SITTANNAVASAL MONUMENTS<br />Presented by <br />S. Swaminathan<br />(sswami99@gmail.com)<br />
Location of Sittannavasal<br />Trichy<br />Thanjavur<br />To Illupur<br />Pudukkottai<br />To Madurai<br />Karaikkudi<br /...
Sittannavasal monuments<br />There are four interesting monuments on and around a large rocky hillock:<br />Arivar-koil<br...
Sittannavasal monuments<br />Ezhadippattam<br />There are a number of natural caverns <br />with polished stone- beds in t...
Sittannavasal monuments<br />Navachchunai<br />A tarn situated on the northern part of the hillock, <br />with a submerged...
Sittannavasal monuments<br />Burial sites<br />This village was one of <br />the oldest inhabited sites in this area. <br ...
ARIVAR-KOIL<br />
Arivar-koil<br />This is <br />a Jaina cave temple, excavated <br />before the 9th century AD <br />and has <br />the famo...
Arivar-koil<br />The cave temple lies on the west face of the hillock, <br />near the northern end.<br /> A walk of about ...
ARIVAR-KOIL<br />architecture<br />
The cave temple consists of<br /> a garbha-griham,<br />an ardha-mandapam <br />and a pillared veranda. <br />Garbha-griha...
Originally the entire space, <br />except the floor, <br />had been plastered and painted. <br />But only <br />a part of ...
Pillared-veranda<br />
Pillared Varenda<br />This pillared veranda, in front, is a later construction, <br />added in the 20th century by the Ton...
Pillared Varenda<br />A 17-line Tamil inscription on the rock-face of the original cave <br />can be seen from here. <br /...
Ardha-mandapam<br />
Ardha-mandapam<br />From the front veranda one enters <br />this ardha-mandapam<br />which is 22½ feet by 7½ feet.<br />On...
The ardha-mandapam contained <br />some exquisite paintings, <br />of which precious little remains. <br />
Garbha-griham<br />
Garbha-griham<br />Beyond the ardha-mandapam is this Garbha-griham.<br />It is 10 feet by 10 feet. <br />On the back wall ...
ARIVAR-KOIL<br />sculptures<br />
There are only five sculptures, <br />all in relief, in this cave temple.<br />Two of them are <br />in the ardha-mandapam...
Ardha-mandapam<br />
Ardha-mandapam<br />The niche on the southern wall contains a figure of Parsvanatha,<br /> the twenty-third Tirthankara. <...
Ardha-mandapam<br />The niche on the northern wall is a figure of a Jaina Acharya seated in the same pose. <br />There is ...
Garbha-griham<br />
Garbha-griham<br />On the back-wall of the garbha-griham are three images carved in relief in a row. <br />All of them are...
ARIVAR-KOIL<br />paintings<br />
Indian Paintings<br />Ajanta,<br />200BC-600AD<br />Sittannavasal paintings are an early example of post-Ajanta period pai...
Indian Paintings<br />Kanchipuram<br />7th century AD<br />The paintings in Kailasanatha Temple in Kanchi antedate the Sit...
Indian Paintings<br />Thanjavur<br />1100AD<br />The paintings in Brihadiswara Temple in Thanjavur <br />are the continuat...
Sittannavasal Paintings<br />The technique used is known as fresco-secco, <br />that is, painting done on dry wall. <br />...
Sittannavasal Paintings<br />The subjects of the Sittannavasal paintings include<br />the Samava-sarana of the Jaina mytho...
Sittannavasal Paintings<br />Originally the entire cave temple, <br />excluding the floor, <br />including the sculptures ...
Sittannavasal Paintings<br />This Jaina site and its paintings were<br />first noticed by a local historian S. Radhakrishn...
Sittannavasal Paintings<br />In 1942, Dr. S. Paramasivan and K.R. Srinivasan found that there are two layers of paintings,...
Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />On the ceiling of ardha-mandapam, <br />canopies of floral pattern are painted over the two...
Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana composition<br />In Jainism, where worship of great souls occupies an imp...
Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana composition<br />The scene painted in the ardha-mandapam <br />is a lotus...
Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana <br />composition<br />This painting shows bhavya-s enjoying themselves i...
The samava-sarana composition<br />The pose and expression of the bhavya-s shown in the picture have a charm and beauty, w...
The samava-sarana composition<br />His companion carries a lotus in one hand, the other is bent gracefully, the fingers fo...
The samava-sarana composition<br />The third bhavya, <br />an extremely beautiful figure, <br />carries a bunch of lotus <...
The samava-sarana composition<br />The three figures are naked, except for their loin-cloths.<br /> The hair is neatly arr...
Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana composition<br />
Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />There were some exquisite paintings of dancing girls on the pillars. <br />These priceless ...
Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />One of them has her left arm <br />stretched-out in lata-hasta pose <br />and right arm ben...
Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />The other is even more graceful. <br />Her left arm stretched-in <br />lata-hasta pose, <br...
Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />There is also remnant of <br />a painting of a royal couple, on the southern pillar. <br />
Cornice & beam of ardha-mandapam<br />There are paintings on the corbels, beam and cornice. <br />On the corbel are scroll...
Cornice & beam of ardha-mandapam<br />The painting on the cornice is made up of carpet designs with lotuses. <br />In fron...
Ceiling of garbha-griham<br />The painting above the three relief sculptures suggests a carpet, with striped borders and i...
EZHADIPPATTAM<br />
Ezhadippattam<br />Ezhadipattam is the name given to a natural cavern <br />where over more than a thousand years <br />si...
Ezhadippattam<br />A few hundred meters south of the cave-temple is the beginning of the path <br />that leads to Ezhadipp...
Ezhadippattam<br />The cavern is near <br />the top of the centre of the hill, <br />on the eastern side. <br />But the ap...
The stone-beds<br />The cavern is roomy but low. <br />The floor is marked out into spaces <br />for seventeen beds, <br /...
Inscriptions<br />One of the beds, the largest, is the oldest <br />It contains an inscription in Tamil <br />in the Tamil...
Inscriptions<br />Near other beds, names of other Jaina ascetics who practised penance are inscribed. <br />There are a nu...
Ezhadippattam; stone beds & inscriptions nearby<br />There are a number of stone-beds and inscriptions around Ezhadippatta...
NAVACH-CHUNAI<br />
Navach-chunai<br />The pool takes its name from a <br />naval-maram (Syzygium jambolanum) close by.<br />
Jambunatha submerged cave temple<br />The sunai contains a submerged Pandya rock-cut shrine inside. <br />It contains a li...
MEGALITHIC BURIALS<br />
Megalithic Burials<br />Certain typical modes of disposing the dead <br />in the mega-lithic period <br />	(3rd century BC...
Megalithic Burials<br />Excavations reveal three types of burials in Pudukkottai region: <br /><ul><li>grave-burials, prac...
urn-burials, in which the dead men were buried </li></ul>	in a sitting posture in a large earthenware pot and <br /><ul><l...
Megalithic Burials<br />Loosely called ‘dolmans’, <br />these are stone-capped burial monuments with chambers in stone.<br...
OTHER INTERESTING PLACES<br />
Other places of interest<br />At the foothills of the hillock, on the western side, <br />are two temples in ruins.<br />O...
Other places of interest<br />There are shrines for local deity, Ayyanar with the customary terracotta sculptures of horse...
The Sittannavasal Complex offers an opportunity <br />to travel in time <br />from the 3rd century till modern times,<br /...
Thank you…<br />
A presentation by…<br />Sudharsanam<br />A centre for Arts and culture<br />2 Palace Nagar<br />Pudukkottai 622005<br />Ta...
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Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai

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The monuments contain famous Jaina paintings and isncriptions in Tamil from 2nd century BCA Presentation by Prof. Subramanian Swaminathan on the paintings of Sittanavasal

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Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai

  1. 1. SITTANNAVASAL MONUMENTS<br />Presented by <br />S. Swaminathan<br />(sswami99@gmail.com)<br />
  2. 2. Location of Sittannavasal<br />Trichy<br />Thanjavur<br />To Illupur<br />Pudukkottai<br />To Madurai<br />Karaikkudi<br />Sittannavasal,<br />a small village <br />in the Pudukkottai district<br />of Tamilnadu, <br />is a world-famous <br />archaeological site.<br />It lies at 15 km from Pudukkottai on the road to Illuppur.<br />
  3. 3. Sittannavasal monuments<br />There are four interesting monuments on and around a large rocky hillock:<br />Arivar-koil<br />It is renowned for its mural paintings in the Jaina cave temple. <br />These paintings are second only in importance <br />after Ajanta paintings and <br />have an important place in the Indian art history.<br />It was a flourishing centre <br />of Jaina influence where Jainism flourished <br />for over 1200 years (3rd century BC to 10th century AD). <br />
  4. 4. Sittannavasal monuments<br />Ezhadippattam<br />There are a number of natural caverns <br />with polished stone- beds in this hillock <br />where Jain ascetics performed austerities. <br />One of such caverns, called Ezhadippattam, <br />contains 17 stone-beds, <br />with inscriptions in Tamil dating from 3rd century BC.<br />
  5. 5. Sittannavasal monuments<br />Navachchunai<br />A tarn situated on the northern part of the hillock, <br />with a submerged rock-cut shrine inside.<br />
  6. 6. Sittannavasal monuments<br />Burial sites<br />This village was one of <br />the oldest inhabited sites in this area. <br />The megalithic burial sites here testify to this.<br />
  7. 7. ARIVAR-KOIL<br />
  8. 8. Arivar-koil<br />This is <br />a Jaina cave temple, excavated <br />before the 9th century AD <br />and has <br />the famous mural paintings <br />Originally thought of an excavation of Mahendra-varma Pallavan, <br />this is now considered to be a Pandya contribution <br />Still there is uncertainty regarding the origin of this temple <br />
  9. 9. Arivar-koil<br />The cave temple lies on the west face of the hillock, <br />near the northern end.<br /> A walk of about 100 feet over the sloping rock <br />takes the visitor to the cave temple. <br />
  10. 10. ARIVAR-KOIL<br />architecture<br />
  11. 11. The cave temple consists of<br /> a garbha-griham,<br />an ardha-mandapam <br />and a pillared veranda. <br />Garbha-griham<br />A mukha-mandapam <br />that was added <br />in 9th century AD <br />has collapsed. <br />Ardha-mandapam<br />Pillared-veranda<br />The pillared veranda is <br />a later addition <br />in the 20th century.<br />
  12. 12. Originally the entire space, <br />except the floor, <br />had been plastered and painted. <br />But only <br />a part of the paintings on the ceiling and <br />patches elsewhere <br />remain.<br />
  13. 13. Pillared-veranda<br />
  14. 14. Pillared Varenda<br />This pillared veranda, in front, is a later construction, <br />added in the 20th century by the Tondaiman-s of Pudukkottai. <br />It provides much needed protection from rain and sun. <br />
  15. 15. Pillared Varenda<br />A 17-line Tamil inscription on the rock-face of the original cave <br />can be seen from here. <br />It mentions <br />about the repair <br />and extension <br />of the cave temple <br />by a Jaina Acharya <br />called Ilan Gautaman,<br />during the reign of <br />the Pandya king, <br />Srimaran-srivallabhan <br />(9th century AD). <br />It is from this inscription we find that the cave temple <br />was excavated before the 9th century.<br />
  16. 16. Ardha-mandapam<br />
  17. 17. Ardha-mandapam<br />From the front veranda one enters <br />this ardha-mandapam<br />which is 22½ feet by 7½ feet.<br />On the side walls <br />are two niches containing <br />sculptures of <br />a Tirthankara and <br />an Acharya.<br />
  18. 18. The ardha-mandapam contained <br />some exquisite paintings, <br />of which precious little remains. <br />
  19. 19. Garbha-griham<br />
  20. 20. Garbha-griham<br />Beyond the ardha-mandapam is this Garbha-griham.<br />It is 10 feet by 10 feet. <br />On the back wall are three images <br />carved in relief. <br />On the ceiling is carved a Dharma-chakra.<br />The ceiling contains relics of paintings. <br />
  21. 21. ARIVAR-KOIL<br />sculptures<br />
  22. 22. There are only five sculptures, <br />all in relief, in this cave temple.<br />Two of them are <br />in the ardha-mandapam, <br />on the side-walls.<br />The garbha-griham contains <br />three figures in a row, <br />on the rear-wall. <br />These sculptures are of Jaina Tirthankara-s and Acharya-s.<br />
  23. 23. Ardha-mandapam<br />
  24. 24. Ardha-mandapam<br />The niche on the southern wall contains a figure of Parsvanatha,<br /> the twenty-third Tirthankara. <br />He is seated cross-legged <br />in the dhyana (meditative) pose. <br />There is a five headed serpent <br />spreading its hood over his head identifying him as Parsvanatha.<br />
  25. 25. Ardha-mandapam<br />The niche on the northern wall is a figure of a Jaina Acharya seated in the same pose. <br />There is a single umbrella over the head of the image, <br />which indicates that it is not a Tirthankara.<br />
  26. 26. Garbha-griham<br />
  27. 27. Garbha-griham<br />On the back-wall of the garbha-griham are three images carved in relief in a row. <br />All of them are in the same dhyana (meditative) posture. <br />The northern and central figures have <br />‘mukkudai’ (‘triple umbrella’), <br />indicating them to be Tirthankara-s. <br />The southern figure has a single umbrella, <br />and probably a Chakravarti or an Acharya. <br />
  28. 28. ARIVAR-KOIL<br />paintings<br />
  29. 29. Indian Paintings<br />Ajanta,<br />200BC-600AD<br />Sittannavasal paintings are an early example of post-Ajanta period painting and are of the classical Ajanta style with variation in the handling of the material by the artists. <br />
  30. 30. Indian Paintings<br />Kanchipuram<br />7th century AD<br />The paintings in Kailasanatha Temple in Kanchi antedate the Sittannavasal paintings.<br />
  31. 31. Indian Paintings<br />Thanjavur<br />1100AD<br />The paintings in Brihadiswara Temple in Thanjavur <br />are the continuation of the Sittannavasal tradition.<br />
  32. 32. Sittannavasal Paintings<br />The technique used is known as fresco-secco, <br />that is, painting done on dry wall. <br />In this process,<br />the surface is first covered with lime plaster,then coated with lime-wash <br />and the painting done on it. <br />Mineral colours of permanent nature <br />were employed for the painting.<br />
  33. 33. Sittannavasal Paintings<br />The subjects of the Sittannavasal paintings include<br />the Samava-sarana of the Jaina mythology, <br />a few solo-pictures, that includes dancing damsels, <br />birds, floral decorations, and <br />various carpet canopy designs. <br />
  34. 34. Sittannavasal Paintings<br />Originally the entire cave temple, <br />excluding the floor, <br />including the sculptures was covered with plaster and painted. <br />Only traces of these are now extant.<br />All these paintings, which would rank among the great paintings of India, are barely visible now, mainly due to vandalism with in the last 50-60 years. <br />
  35. 35. Sittannavasal Paintings<br />This Jaina site and its paintings were<br />first noticed by a local historian S. Radhakrishna Iyer in 1916. <br />But Jouveau Dubreuil and T.A. Gopinatha Rao brought it before the archaeological world in 1920.<br />
  36. 36. Sittannavasal Paintings<br />In 1942, Dr. S. Paramasivan and K.R. Srinivasan found that there are two layers of paintings, an earlier and a later superimposed over the earlier one. <br />The layer of painting, which we see today and admire, is probably the work of Ilan-Gautaman (9th century AD), mentioned in the inscription. <br />These are some of theearliest frescos in South India and only example of early Jaina frescoes. <br />
  37. 37. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />On the ceiling of ardha-mandapam, <br />canopies of floral pattern are painted over the two relief images. <br />
  38. 38. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana composition<br />In Jainism, where worship of great souls occupies an important place, Tirthankara-s are the most venerated religious prophets. <br />One of the five important events in the life of a Tirthankara is <br />the first sermon after attaining the kevala-jnana (realisation), <br />in a specially designed complex called Samava-sarana. <br />This Samava-sarana is a favourite motif for representation in the Jaina temples. <br />
  39. 39. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana composition<br />The scene painted in the ardha-mandapam <br />is a lotus tank <br />which is a part of the Samava-sarana complex. <br />It is the second region, called khatika-bhumi (region-of-the-tank). <br />Here, we see, the bhavya-s (the good ones), <br />rejoice while washing themselves, as they pass on from region to region in order to hear the discourse of the Lord in the heavenly pavilion of Samava-sarana.<br />
  40. 40. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana <br />composition<br />This painting shows bhavya-s enjoying themselves in a pool, full of flowering lotuses. <br />Flowers <br />with their stalks and leaves, <br />various kinds of fishes frolicking, <br />a makara (mythical fish), buffaloes, elephants and numerous birds <br />are shown with simplicity, charm and naturalness. <br />
  41. 41. The samava-sarana composition<br />The pose and expression of the bhavya-s shown in the picture have a charm and beauty, which compel attention.<br />Two of them are shown together in one part of the tank.<br />One is picking lotus flowers with his right hand and has a basket of flowers slung on the other.<br />
  42. 42. The samava-sarana composition<br />His companion carries a lotus in one hand, the other is bent gracefully, the fingers forming the mrigi-mudra (‘deer-gesture’).<br />
  43. 43. The samava-sarana composition<br />The third bhavya, <br />an extremely beautiful figure, <br />carries a bunch of lotus <br />over his left shoulder and lily over his right.<br />The three figures are naked, <br />except for their loin-cloths.<br /> The hair is neatly arranged and <br />the lobes of the ears are distended.<br />
  44. 44. The samava-sarana composition<br />The three figures are naked, except for their loin-cloths.<br /> The hair is neatly arranged and the lobes of the ears are distended.<br />
  45. 45. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana composition<br />
  46. 46. Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />There were some exquisite paintings of dancing girls on the pillars. <br />These priceless treasures are now lost forever and only their outlines are traceable today.<br />These animated figures, with their broad hips, slender waists, and elaborate ornaments, recall the beauty of the apsara-s of mythology; their pose and expression suggest rhythm and dynamic movement. <br />These portraitures of dancers must rank as one among the best<br />in the whole of India.<br />
  47. 47. Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />One of them has her left arm <br />stretched-out in lata-hasta pose <br />and right arm bent at the elbow. <br />Her ears <br />are adorned with olai <br />(patra-kundala), <br />rings set with gems, <br />and <br />her arms decked <br />with bracelets <br />and bangles.<br />
  48. 48. Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />The other is even more graceful. <br />Her left arm stretched-in <br />lata-hasta pose, <br />while her right arm is bent at the elbow. <br />The head-dress and the ornaments of this dancer are very distinct. <br />The hair is decked with flower garlands.<br />
  49. 49. Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />There is also remnant of <br />a painting of a royal couple, on the southern pillar. <br />
  50. 50. Cornice & beam of ardha-mandapam<br />There are paintings on the corbels, beam and cornice. <br />On the corbel are scroll designs with lotuses. <br />Painted lotuses <br />in different stages <br />of flowering. <br />
  51. 51. Cornice & beam of ardha-mandapam<br />The painting on the cornice is made up of carpet designs with lotuses. <br />In front of each of <br />the two pillars are <br />painted hamsa <br />(mythical swan). <br />On the northern wall<br />are the figures of fruits and flowers in yellow and red.<br />
  52. 52. Ceiling of garbha-griham<br />The painting above the three relief sculptures suggests a carpet, with striped borders and irregular squares and circles interlinked. <br />Within the squares are lotus flowers. <br />Inside the circles is a cross, with two human figures on upper side andtwo lion figures on the lower side of the horizontal arm. <br />
  53. 53. EZHADIPPATTAM<br />
  54. 54. Ezhadippattam<br />Ezhadipattam is the name given to a natural cavern <br />where over more than a thousand years <br />since 3rd century BC, <br />Jaina ascetics practiced severest penance <br />such as <br />Kayot-sarga (meditation-till-salvation-in-standing-pose) <br />and <br />sallekhana (fasting-unto-death).<br />
  55. 55. Ezhadippattam<br />A few hundred meters south of the cave-temple is the beginning of the path <br />that leads to Ezhadippattam. <br />
  56. 56. Ezhadippattam<br />The cavern is near <br />the top of the centre of the hill, <br />on the eastern side. <br />But the approach is from the west. <br />The Cavern<br />Entry to the Cavern<br />Originally this path to the cavern, <br />along a narrow ledge <br />was difficult and dangerous. <br />
  57. 57. The stone-beds<br />The cavern is roomy but low. <br />The floor is marked out into spaces <br />for seventeen beds, <br />each with a sort of stone pillow. <br />They are highly polished. <br />Most of the beds are inscribed. <br />But all these inscriptions are <br />barely visible now, <br />due to vandalism within last 50-60 years.<br />
  58. 58. Inscriptions<br />One of the beds, the largest, is the oldest <br />It contains an inscription in Tamil <br />in the Tamil Brahmi script of the 3rd century BC. <br />This is one of the oldest lithic records of South India. <br />It mentions that <br />Ilaiyar of Tenku-ciru-posil made this seat for Kavutiborn at Kumizhurin erumi-naadu (probably in Karnataka). <br />
  59. 59. Inscriptions<br />Near other beds, names of other Jaina ascetics who practised penance are inscribed. <br />There are a number of inscriptions belonging 7th to 10th centuries AD.<br />
  60. 60. Ezhadippattam; stone beds & inscriptions nearby<br />There are a number of stone-beds and inscriptions around Ezhadippattam.<br />There is also a passage to reach the hill through a very narrow cavern,<br />now under disuse.<br />
  61. 61. NAVACH-CHUNAI<br />
  62. 62. Navach-chunai<br />The pool takes its name from a <br />naval-maram (Syzygium jambolanum) close by.<br />
  63. 63. Jambunatha submerged cave temple<br />The sunai contains a submerged Pandya rock-cut shrine inside. <br />It contains a lingam in the centre and a narrow passage to walk around.<br /> The water is occasionally baled out, and the lingam is worshiped. <br />However, there is no clue as to why such temples were excavated at all. <br />
  64. 64. MEGALITHIC BURIALS<br />
  65. 65. Megalithic Burials<br />Certain typical modes of disposing the dead <br />in the mega-lithic period <br /> (3rd century BC to 1st century AD) <br /> are preserved in the Pudukkottai tract.<br />
  66. 66. Megalithic Burials<br />Excavations reveal three types of burials in Pudukkottai region: <br /><ul><li>grave-burials, practised by poor people,
  67. 67. urn-burials, in which the dead men were buried </li></ul> in a sitting posture in a large earthenware pot and <br /><ul><li>burials in deep stone-chambers formed of stone slabs (cists).</li></ul>Quite a few burial sites are found in Sittannavasal<br />
  68. 68. Megalithic Burials<br />Loosely called ‘dolmans’, <br />these are stone-capped burial monuments with chambers in stone.<br />Mudu-makkal-thazhi (‘burial-pots-of-the-old-people’) <br />is the most widely used local name. <br />These are easily identifiable by the appearance of <br />a circle of laterite or granite stones <br />and small boulders on the surface of the spot.<br />
  69. 69. OTHER INTERESTING PLACES<br />
  70. 70. Other places of interest<br />At the foothills of the hillock, on the western side, <br />are two temples in ruins.<br />One is dedicated to Siva and<br />another to a Goddess.<br />There are <br />a few loose sculptures near to these shrines.<br />These two temples have not been studied <br />in detail yet.<br />
  71. 71. Other places of interest<br />There are shrines for local deity, Ayyanar with the customary terracotta sculptures of horses, etc. nearby.<br />
  72. 72. The Sittannavasal Complex offers an opportunity <br />to travel in time <br />from the 3rd century till modern times,<br />and to savour certain unique features of our past. <br />
  73. 73. Thank you…<br />
  74. 74. A presentation by…<br />Sudharsanam<br />A centre for Arts and culture<br />2 Palace Nagar<br />Pudukkottai 622005<br />Tamilnadu, India.<br />www.pudukkottai.org<br />www.sudharsanam.org<br />sudharsanam@pudukkottai.org <br />

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