African-American Health DisparitiesPresentation Transcript
African-American Health Disparities
Shawn Waldron RN
*U.S. Census Data, Wisconsin 2000 Characteristics African- Americans Total Wisconsin Number in Population 300,245 5.4 million Percent of Population 5.6% 100% Median Age 25 36 Percent in Poverty 31.8% 8.7% Percent of Children in Poverty 41.7% 11.2% Percent with less then a High School education 31.5% 14.9%
Leading causes of death, African American Population Wisconsin, 2001-2005 *Wisconsin Minority Heath Report, 2001-2005 Cause of Death Average Annual Number Percent Cancer 420 22% Heart Disease 402 21% Unintentional Injury 112 6% Stroke 106 6% Homicide 93 5% Diabetes 82 4% Prenatal Conditions 66 3% Kidney Disease 58 3% Chronic Lung Disease 51 3% Influenza and Pneumonia 30 2%
Death Rate per 100,000 people African American 2005 Due to the 11 year difference in median age it is important to look at the Age-adjusted Rate. African Americans are in general a younger population and the age-adjusted rate removes the age factor so you get an idea of the real death rate. *Wisconsin minority health Report, 2001-2005 Characteristic African American Total Wisconsin Number of deaths 2,039 46,544 Crude Rate 579.9 833.8 Age-Adjusted Rate 1,053.3 769.4
Disparity Ratios: African-American vs. Non-Hispanic White Population 2001-2005 A Disparity Ratio is a way to show disparities between racial minority groups and the white Majority population. A rate ratio higher then 1 indicates a higher rate of death in the African American population vs. the Non-Hispanic White population. It is interesting to note that the death rate for Diabetes is over 2 times greater then the white population and the death rate from Homicide is 14.7 times greater. Although African-Americans are a minority population, they die more then white population in every area except suicide. *Wisconsin Minority Health Report 2001-2005 Cause of Death Rate Ratio Heart Disease 1.3 Stroke 1.3 Diabetes 2.3 Cancer 1.3 Unintentional injury 1.1 Homicide 14.7 Suicide 0.5 All Deaths 1.4
Risk Factors African-American vs. Total Population of Wisconsin 2001-2005 *Wisconsin Minority Health Report 2001-2005 As a result of the above risk factors they have a higher risk of: heat disease Stroke, diabetes, cancer, lung disorders and asthma Risk Factor African American Total Population Cigarette Smoking 29% 22% Heavy Drinking 5% 8% Binge Drinking 16% 24% Drinking and Driving 3% 5% Physical Inactivity 59% 45% Overweight/Obesity 70% 60%
African-Americans and HIV/AIDS New HIV diagnosed during 2005 by Race/ethnicity No.=37,331 No.=341,524 Adults/Adolescents living with HIV in 2005 By race/ethnicity *CDC.gov
Socioeconomic Status (SES) Risk Factors
In the US, people with lower SES have a less chance of adopting health habits and less access to health care.
African-Americans have an increased risk of : lack of knowledge/access to preventive health care, higher rates of premature death from heart disease, stroke, homicide and AIDS.
Higher levels of: Hypertension, Stroke and End Stage Renal Disease.
A lower SES also indicates higher levels of accidents, injuries and homicides
Environmental Risk Factors
Approximately 86% of African Americans live in urban settings where they have a higher risk of exposure to toxic waste, lead and air pollution.
People of color have been traditionally exposed to workplace hazards such as lead, asbestos, toxic chemicals/dust, poisons and radiation.
Medical Bias towards African-Americans
In a 2002 review the Institute of medicine found that a bias does exist and can explain the disparities in death rates.
It found that African-Americans even with insurance are less likely to receive: high-tech procedures (CABG, Angioplasty and Organ Transplants), Prescription drugs, ICU care, Interventional Therapies, Cancer treatment, HIV medications and prenatal care.
Behavior/Lifestyle Risk Factors
Can be changed
Smoking, Drug use, Alcohol, Diet, Lack of Exercise
African-Americans have higher rates of smoking, physical inactivity and obesity
Unsafe sexual practices (lack of condom use, multiple partners and the “down low”) have lead to an alarming increase in HIV/STD infections.