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New Zealand’S Natural Landscapes
 

New Zealand’S Natural Landscapes

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PPT of NZ's natural landscapes

PPT of NZ's natural landscapes

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    New Zealand’S Natural Landscapes New Zealand’S Natural Landscapes Presentation Transcript

    • New Zealand’s Natural Landscapes How we got what we have
    • Outline
      • Relief and landforming processes
      • Plate Tectonics
      • Processes to produce landforms
        • Faulting
        • Folding
        • Volcanism
      • Landmodifying processes
        • Erosion
    • Relief and landform processes
    • Plate Tectonics
    • Theory of Plate Tectonics
      • The surface of the earth is covered by crustal plates which collide or are pulled apart from one another (fig 1)
      • They are driven by convection currents (fig 2)
      Figure 1: Plate tectonics theory says the earth is made up of interlocking crustal plates Figure 2: Beneath the earth’s crust
    • Plate margins – Where the action is!
      • Plate margins are where plates collide, move past, slide past or spread apart
      • There are three types of plate margin
        • Destructive plate margin
          • Fig 1
        • Constructive plate margin
          • Fig 2
        • Passive plate margin
          • Fig 3
      Figure 1: Destructive plate margin Figure 2: Constructive plate margin (sea floor spreading) Figure 3: Passive plate margin
    • Destructive plate margins
      • Where plates move towards each other one is forced under the other, called subduction
      • The thinner oceanic plate is forced under the thicker continental plate
    • Constructive plate margins
      • Where plates are moving apart sea-floor spreading occurs
      • The magma rises into the cracks between the plates, this causes mid-oceanic ridges
    • Passive plate margin
      • Where the plates are moving past one another it is known as a conservative boundary
      • Crustal rock is neither destroyed nor created
    • Tectonics of NZ
    • Processes to produce landforms
    • Faulting
      • Faulting is the movement of the crust along zones of weakness
        • Generally plate margins
      • As pressure builds old, brittle rocks break and move in blocks
      • The land shifts upwards, downwards or sideways
      • The southern Alps of NZ have been uplifted by faulting
    • Folding
      • Folding is the process where sedimentary rock is pushed and squeezed as surrounding hard rock is moved by plate tectonics
      • The soft rock bends and twists
      • This creates more gentle landscapes
      • The North
      • Island hill
      • country has
      • been formed
      • by folding
    • Volcanism
      • Subducting oceanic rock melts and then escapes to the surface through a weakness
      • Typical volcanic landforms are
        • lava or ash erupted from volcanoes
        • Calderas, lake Taupo
        • Thick deposits of ash, the Volcanic Plateau
        • Old lava cones, Auckland volcanic field
    • Land modifying processes
    • Erosion
      • Once land is formed other processes occur to change or modify the landform
      • This wearing down and transportation of the earth’s surface is known as erosion
      • This occurs by
        • Weathering
        • Transportation
        • Deposition
    • Weathering
      • The breaking down and wearing away of the land by chemical processes
      • Some of the these processes are
        • Fluvial erosion
          • Erosion by running water
        • Glacial erosion
        • Periglacial erosion
          • Freeze thaw
        • Aeolian erosion
        • Coastal erosion
    • Transportation
      • Once the material has been broken down by one of the chemical processes it is moved from that place
      • Some of the forms of transportation are
        • Fluvial
          • Running water
        • Glacial
        • Aeolian
        • Coastal
    • Deposition
      • Once the material has been transported it is put somewhere else
      • This is known as deposition
        • It is deposited somewhere
      • Example
        • A river transports material downstream
        • Where the river is flowing fast it picks up a lot of material in its flow
        • As the speed of the river slows it can’t transport all the material anymore, its not moving fast enough to hold it
        • It then deposits that material