Jaina Vestiges in Pudukkottai


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Jainism was a thriving religion in the Tamil coutry from 3rd century BCE till the resurgence of Hinduism following the Bhakti Movement of the 6th - 9th centuries CE. Pudukkottai district in Tamilnadu has the largest number of centrally protected Jaina monuments, which the presentation highlights.A presentation by prof. Subramanian Swaminathan

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Jaina Vestiges in Pudukkottai

  1. 1. Click anywhere to start the presentation<br />
  2. 2. Jaina vestiges in <br />PUDUKKOTTAI<br />Jaina vestiges in <br />PUDUKKOTTAI<br />by<br />S. Swaminathan<br />(sswami99@gmail.com)<br />
  3. 3. PUDUKKOTTAI, <br />a district of Tamilnadu, <br />has a great Jaina tradition <br /> dating back to pre-Christian era. <br />The archaeological evidences show that <br />the Jainism flourished here <br />for more than 1500 years, <br /> from 3rd century BC to <br /> till about 13th century AD. <br />
  4. 4. There are a number of Jaina vestiges found scattered throughout the district<br />like, <br />images, and fragments of images, <br />ruins of temples and monasteries, and <br />inscriptions.<br />
  5. 5. In this district <br />is located <br />the highest number of <br /> centrally protected Jaina relics/monuments <br /> in Tamilnadu.<br />
  6. 6. Jaina vestiges in <br />PUDUKKOTTAI<br />Of the 42 Jaina monuments <br />in the state<br />30 are in Pudukkottai district.<br />
  7. 7. SITTANNAVASAL<br />A natural cavern called Ezhadipattam, <br />with 17 stone beds and numerous inscriptions,<br />which includes <br />the famous 3rd century BC <br />Tamil Brahmi inscription, <br />was an abode of Jain ascetics <br /> from 3rd century BC for their penances.<br />
  8. 8. SITTANNAVASAL<br />The Jaina cave-temple called Arivar-koil <br />with its internationally renowned paintings, <br />the earliest Jain paintings of India, <br />dates back to a period <br /> earlier than the 9th century AD. <br />
  9. 9. NARTTAMALAI<br />Samanar-kudagu, <br />situated on the Mela-malai of Narttamalai hills, <br />has a Jaina cave-temple, <br />converted into a Vishnu shrine later. <br />
  10. 10. AMMACHATRAM<br />Alurutti-malai<br />A natural cavern, <br />with stone beds <br />two Tirthankara <br />relief sculptures <br />carved on the façade and <br />inscriptions<br />
  11. 11. AMMACHATRAM<br />Kudagu-malai,<br />a natural cavern,<br />with inscriptions and <br />broken Jaina idols.<br />
  12. 12. AMMACHATRAM<br />To the west of the tank PaLLI-k-kuLam,<br />on a 25-ft boulder is <br />A relief sculpture of Tirthankara and<br />two inscriptions.<br />Near the tank can be found a number of broken Jaina idols. <br />
  13. 13. BOMMADIMALAI<br />A mutilated Tirthankara idol<br />near to the road, <br />100 meters south of the Bommadimalai and <br />an inscription on the Bommadimalai rock.<br />
  14. 14. MAILAAPATTI<br />Basement of a <br />ruined Jaina temple, <br />A Tirthankara image and <br />Inscriptions on <br />Karuppar-malai.<br />
  15. 15. LAKSHMANPATTI<br />Remains of a <br />ruined Jaina temple and <br />a Tirthankara image in Kanakampatti. <br />Probably, <br />the temple had a prakaram <br />of laterite stone.<br />
  16. 16. PUTTAMBUR<br />Brick basement of a <br />ruined Jaina temple <br />called Mottai-pillayar-koil. There are a Jaina Tirthankara image and a broken sculpture. <br />The Tirthankara image <br />is about 4 feet in height and <br />sculptured fully in the round.<br />
  17. 17. TENIMALAI<br />Andar-madam, a natural cavern on Tenimalai.<br />There is a relief figure of <br />a Tirthankara on a big boulder.<br />There are two important <br />inscriptions – <br />one below the image and another on a boulder.<br />
  18. 18. TENIMALAI<br />Three Tirthankaras, seated in padmasana, are canopied by triple umbrellas and flanked by chauri-bearers. <br />According to the inscriptions <br />the first was commissioned by <br />Srivalla-Udaranaseruvotti. <br />Another inscription states an lrukkuvel chieftain gave pallichchandam for the maintenance of the monk, Malayadhvaja, performing penance here.<br />The place was in use till about the ninth century. <br />
  19. 19. THEKAATTUR<br />A Jaina Tirthankara image <br />seated on a pedestal.<br />The Tirthankara image is presently worshiped <br />by the local people as ‘SamaNakALi’. <br />ASI has erected a basement for the sculpture <br />and protected it by providing fencing.<br />
  20. 20. ANNAVASAL<br />To the west of a tank, there is a Tirthankara image. <br />The image, the head of which is broken, is a seated figure with attendants.<br />There are also ruins of a temple. <br />
  21. 21. SADAYAPPARAI<br />A Tirthankara image,<br />probably Adinatha, <br />originally <br />a relief sculpture<br />now exists as a <br />sculpture in the round,<br />and is worshipped by the local people. <br />Known as Perunar-killi-cholaperumapani, was a Jain centre during the 9th-13th centuries. <br />
  22. 22. SADAYAPPARAI<br />A large inscription, now mostly defaced, datable <br />to the reign of Sundara Pandya I, informs the existence <br />of a Jain temple, ‘KaLLatru-ppaLLi’ and<br />records pallichhandam to the deity of <br />Perunarkilicolaperumapaili for various offerings <br />by the nattavar of Tenkavinadu.<br />
  23. 23. KUDUMIYAMALAI<br />A natural cavern on the western side of the hillock contains polished stone beds.<br />One of the beds contains an inscription in Tamil Brahmi script of 2nd century AD.<br />
  24. 24. CHETTIPATTI (SAMANAR KUNDU)<br />A structural temple, <br /> dedicated to a Tirthankara, is in ruins. <br />Only the basement foundation remains, <br /> with loose sculpture kept at the site.<br />Mahavira is seated on a pedestal. <br />Parshvadeva, with smiling countenance, <br /> half-closed elongated eyes, <br /> prominent nose and <br /> curly hair arranged in small circles, and <br /> the five-hooded serpent canopy <br />illustrate exquisite Chola workmanship.<br />
  25. 25. CHETTIPATTI (SAMANAR KUNDU)<br />Three partially carved individual sculptures of <br /> chauri-bearers, <br /> a lion the mount of Ambika yakshi <br /> are other noteworthy sculptures. <br />A 10th century inscription identifies <br /> Dayapaiar and Vadiraya as <br /> two disciples on Matisagaracarya. <br />
  26. 26. KANNANGUDI<br />A fine sculpture of Mahavira belongs to this village.<br />The 11th century image is <br /> seated on a simhasana in padmasana posture. <br />The semi-circular prabhavali, <br /> creeper design and triple umbrella,<br /> the contemplative calmness of the face, <br /> the half-closed eyes, broad shoulders and <br /> the sturdiness of the torso<br /> are beautifully depicted in this carved relief. <br />
  27. 27. SEMAPATTUR<br />Only a Tirthankara, a yakshi, and a few lion based pillars <br /> found near the Palliyurai tank are <br /> the relics of the Jain temple of this place.<br />The Tirthankara, shown seated in padmasana, <br /> is a small figure, while Ambika yakshi, <br /> also shown seated on a pedestal, is larger.<br />A 10th century inscription records that<br /> the yakshi sculpture was commissioned <br /> by an official of Rajaraja Cola I, <br /> Jayankonda Chola Muvendavelan of Kulamangalanadu.<br />Some of the structural elements have been used <br /> in the Hindu temples nearby.<br />
  28. 28. List of other places having <br />ruins of Jaina temples/monasteries<br />Melur (Thirumayam)<br />Puliyur<br />Nanjur<br />Tiruppur <br />Veerakudi <br />Kannangarakudi <br />Valavampatti <br />Mangathevanpatti<br />Melur(Satyamangalam)<br />Nattampannai <br />Alangudipatti <br />Alathur <br />Annavasal <br />Kaayamppatti<br />Marudur<br />
  29. 29. Other places having<br />Jaina monuments/relics<br />According toMailai Seeni Venkatasami, <br />the following places also have <br />Jaina monuments/relics<br />Malayakkovil<br />Thiruvarangulam<br />Poovaalai-k-kudi<br />Thevar-malai<br />Kunnandar-koil<br />Viralur<br />Keezha-th-thaaniyam<br />
  30. 30. Existence of such a large number of monuments shows that <br />Pudukkottai <br />was one of the most important Jaina centres<br />in Tamilnadu, in the past. <br />
  31. 31. Thank you…<br />
  32. 32. A presentation by…<br />Sudharsanam<br />A centre for Arts and culture<br />2 Palace Nagar<br />Pudukkottai 622005<br />Tamilnadu, India.<br />Tel:+91-4322-230666<br />www.pudukkottai.org<br />www.sudharsanam.org<br />sudharsanam@pudukkottai.org <br />
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