Jaina Vestiges in Pudukkottai
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Jaina Vestiges in Pudukkottai

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Jainism was a thriving religion in the Tamil coutry from 3rd century BCE till the resurgence of Hinduism following the Bhakti Movement of the 6th - 9th centuries CE. Pudukkottai district in Tamilnadu ...

Jainism was a thriving religion in the Tamil coutry from 3rd century BCE till the resurgence of Hinduism following the Bhakti Movement of the 6th - 9th centuries CE. Pudukkottai district in Tamilnadu has the largest number of centrally protected Jaina monuments, which the presentation highlights.A presentation by prof. Subramanian Swaminathan

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Jaina Vestiges in Pudukkottai Jaina Vestiges in Pudukkottai Presentation Transcript

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  • Jaina vestiges in
    PUDUKKOTTAI
    Jaina vestiges in
    PUDUKKOTTAI
    by
    S. Swaminathan
    (sswami99@gmail.com)
  • PUDUKKOTTAI,
    a district of Tamilnadu,
    has a great Jaina tradition
    dating back to pre-Christian era.
    The archaeological evidences show that
    the Jainism flourished here
    for more than 1500 years,
    from 3rd century BC to
    till about 13th century AD.
    View slide
  • There are a number of Jaina vestiges found scattered throughout the district
    like,
    images, and fragments of images,
    ruins of temples and monasteries, and
    inscriptions.
    View slide
  • In this district
    is located
    the highest number of
    centrally protected Jaina relics/monuments
    in Tamilnadu.
  • Jaina vestiges in
    PUDUKKOTTAI
    Of the 42 Jaina monuments
    in the state
    30 are in Pudukkottai district.
  • SITTANNAVASAL
    A natural cavern called Ezhadipattam,
    with 17 stone beds and numerous inscriptions,
    which includes
    the famous 3rd century BC
    Tamil Brahmi inscription,
    was an abode of Jain ascetics
    from 3rd century BC for their penances.
  • SITTANNAVASAL
    The Jaina cave-temple called Arivar-koil
    with its internationally renowned paintings,
    the earliest Jain paintings of India,
    dates back to a period
    earlier than the 9th century AD.
  • NARTTAMALAI
    Samanar-kudagu,
    situated on the Mela-malai of Narttamalai hills,
    has a Jaina cave-temple,
    converted into a Vishnu shrine later.
  • AMMACHATRAM
    Alurutti-malai
    A natural cavern,
    with stone beds
    two Tirthankara
    relief sculptures
    carved on the façade and
    inscriptions
  • AMMACHATRAM
    Kudagu-malai,
    a natural cavern,
    with inscriptions and
    broken Jaina idols.
  • AMMACHATRAM
    To the west of the tank PaLLI-k-kuLam,
    on a 25-ft boulder is
    A relief sculpture of Tirthankara and
    two inscriptions.
    Near the tank can be found a number of broken Jaina idols.
  • BOMMADIMALAI
    A mutilated Tirthankara idol
    near to the road,
    100 meters south of the Bommadimalai and
    an inscription on the Bommadimalai rock.
  • MAILAAPATTI
    Basement of a
    ruined Jaina temple,
    A Tirthankara image and
    Inscriptions on
    Karuppar-malai.
  • LAKSHMANPATTI
    Remains of a
    ruined Jaina temple and
    a Tirthankara image in Kanakampatti.
    Probably,
    the temple had a prakaram
    of laterite stone.
  • PUTTAMBUR
    Brick basement of a
    ruined Jaina temple
    called Mottai-pillayar-koil. There are a Jaina Tirthankara image and a broken sculpture.
    The Tirthankara image
    is about 4 feet in height and
    sculptured fully in the round.
  • TENIMALAI
    Andar-madam, a natural cavern on Tenimalai.
    There is a relief figure of
    a Tirthankara on a big boulder.
    There are two important
    inscriptions –
    one below the image and another on a boulder.
  • TENIMALAI
    Three Tirthankaras, seated in padmasana, are canopied by triple umbrellas and flanked by chauri-bearers.
    According to the inscriptions
    the first was commissioned by
    Srivalla-Udaranaseruvotti.
    Another inscription states an lrukkuvel chieftain gave pallichchandam for the maintenance of the monk, Malayadhvaja, performing penance here.
    The place was in use till about the ninth century.
  • THEKAATTUR
    A Jaina Tirthankara image
    seated on a pedestal.
    The Tirthankara image is presently worshiped
    by the local people as ‘SamaNakALi’.
    ASI has erected a basement for the sculpture
    and protected it by providing fencing.
  • ANNAVASAL
    To the west of a tank, there is a Tirthankara image.
    The image, the head of which is broken, is a seated figure with attendants.
    There are also ruins of a temple.
  • SADAYAPPARAI
    A Tirthankara image,
    probably Adinatha,
    originally
    a relief sculpture
    now exists as a
    sculpture in the round,
    and is worshipped by the local people.
    Known as Perunar-killi-cholaperumapani, was a Jain centre during the 9th-13th centuries.
  • SADAYAPPARAI
    A large inscription, now mostly defaced, datable
    to the reign of Sundara Pandya I, informs the existence
    of a Jain temple, ‘KaLLatru-ppaLLi’ and
    records pallichhandam to the deity of
    Perunarkilicolaperumapaili for various offerings
    by the nattavar of Tenkavinadu.
  • KUDUMIYAMALAI
    A natural cavern on the western side of the hillock contains polished stone beds.
    One of the beds contains an inscription in Tamil Brahmi script of 2nd century AD.
  • CHETTIPATTI (SAMANAR KUNDU)
    A structural temple,
    dedicated to a Tirthankara, is in ruins.
    Only the basement foundation remains,
    with loose sculpture kept at the site.
    Mahavira is seated on a pedestal.
    Parshvadeva, with smiling countenance,
    half-closed elongated eyes,
    prominent nose and
    curly hair arranged in small circles, and
    the five-hooded serpent canopy
    illustrate exquisite Chola workmanship.
  • CHETTIPATTI (SAMANAR KUNDU)
    Three partially carved individual sculptures of
    chauri-bearers,
    a lion the mount of Ambika yakshi
    are other noteworthy sculptures.
    A 10th century inscription identifies
    Dayapaiar and Vadiraya as
    two disciples on Matisagaracarya.
  • KANNANGUDI
    A fine sculpture of Mahavira belongs to this village.
    The 11th century image is
    seated on a simhasana in padmasana posture.
    The semi-circular prabhavali,
    creeper design and triple umbrella,
    the contemplative calmness of the face,
    the half-closed eyes, broad shoulders and
    the sturdiness of the torso
    are beautifully depicted in this carved relief.
  • SEMAPATTUR
    Only a Tirthankara, a yakshi, and a few lion based pillars
    found near the Palliyurai tank are
    the relics of the Jain temple of this place.
    The Tirthankara, shown seated in padmasana,
    is a small figure, while Ambika yakshi,
    also shown seated on a pedestal, is larger.
    A 10th century inscription records that
    the yakshi sculpture was commissioned
    by an official of Rajaraja Cola I,
    Jayankonda Chola Muvendavelan of Kulamangalanadu.
    Some of the structural elements have been used
    in the Hindu temples nearby.
  • List of other places having
    ruins of Jaina temples/monasteries
    Melur (Thirumayam)
    Puliyur
    Nanjur
    Tiruppur
    Veerakudi
    Kannangarakudi
    Valavampatti
    Mangathevanpatti
    Melur(Satyamangalam)
    Nattampannai
    Alangudipatti
    Alathur
    Annavasal
    Kaayamppatti
    Marudur
  • Other places having
    Jaina monuments/relics
    According toMailai Seeni Venkatasami,
    the following places also have
    Jaina monuments/relics
    Malayakkovil
    Thiruvarangulam
    Poovaalai-k-kudi
    Thevar-malai
    Kunnandar-koil
    Viralur
    Keezha-th-thaaniyam
  • Existence of such a large number of monuments shows that
    Pudukkottai
    was one of the most important Jaina centres
    in Tamilnadu, in the past.
  • Thank you…
  • A presentation by…
    Sudharsanam
    A centre for Arts and culture
    2 Palace Nagar
    Pudukkottai 622005
    Tamilnadu, India.
    Tel:+91-4322-230666
    www.pudukkottai.org
    www.sudharsanam.org
    sudharsanam@pudukkottai.org