ancient Tamil inscription found around this Jaina bed
  • 14. TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE
    The district can boast of largest number of
    cave temples in Tamilnadu.
    The celebrated ones are
    Thiru-go-karnam
    Thirumayam
    Malayadippatti
    Kudumiyanmalai.
  • 15. TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE
    Most of the early temples
    that led to the great Chozha temples, like
    the Brihadisvara Temple
    can be seen in the Pudukkottai tract.
    Kodumbalur
    Narttamalai
    Narttamalai, Kodumbalur, Kaliyapatti,
    Panangudi, Kannanur, Tirukkattalai etc
    are some of the early Chozha temples
  • 16. SCULPTURES
    Pallava-s initiated the tradition of
    temple building in Tamilnadu,
    starting from cave temples and
    perfecting structural temples.
    Their sculptures are of great beauty,
    unexcelled even by the Imperial Chozha-s.
    Their equals are here in Pudukkottai.
    Kalari-moorthi and
    Rishabha-rudha are
    some of the masterpieces
    one finds in Muvar-koil
    of Kodumbalur.
    Kalari-moorthi
    Rishabha-rudha
  • 17. IDENTITY OF PUDUKKOTTAI
    Many places in Pudukkottai tract
    find mention in Sangam literature.
    The traditional boundary
    between the Chozha-s and the Pandya-s
    was the river Vellar
    which runs in the middle of Pudukkottai tract.
    CHOZHA-S
    RIVER VELLAR
    PANDYA-S
  • 18. IDENTITY OF PUDUKKOTTAI
    The present Pudukkottai District
    has become an administrative entity
    from the time of the Thondaimans in 17th century.
    Rule of the Thondaiman dynasty continued
    with the support of the British,
    until its merger with the Indian Union in 1948.
    Rajah Rajagopala Tondaiman, the last Maharajah
    Rajah Ramachandra Tondaiman in Darbar
  • 19. IDENTITY OF PUDUKKOTTAI
    Amman Kaasu
    Coin minted by the Thondaimans.
  • 20. EPOCH MAKERS FROM PUDUKKOTTAI SOIL
    The Pudukkottai town is one of the few fully planned towns in India, thanks to the great administrators.
    William Blackburne
    200 years ago laid the foundation stone.
    Sashiah Sastri
    100 years ago completed the task.
    Tottenham whose administrative procedures
    are followed through out Tamilnadu.
    Sashiah Sastri
    W. Blackburn
    Tottenham
  • 21. EPOCH MAKERS FROM PUDUKKOTTAI SOIL
    Veeramamunivar
    that is Fr. Beschi, a great Tamil savant, was living in Avur during 1732 AD, and
    during the turbulent days of Carnatic war the Father bore ill-treatment by the army of Chanda-Saheb with unruffled equanimity
  • 22. EPOCH MAKERS FROM PUDUKKOTTAI SOIL
    Dr Muthulakshmi Reddy
    the first woman MBBS in the country.
    Also the first woman to be elected
    to a legislative body in the country.
    Her contribution to women emancipation
    is immense
  • 23. EPOCH MAKERS FROM PUDUKKOTTAI SOIL
    Sathyamoorthy
    the famous freedom fighter.
  • 24. EPOCH MAKERS FROM PUDUKKOTTAI SOIL
    Akhilan
    the first Tamil to receive Bharatiya Jyanpith award.
  • 25. EPOCH MAKERS FROM PUDUKKOTTAI SOIL
    Al. Valliyappa
    The famous poet for children.
    Pudukkottai was an important centre
    for publishing.
    Its contribution to children’s literature
    is substantial.
  • 26. PERFORMING ARTS
    Pudukkottai’s contribution to music and dance is impressive.
    It is believed that Saint Thyagaraja first sang in the Thondaiman court
  • 27. PERFORMING ARTS
    The nada upasakar and laya vidwan
    Mamundia Pillai created Kanjira and
    established the Pudukkottai
    school of mridangam.
    Among his worthy disciples was the redoubtable Dhakshinamoorthy Pillai.
    Dhakshinamoorthy
    Mamundiya Pillai
  • 28. PERFORMING ARTS
    The veena brothers, Subbarama Iyer and Sambasiva Iyer,
    perfected the Thanjavur bani of
    veenai playing.
  • 29. PERFORMING ARTS
    Sivarama Nattuvanarand a host of dance teachers of
    this princely state were
    celebrated all over the dance world
  • 30. PERFORMING ARTS
    Rukmani Devi Arundale was mainly responsible for
    making Bharathanatyam an art form
    fit for concerts.
  • 31. PERFORMING ARTS
    The list of
    musicians, dancers and dance teachers
    hailing from Pudukkottai is long and
    their contribution to their chosen field
    is considerable
  • 32. PERFORMING ARTS
    In the popular field of cinema Pudukkottai-ans
    carved a place for themselves.
    Raja Sandow,
    the hero of the silent movie,
    who made a mark in Mumbai too.
    PU Chinnappa, the then superstar.
    Gemini Ganesan, the romantic hero
    AVM Rajan, a well known actor of yesteryears.
  • 33. One may go on......
    This is our PUDUKKOTTAI.
  • 34. THE PRESENT SCENARIO
    It is certain that there are similar reasons for every person to be proud of
    his/her own district.
    But, how many of us are aware of our own history?
  • 35. THE PRESENT SCENARIO
    Those who are born in Pudukkottai and
    lived in there for considerable time
    would be aware of some part of
    its history and its importance.
    But most, particularly belonging
    to the younger generation,
    may not.
    Worse we witness helplessly
    destruction of our heritage, our history.
  • 36. THE PRESENT SCENARIO
    Most of the priceless
    paintings of Sittannavasal are
    damaged by vandalism and apathy.
  • 37. THE PRESENT SCENARIO
    The celebrated temples are dilapidated.
    This is not due to lack of resources,
    but for lack of historical sense.
  • 38. THE PRESENT SCENARIO
    Valuable documents,
    palm-leaf manuscripts, books,
    personal memoirs and
    those that can help trace history
    are irrevocably lost, and being destroyed.
  • 39. I now take the pleasure of presenting
    Sittannavasal,
    which, along with
    Kodumbalur and Narttamalai
    form a Golden Triangle of Pudukkottai.
  • 40. SITTANNAVASAL MONUMENTS
  • 41. Location of Sittannavasal
    Trichy
    Thanjavur
    To Illupur
    Pudukkottai
    To Madurai
    Karaikkudi
    Sittannavasal,
    a small village
    in the Pudukkottai district
    of Tamilnadu,
    is a world-famous
    archaeological site.
    It lies at 15 km from Pudukkottai on the road to Illuppur.
  • 42. Sittannavasal monuments
    There are four interesting monuments on and around a large rocky hillock:
    Arivar-koil
    It is renowned for its mural paintings in the Jaina cave temple.
    These paintings are second only in importance
    after Ajanta paintings and
    have an important place in the Indian art history.
    It was a flourishing centre
    of Jaina influence where Jainism flourished
    for over 1200 years (3rd century BC to 10th century AD).
  • 43. Sittannavasal monuments
    Ezhadippattam
    There are a number of natural caverns
    with polished stone- beds in this hillock
    where Jain ascetics performed austerities.
    One of such caverns, called Ezhadippattam,
    contains 17 stone-beds,
    with inscriptions in Tamil dating from 3rd century BC.
  • 44. Sittannavasal monuments
    Navachchunai
    A tarn situated on the northern part of the hillock,
    with a submerged rock-cut shrine inside.
  • 45. Sittannavasal monuments
    Burial sites
    This village was one of
    the oldest inhabited sites in this area.
    The megalithic burial sites here testify to this.
  • 46. ARIVAR-KOIL
  • 47. Arivar-koil
    This is
    a Jaina cave temple, excavated
    before the 9th century AD
    and has
    the famous mural paintings
    Originally thought of an excavation of Mahendra-varma Pallavan,
    this is now considered to be a Pandya contribution
    Still there is uncertainty regarding the origin of this temple
  • 48. Arivar-koil
    The cave temple lies on the west face of the hillock,
    near the northern end.
    A walk of about 100 feet over the sloping rock
    takes the visitor to the cave temple.
  • 49. ARIVAR-KOIL
    architecture
  • 50. The cave temple consists of
    a garbha-griham,
    an ardha-mandapam
    and a pillared veranda.
    Garbha-griham
    A mukha-mandapam
    that was added
    in 9th century AD
    has collapsed.
    Ardha-mandapam
    Pillared-veranda
    The pillared veranda is
    a later addition
    in the 20th century.
  • 51. Originally the entire space,
    except the floor,
    had been plastered and painted.
    But only
    a part of the paintings on the ceiling and
    patches elsewhere
    remain.
  • 52. Pillared-veranda
  • 53. Pillared Varenda
    This pillared veranda, in front, is a later construction,
    added in the 20th century by the Tondaiman-s of Pudukkottai.
    It provides much needed protection from rain and sun.
  • 54. Pillared Varenda
    A 17-line Tamil inscription on the rock-face of the original cave
    can be seen from here.
    It mentions
    about the repair
    and extension
    of the cave temple
    by a Jaina Acharya
    called Ilan Gautaman,
    during the reign of
    the Pandya king,
    Srimaran-srivallabhan
    (9th century AD).
    It is from this inscription we find that the cave temple
    was excavated before the 9th century.
  • 55. Ardha-mandapam
  • 56. Ardha-mandapam
    From the front veranda one enters
    this ardha-mandapam
    which is 22½ feet by 7½ feet.
    On the side walls
    are two niches containing
    sculptures of
    a Tirthankara and
    an Acharya.
  • 57. The ardha-mandapam contained
    some exquisite paintings,
    of which precious little remains.
  • 58. Garbha-griham
  • 59. Garbha-griham
    Beyond the ardha-mandapam is this Garbha-griham.
    It is 10 feet by 10 feet.
    On the back wall are three images
    carved in relief.
    On the ceiling is carved a Dharma-chakra.
    The ceiling contains relics of paintings.
  • 60. ARIVAR-KOIL
    sculptures
  • 61. There are only five sculptures,
    all in relief, in this cave temple.
    Two of them are
    in the ardha-mandapam,
    on the side-walls.
    The garbha-griham contains
    three figures in a row,
    on the rear-wall.
    These sculptures are of Jaina Tirthankara-s and Acharya-s.
  • 62. Ardha-mandapam
  • 63. Ardha-mandapam
    The niche on the southern wall contains a figure of Parsvanatha,
    the twenty-third Tirthankara.
    He is seated cross-legged
    in the dhyana (meditative) pose.
    There is a five headed serpent
    spreading its hood over his head identifying him as Parsvanatha.
  • 64. Ardha-mandapam
    The niche on the northern wall is a figure of a Jaina Acharya seated in the same pose.
    There is a single umbrella over the head of the image,
    which indicates that it is not a Tirthankara.
  • 65. Garbha-griham
  • 66. Garbha-griham
    On the back-wall of the garbha-griham are three images carved in relief in a row.
    All of them are in the same dhyana (meditative) posture.
    The northern and central figures have
    ‘mukkudai’ (‘triple umbrella’),
    indicating them to be Tirthankara-s.
    The southern figure has a single umbrella,
    and probably a Chakravarti or an Acharya.
  • 67. ARIVAR-KOIL
    paintings
  • 68. Indian Paintings
    Ajanta,
    200BC-600AD
    Sittannavasal paintings are an early example of post-Ajanta period painting and are of the classical Ajanta style with variation in the handling of the material by the artists.
  • 69. Indian Paintings
    Kanchipuram
    7th century AD
    The paintings in Kailasanatha Temple in Kanchi antedate the Sittannavasal paintings.
  • 70. Indian Paintings
    Thanjavur
    1100AD
    The paintings in Brihadiswara Temple in Thanjavur
    are the continuation of the Sittannavasal tradition.
  • 71. Sittannavasal Paintings
    The technique used is known as fresco-secco,
    that is, painting done on dry wall.
    In this process,
    the surface is first covered with lime plaster,then coated with lime-wash
    and the painting done on it.
    Mineral colours of permanent nature
    were employed for the painting.
  • 72. Sittannavasal Paintings
    The subjects of the Sittannavasal paintings include
    the Samava-sarana of the Jaina mythology,
    a few solo-pictures, that includes dancing damsels,
    birds, floral decorations, and
    various carpet canopy designs.
  • 73. Sittannavasal Paintings
    Originally the entire cave temple,
    excluding the floor,
    including the sculptures was covered with plaster and painted.
    Only traces of these are now extant.
    All these paintings, which would rank among the great paintings of India, are barely visible now, mainly due to vandalism with in the last 50-60 years.
  • 74. Sittannavasal Paintings
    This Jaina site and its paintings were
    first noticed by a local historian S. Radhakrishna Iyer in 1916.
    But Jouveau Dubreuil and T.A. Gopinatha Rao brought it before the archaeological world in 1920.
  • 75. Sittannavasal Paintings
    In 1942, Dr. S. Paramasivan and K.R. Srinivasan found that there are two layers of paintings, an earlier and a later superimposed over the earlier one.
    The layer of painting, which we see today and admire, is probably the work of Ilan-Gautaman (9th century AD), mentioned in the inscription.
    These are some of theearliest frescos in South India and only example of early Jaina frescoes.
  • 76. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam
    On the ceiling of ardha-mandapam,
    canopies of floral pattern are painted over the two relief images.
  • 77. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam
    The samava-sarana composition
    In Jainism, where worship of great souls occupies an important place, Tirthankara-s are the most venerated religious prophets.
    One of the five important events in the life of a Tirthankara is
    the first sermon after attaining the kevala-jnana (realisation),
    in a specially designed complex called Samava-sarana.
    This Samava-sarana is a favourite motif for representation in the Jaina temples.
  • 78. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam
    The samava-sarana composition
    The scene painted in the ardha-mandapam
    is a lotus tank
    which is a part of the Samava-sarana complex.
    It is the second region, called khatika-bhumi (region-of-the-tank).
    Here, we see, the bhavya-s (the good ones),
    rejoice while washing themselves, as they pass on from region to region in order to hear the discourse of the Lord in the heavenly pavilion of Samava-sarana.
  • 79. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam
    The samava-sarana
    composition
    This painting shows bhavya-s enjoying themselves in a pool, full of flowering lotuses.
    Flowers
    with their stalks and leaves,
    various kinds of fishes frolicking,
    a makara (mythical fish), buffaloes, elephants and numerous birds
    are shown with simplicity, charm and naturalness.
  • 80. The samava-sarana composition
    The pose and expression of the bhavya-s shown in the picture have a charm and beauty, which compel attention.
    Two of them are shown together in one part of the tank.
    One is picking lotus flowers with his right hand and has a basket of flowers slung on the other.
  • 81. The samava-sarana composition
    His companion carries a lotus in one hand, the other is bent gracefully, the fingers forming the mrigi-mudra (‘deer-gesture’).
  • 82. The samava-sarana composition
    The third bhavya,
    an extremely beautiful figure,
    carries a bunch of lotus
    over his left shoulder and lily over his right.
    The three figures are naked,
    except for their loin-cloths.
    The hair is neatly arranged and
    the lobes of the ears are distended.
  • 83. The samava-sarana composition
    The three figures are naked, except for their loin-cloths.
    The hair is neatly arranged and the lobes of the ears are distended.
  • 84. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam
    The samava-sarana composition
  • 85. Pillars of ardha-mandapam
    There were some exquisite paintings of dancing girls on the pillars.
    These priceless treasures are now lost forever and only their outlines are traceable today.
    These animated figures, with their broad hips, slender waists, and elaborate ornaments, recall the beauty of the apsara-s of mythology; their pose and expression suggest rhythm and dynamic movement.
    These portraitures of dancers must rank as one among the best
    in the whole of India.
  • 86. Pillars of ardha-mandapam
    One of them has her left arm
    stretched-out in lata-hasta pose
    and right arm bent at the elbow.
    Her ears
    are adorned with olai
    (patra-kundala),
    rings set with gems,
    and
    her arms decked
    with bracelets
    and bangles.
  • 87. Pillars of ardha-mandapam
    The other is even more graceful.
    Her left arm stretched-in
    lata-hasta pose,
    while her right arm is bent at the elbow.
    The head-dress and the ornaments of this dancer are very distinct.
    The hair is decked with flower garlands.
  • 88. Pillars of ardha-mandapam
    There is also remnant of
    a painting of a royal couple, on the southern pillar.
  • 89. Cornice & beam of ardha-mandapam
    There are paintings on the corbels, beam and cornice.
    On the corbel are scroll designs with lotuses.
    Painted lotuses
    in different stages
    of flowering.
  • 90. Cornice & beam of ardha-mandapam
    The painting on the cornice is made up of carpet designs with lotuses.
    In front of each of
    the two pillars are
    painted hamsa
    (mythical swan).
    On the northern wall
    are the figures of fruits and flowers in yellow and red.
  • 91. Ceiling of garbha-griham
    The painting above the three relief sculptures suggests a carpet, with striped borders and irregular squares and circles interlinked.
    Within the squares are lotus flowers.
    Inside the circles is a cross, with two human figures on upper side andtwo lion figures on the lower side of the horizontal arm.
  • 92. EZHADIPPATTAM
  • 93. Ezhadippattam
    Ezhadipattam is the name given to a natural cavern
    where over more than a thousand years
    since 3rd century BC,
    Jaina ascetics practiced severest penance
    such as
    Kayot-sarga (meditation-till-salvation-in-standing-pose)
    and
    sallekhana (fasting-unto-death).
  • 94. Ezhadippattam
    A few hundred meters south of the cave-temple is the beginning of the path
    that leads to Ezhadippattam.
  • 95. Ezhadippattam
    The cavern is near
    the top of the centre of the hill,
    on the eastern side.
    But the approach is from the west.
    The Cavern
    Entry to the Cavern
    Originally this path to the cavern,
    along a narrow ledge
    was difficult and dangerous.
  • 96. The stone-beds
    The cavern is roomy but low.
    The floor is marked out into spaces
    for seventeen beds,
    each with a sort of stone pillow.
    They are highly polished.
    Most of the beds are inscribed.
    But all these inscriptions are
    barely visible now,
    due to vandalism within last 50-60 years.
  • 97. Inscriptions
    One of the beds, the largest, is the oldest
    It contains an inscription in Tamil
    in the Tamil Brahmi script of the 3rd century BC.
    This is one of the oldest lithic records of South India.
    It mentions that
    Ilaiyar of Tenku-ciru-posil made this seat for Kavutiborn at Kumizhurin erumi-naadu (probably in Karnataka).
  • 98. Inscriptions
    Near other beds, names of other Jaina ascetics who practised penance are inscribed.
    There are a number of inscriptions belonging 7th to 10th centuries AD.
  • 99. Ezhadippattam; stone beds & inscriptions nearby
    There are a number of stone-beds and inscriptions around Ezhadippattam.
    There is also a passage to reach the hill through a very narrow cavern,
    now under disuse.
  • 100. NAVACH-CHUNAI
  • 101. Navach-chunai
    The pool takes its name from a
    naval-maram (Syzygium jambolanum) close by.
  • 102. Jambunatha submerged cave temple
    The sunai contains a submerged Pandya rock-cut shrine inside.
    It contains a lingam in the centre and a narrow passage to walk around.
    The water is occasionally baled out, and the lingam is worshiped.
    However, there is no clue as to why such temples were excavated at all.
  • 103. MEGALITHIC BURIALS
  • 104. Megalithic Burials
    Certain typical modes of disposing the dead
    in the mega-lithic period
    (3rd century BC to 1st century AD)
    are preserved in the Pudukkottai tract.
  • 105. Megalithic Burials
    Excavations reveal three types of burials in Pudukkottai region:
    • grave-burials, practised by poor people,
    • 106. urn-burials, in which the dead men were buried
    in a sitting posture in a large earthenware pot and
    • burials in deep stone-chambers formed of stone slabs (cists).
    Quite a few burial sites are found in Sittannavasal
  • 107. Megalithic Burials
    Loosely called ‘dolmans’,
    these are stone-capped burial monuments with chambers in stone.
    Mudu-makkal-thazhi (‘burial-pots-of-the-old-people’)
    is the most widely used local name.
    These are easily identifiable by the appearance of
    a circle of laterite or granite stones
    and small boulders on the surface of the spot.
  • 108. OTHER INTERESTING PLACES
  • 109. Other places of interest
    At the foothills of the hillock, on the western side,
    are two temples in ruins.
    One is dedicated to Siva and
    another to a Goddess.
    There are
    a few loose sculptures near to these shrines.
    These two temples have not been studied
    in detail yet.
  • 110. Other places of interest
    There are shrines for local deity, Ayyanar with the customary terracotta sculptures of horses, etc. nearby.
  • 111. The Sittannavasal Complex offers an opportunity
    to travel in time
    from the 3rd century till modern times,
    and to savour certain unique features of our past.
  • 112. Thank you
    S. Swaminathan
    Kiran & Pandian
  • 113. This presentation is made possible by
    Sudharsanam,
    a centre for arts and culture,
    Pudukkottai, Tamilnadu
    and the presenters acknowledge
    their gratitude to the trustees.

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