Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Monuments of Sittannavasal in Pudukottai

2,851

Published on

The monuments contain famous Jaina paintings and isncriptions in Tamil from 2nd century BCA Presentation by Prof. Subramanian Swaminathan on the paintings of Sittanavasal

The monuments contain famous Jaina paintings and isncriptions in Tamil from 2nd century BCA Presentation by Prof. Subramanian Swaminathan on the paintings of Sittanavasal

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,851
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
51
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. SITTANNAVASAL MONUMENTS<br />Presented by <br />S. Swaminathan<br />(sswami99@gmail.com)<br />
  • 2. Location of Sittannavasal<br />Trichy<br />Thanjavur<br />To Illupur<br />Pudukkottai<br />To Madurai<br />Karaikkudi<br />Sittannavasal,<br />a small village <br />in the Pudukkottai district<br />of Tamilnadu, <br />is a world-famous <br />archaeological site.<br />It lies at 15 km from Pudukkottai on the road to Illuppur.<br />
  • 3. Sittannavasal monuments<br />There are four interesting monuments on and around a large rocky hillock:<br />Arivar-koil<br />It is renowned for its mural paintings in the Jaina cave temple. <br />These paintings are second only in importance <br />after Ajanta paintings and <br />have an important place in the Indian art history.<br />It was a flourishing centre <br />of Jaina influence where Jainism flourished <br />for over 1200 years (3rd century BC to 10th century AD). <br />
  • 4. Sittannavasal monuments<br />Ezhadippattam<br />There are a number of natural caverns <br />with polished stone- beds in this hillock <br />where Jain ascetics performed austerities. <br />One of such caverns, called Ezhadippattam, <br />contains 17 stone-beds, <br />with inscriptions in Tamil dating from 3rd century BC.<br />
  • 5. Sittannavasal monuments<br />Navachchunai<br />A tarn situated on the northern part of the hillock, <br />with a submerged rock-cut shrine inside.<br />
  • 6. Sittannavasal monuments<br />Burial sites<br />This village was one of <br />the oldest inhabited sites in this area. <br />The megalithic burial sites here testify to this.<br />
  • 7. ARIVAR-KOIL<br />
  • 8. Arivar-koil<br />This is <br />a Jaina cave temple, excavated <br />before the 9th century AD <br />and has <br />the famous mural paintings <br />Originally thought of an excavation of Mahendra-varma Pallavan, <br />this is now considered to be a Pandya contribution <br />Still there is uncertainty regarding the origin of this temple <br />
  • 9. Arivar-koil<br />The cave temple lies on the west face of the hillock, <br />near the northern end.<br /> A walk of about 100 feet over the sloping rock <br />takes the visitor to the cave temple. <br />
  • 10. ARIVAR-KOIL<br />architecture<br />
  • 11. The cave temple consists of<br /> a garbha-griham,<br />an ardha-mandapam <br />and a pillared veranda. <br />Garbha-griham<br />A mukha-mandapam <br />that was added <br />in 9th century AD <br />has collapsed. <br />Ardha-mandapam<br />Pillared-veranda<br />The pillared veranda is <br />a later addition <br />in the 20th century.<br />
  • 12. Originally the entire space, <br />except the floor, <br />had been plastered and painted. <br />But only <br />a part of the paintings on the ceiling and <br />patches elsewhere <br />remain.<br />
  • 13. Pillared-veranda<br />
  • 14. Pillared Varenda<br />This pillared veranda, in front, is a later construction, <br />added in the 20th century by the Tondaiman-s of Pudukkottai. <br />It provides much needed protection from rain and sun. <br />
  • 15. Pillared Varenda<br />A 17-line Tamil inscription on the rock-face of the original cave <br />can be seen from here. <br />It mentions <br />about the repair <br />and extension <br />of the cave temple <br />by a Jaina Acharya <br />called Ilan Gautaman,<br />during the reign of <br />the Pandya king, <br />Srimaran-srivallabhan <br />(9th century AD). <br />It is from this inscription we find that the cave temple <br />was excavated before the 9th century.<br />
  • 16. Ardha-mandapam<br />
  • 17. Ardha-mandapam<br />From the front veranda one enters <br />this ardha-mandapam<br />which is 22½ feet by 7½ feet.<br />On the side walls <br />are two niches containing <br />sculptures of <br />a Tirthankara and <br />an Acharya.<br />
  • 18. The ardha-mandapam contained <br />some exquisite paintings, <br />of which precious little remains. <br />
  • 19. Garbha-griham<br />
  • 20. Garbha-griham<br />Beyond the ardha-mandapam is this Garbha-griham.<br />It is 10 feet by 10 feet. <br />On the back wall are three images <br />carved in relief. <br />On the ceiling is carved a Dharma-chakra.<br />The ceiling contains relics of paintings. <br />
  • 21. ARIVAR-KOIL<br />sculptures<br />
  • 22. There are only five sculptures, <br />all in relief, in this cave temple.<br />Two of them are <br />in the ardha-mandapam, <br />on the side-walls.<br />The garbha-griham contains <br />three figures in a row, <br />on the rear-wall. <br />These sculptures are of Jaina Tirthankara-s and Acharya-s.<br />
  • 23. Ardha-mandapam<br />
  • 24. Ardha-mandapam<br />The niche on the southern wall contains a figure of Parsvanatha,<br /> the twenty-third Tirthankara. <br />He is seated cross-legged <br />in the dhyana (meditative) pose. <br />There is a five headed serpent <br />spreading its hood over his head identifying him as Parsvanatha.<br />
  • 25. Ardha-mandapam<br />The niche on the northern wall is a figure of a Jaina Acharya seated in the same pose. <br />There is a single umbrella over the head of the image, <br />which indicates that it is not a Tirthankara.<br />
  • 26. Garbha-griham<br />
  • 27. Garbha-griham<br />On the back-wall of the garbha-griham are three images carved in relief in a row. <br />All of them are in the same dhyana (meditative) posture. <br />The northern and central figures have <br />‘mukkudai’ (‘triple umbrella’), <br />indicating them to be Tirthankara-s. <br />The southern figure has a single umbrella, <br />and probably a Chakravarti or an Acharya. <br />
  • 28. ARIVAR-KOIL<br />paintings<br />
  • 29. Indian Paintings<br />Ajanta,<br />200BC-600AD<br />Sittannavasal paintings are an early example of post-Ajanta period painting and are of the classical Ajanta style with variation in the handling of the material by the artists. <br />
  • 30. Indian Paintings<br />Kanchipuram<br />7th century AD<br />The paintings in Kailasanatha Temple in Kanchi antedate the Sittannavasal paintings.<br />
  • 31. Indian Paintings<br />Thanjavur<br />1100AD<br />The paintings in Brihadiswara Temple in Thanjavur <br />are the continuation of the Sittannavasal tradition.<br />
  • 32. Sittannavasal Paintings<br />The technique used is known as fresco-secco, <br />that is, painting done on dry wall. <br />In this process,<br />the surface is first covered with lime plaster,then coated with lime-wash <br />and the painting done on it. <br />Mineral colours of permanent nature <br />were employed for the painting.<br />
  • 33. Sittannavasal Paintings<br />The subjects of the Sittannavasal paintings include<br />the Samava-sarana of the Jaina mythology, <br />a few solo-pictures, that includes dancing damsels, <br />birds, floral decorations, and <br />various carpet canopy designs. <br />
  • 34. Sittannavasal Paintings<br />Originally the entire cave temple, <br />excluding the floor, <br />including the sculptures was covered with plaster and painted. <br />Only traces of these are now extant.<br />All these paintings, which would rank among the great paintings of India, are barely visible now, mainly due to vandalism with in the last 50-60 years. <br />
  • 35. Sittannavasal Paintings<br />This Jaina site and its paintings were<br />first noticed by a local historian S. Radhakrishna Iyer in 1916. <br />But Jouveau Dubreuil and T.A. Gopinatha Rao brought it before the archaeological world in 1920.<br />
  • 36. Sittannavasal Paintings<br />In 1942, Dr. S. Paramasivan and K.R. Srinivasan found that there are two layers of paintings, an earlier and a later superimposed over the earlier one. <br />The layer of painting, which we see today and admire, is probably the work of Ilan-Gautaman (9th century AD), mentioned in the inscription. <br />These are some of theearliest frescos in South India and only example of early Jaina frescoes. <br />
  • 37. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />On the ceiling of ardha-mandapam, <br />canopies of floral pattern are painted over the two relief images. <br />
  • 38. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana composition<br />In Jainism, where worship of great souls occupies an important place, Tirthankara-s are the most venerated religious prophets. <br />One of the five important events in the life of a Tirthankara is <br />the first sermon after attaining the kevala-jnana (realisation), <br />in a specially designed complex called Samava-sarana. <br />This Samava-sarana is a favourite motif for representation in the Jaina temples. <br />
  • 39. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana composition<br />The scene painted in the ardha-mandapam <br />is a lotus tank <br />which is a part of the Samava-sarana complex. <br />It is the second region, called khatika-bhumi (region-of-the-tank). <br />Here, we see, the bhavya-s (the good ones), <br />rejoice while washing themselves, as they pass on from region to region in order to hear the discourse of the Lord in the heavenly pavilion of Samava-sarana.<br />
  • 40. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana <br />composition<br />This painting shows bhavya-s enjoying themselves in a pool, full of flowering lotuses. <br />Flowers <br />with their stalks and leaves, <br />various kinds of fishes frolicking, <br />a makara (mythical fish), buffaloes, elephants and numerous birds <br />are shown with simplicity, charm and naturalness. <br />
  • 41. The samava-sarana composition<br />The pose and expression of the bhavya-s shown in the picture have a charm and beauty, which compel attention.<br />Two of them are shown together in one part of the tank.<br />One is picking lotus flowers with his right hand and has a basket of flowers slung on the other.<br />
  • 42. The samava-sarana composition<br />His companion carries a lotus in one hand, the other is bent gracefully, the fingers forming the mrigi-mudra (‘deer-gesture’).<br />
  • 43. The samava-sarana composition<br />The third bhavya, <br />an extremely beautiful figure, <br />carries a bunch of lotus <br />over his left shoulder and lily over his right.<br />The three figures are naked, <br />except for their loin-cloths.<br /> The hair is neatly arranged and <br />the lobes of the ears are distended.<br />
  • 44. The samava-sarana composition<br />The three figures are naked, except for their loin-cloths.<br /> The hair is neatly arranged and the lobes of the ears are distended.<br />
  • 45. Ceiling of ardha-mandapam<br />The samava-sarana composition<br />
  • 46. Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />There were some exquisite paintings of dancing girls on the pillars. <br />These priceless treasures are now lost forever and only their outlines are traceable today.<br />These animated figures, with their broad hips, slender waists, and elaborate ornaments, recall the beauty of the apsara-s of mythology; their pose and expression suggest rhythm and dynamic movement. <br />These portraitures of dancers must rank as one among the best<br />in the whole of India.<br />
  • 47. Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />One of them has her left arm <br />stretched-out in lata-hasta pose <br />and right arm bent at the elbow. <br />Her ears <br />are adorned with olai <br />(patra-kundala), <br />rings set with gems, <br />and <br />her arms decked <br />with bracelets <br />and bangles.<br />
  • 48. Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />The other is even more graceful. <br />Her left arm stretched-in <br />lata-hasta pose, <br />while her right arm is bent at the elbow. <br />The head-dress and the ornaments of this dancer are very distinct. <br />The hair is decked with flower garlands.<br />
  • 49. Pillars of ardha-mandapam<br />There is also remnant of <br />a painting of a royal couple, on the southern pillar. <br />
  • 50. Cornice & beam of ardha-mandapam<br />There are paintings on the corbels, beam and cornice. <br />On the corbel are scroll designs with lotuses. <br />Painted lotuses <br />in different stages <br />of flowering. <br />
  • 51. Cornice & beam of ardha-mandapam<br />The painting on the cornice is made up of carpet designs with lotuses. <br />In front of each of <br />the two pillars are <br />painted hamsa <br />(mythical swan). <br />On the northern wall<br />are the figures of fruits and flowers in yellow and red.<br />
  • 52. Ceiling of garbha-griham<br />The painting above the three relief sculptures suggests a carpet, with striped borders and irregular squares and circles interlinked. <br />Within the squares are lotus flowers. <br />Inside the circles is a cross, with two human figures on upper side andtwo lion figures on the lower side of the horizontal arm. <br />
  • 53. EZHADIPPATTAM<br />
  • 54. Ezhadippattam<br />Ezhadipattam is the name given to a natural cavern <br />where over more than a thousand years <br />since 3rd century BC, <br />Jaina ascetics practiced severest penance <br />such as <br />Kayot-sarga (meditation-till-salvation-in-standing-pose) <br />and <br />sallekhana (fasting-unto-death).<br />
  • 55. Ezhadippattam<br />A few hundred meters south of the cave-temple is the beginning of the path <br />that leads to Ezhadippattam. <br />
  • 56. Ezhadippattam<br />The cavern is near <br />the top of the centre of the hill, <br />on the eastern side. <br />But the approach is from the west. <br />The Cavern<br />Entry to the Cavern<br />Originally this path to the cavern, <br />along a narrow ledge <br />was difficult and dangerous. <br />
  • 57. The stone-beds<br />The cavern is roomy but low. <br />The floor is marked out into spaces <br />for seventeen beds, <br />each with a sort of stone pillow. <br />They are highly polished. <br />Most of the beds are inscribed. <br />But all these inscriptions are <br />barely visible now, <br />due to vandalism within last 50-60 years.<br />
  • 58. Inscriptions<br />One of the beds, the largest, is the oldest <br />It contains an inscription in Tamil <br />in the Tamil Brahmi script of the 3rd century BC. <br />This is one of the oldest lithic records of South India. <br />It mentions that <br />Ilaiyar of Tenku-ciru-posil made this seat for Kavutiborn at Kumizhurin erumi-naadu (probably in Karnataka). <br />
  • 59. Inscriptions<br />Near other beds, names of other Jaina ascetics who practised penance are inscribed. <br />There are a number of inscriptions belonging 7th to 10th centuries AD.<br />
  • 60. Ezhadippattam; stone beds & inscriptions nearby<br />There are a number of stone-beds and inscriptions around Ezhadippattam.<br />There is also a passage to reach the hill through a very narrow cavern,<br />now under disuse.<br />
  • 61. NAVACH-CHUNAI<br />
  • 62. Navach-chunai<br />The pool takes its name from a <br />naval-maram (Syzygium jambolanum) close by.<br />
  • 63. Jambunatha submerged cave temple<br />The sunai contains a submerged Pandya rock-cut shrine inside. <br />It contains a lingam in the centre and a narrow passage to walk around.<br /> The water is occasionally baled out, and the lingam is worshiped. <br />However, there is no clue as to why such temples were excavated at all. <br />
  • 64. MEGALITHIC BURIALS<br />
  • 65. Megalithic Burials<br />Certain typical modes of disposing the dead <br />in the mega-lithic period <br /> (3rd century BC to 1st century AD) <br /> are preserved in the Pudukkottai tract.<br />
  • 66. Megalithic Burials<br />Excavations reveal three types of burials in Pudukkottai region: <br /><ul><li>grave-burials, practised by poor people,
  • 67. urn-burials, in which the dead men were buried </li></ul> in a sitting posture in a large earthenware pot and <br /><ul><li>burials in deep stone-chambers formed of stone slabs (cists).</li></ul>Quite a few burial sites are found in Sittannavasal<br />
  • 68. Megalithic Burials<br />Loosely called ‘dolmans’, <br />these are stone-capped burial monuments with chambers in stone.<br />Mudu-makkal-thazhi (‘burial-pots-of-the-old-people’) <br />is the most widely used local name. <br />These are easily identifiable by the appearance of <br />a circle of laterite or granite stones <br />and small boulders on the surface of the spot.<br />
  • 69. OTHER INTERESTING PLACES<br />
  • 70. Other places of interest<br />At the foothills of the hillock, on the western side, <br />are two temples in ruins.<br />One is dedicated to Siva and<br />another to a Goddess.<br />There are <br />a few loose sculptures near to these shrines.<br />These two temples have not been studied <br />in detail yet.<br />
  • 71. Other places of interest<br />There are shrines for local deity, Ayyanar with the customary terracotta sculptures of horses, etc. nearby.<br />
  • 72. The Sittannavasal Complex offers an opportunity <br />to travel in time <br />from the 3rd century till modern times,<br />and to savour certain unique features of our past. <br />
  • 73. Thank you…<br />
  • 74. A presentation by…<br />Sudharsanam<br />A centre for Arts and culture<br />2 Palace Nagar<br />Pudukkottai 622005<br />Tamilnadu, India.<br />www.pudukkottai.org<br />www.sudharsanam.org<br />sudharsanam@pudukkottai.org <br />

×