African-American Health Disparities


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African-American Health Disparities

  1. 1. African-American Health Disparities <ul><li>Shawn Waldron RN </li></ul><ul><li>UW-Madison CNP </li></ul>
  2. 2. *U.S. Census Data, Wisconsin 2000 Characteristics African- Americans Total Wisconsin Number in Population 300,245 5.4 million Percent of Population 5.6% 100% Median Age 25 36 Percent in Poverty 31.8% 8.7% Percent of Children in Poverty 41.7% 11.2% Percent with less then a High School education 31.5% 14.9%
  3. 3. Leading causes of death, African American Population Wisconsin, 2001-2005 *Wisconsin Minority Heath Report, 2001-2005 Cause of Death Average Annual Number Percent Cancer 420 22% Heart Disease 402 21% Unintentional Injury 112 6% Stroke 106 6% Homicide 93 5% Diabetes 82 4% Prenatal Conditions 66 3% Kidney Disease 58 3% Chronic Lung Disease 51 3% Influenza and Pneumonia 30 2%
  4. 4. Death Rate per 100,000 people African American 2005 Due to the 11 year difference in median age it is important to look at the Age-adjusted Rate. African Americans are in general a younger population and the age-adjusted rate removes the age factor so you get an idea of the real death rate. *Wisconsin minority health Report, 2001-2005 Characteristic African American Total Wisconsin Number of deaths 2,039 46,544 Crude Rate 579.9 833.8 Age-Adjusted Rate 1,053.3 769.4
  5. 5. Disparity Ratios: African-American vs. Non-Hispanic White Population 2001-2005 A Disparity Ratio is a way to show disparities between racial minority groups and the white Majority population. A rate ratio higher then 1 indicates a higher rate of death in the African American population vs. the Non-Hispanic White population. It is interesting to note that the death rate for Diabetes is over 2 times greater then the white population and the death rate from Homicide is 14.7 times greater. Although African-Americans are a minority population, they die more then white population in every area except suicide. *Wisconsin Minority Health Report 2001-2005 Cause of Death Rate Ratio Heart Disease 1.3 Stroke 1.3 Diabetes 2.3 Cancer 1.3 Unintentional injury 1.1 Homicide 14.7 Suicide 0.5 All Deaths 1.4
  6. 6. Risk Factors African-American vs. Total Population of Wisconsin 2001-2005 *Wisconsin Minority Health Report 2001-2005 As a result of the above risk factors they have a higher risk of: heat disease Stroke, diabetes, cancer, lung disorders and asthma Risk Factor African American Total Population Cigarette Smoking 29% 22% Heavy Drinking 5% 8% Binge Drinking 16% 24% Drinking and Driving 3% 5% Physical Inactivity 59% 45% Overweight/Obesity 70% 60%
  7. 7. African-Americans and HIV/AIDS New HIV diagnosed during 2005 by Race/ethnicity No.=37,331 No.=341,524 Adults/Adolescents living with HIV in 2005 By race/ethnicity *
  8. 8. Socioeconomic Status (SES) Risk Factors <ul><li>In the US, people with lower SES have a less chance of adopting health habits and less access to health care. </li></ul><ul><li>African-Americans have an increased risk of : lack of knowledge/access to preventive health care, higher rates of premature death from heart disease, stroke, homicide and AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher levels of: Hypertension, Stroke and End Stage Renal Disease. </li></ul><ul><li>A lower SES also indicates higher levels of accidents, injuries and homicides </li></ul>
  9. 9. Environmental Risk Factors <ul><li>Approximately 86% of African Americans live in urban settings where they have a higher risk of exposure to toxic waste, lead and air pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>People of color have been traditionally exposed to workplace hazards such as lead, asbestos, toxic chemicals/dust, poisons and radiation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Medical Bias towards African-Americans <ul><li>In a 2002 review the Institute of medicine found that a bias does exist and can explain the disparities in death rates. </li></ul><ul><li>It found that African-Americans even with insurance are less likely to receive: high-tech procedures (CABG, Angioplasty and Organ Transplants), Prescription drugs, ICU care, Interventional Therapies, Cancer treatment, HIV medications and prenatal care. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Behavior/Lifestyle Risk Factors <ul><li>Can be changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking, Drug use, Alcohol, Diet, Lack of Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African-Americans have higher rates of smoking, physical inactivity and obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsafe sexual practices (lack of condom use, multiple partners and the “down low”) have lead to an alarming increase in HIV/STD infections. </li></ul></ul>