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Personality and its theories.

Personality and its theories.

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  • This Model is useful in Team Building and Helping in hiring of employees.

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  • 1. Definition- Personality is defined as the Dynamic Behaviour mode of thinking that determines the individual adjustment in the environment. “The Unique Adjustment of Individual In environment”
  • 2. Nature Of Personality- 1.Personality is both internal and external ,It is generally not changed But changed due to social ,Psychological and environmental factors. 2.Personality is enduring in nature and depends on needs and motives. 3.It may be changed like after some incidents might be accident. 4.Personality defines individual differences.
  • 3. Determinants of Personality Heredity Brain Physical Factors Culture Family Social Situational Personality Biological Environmental
  • 4. Biological Factors Which means an individual sense the external events Heredity- Like Physical structure, Muscle Composition and Temperaments. Brain-The Human Brain Influencing the Personality. Physical Features-The Tall ,Short, Ugly Fair also related to the personality of an individual in an organization
  • 5. Environmental Factors Cultural factors-Cultural factors also related to Competition,Cooperation,Aggression,Indepedences in an Organization. Respect to Superior comes from the Cultural factors . Family and Social Factors 1.Socialization Process-It the stages where he born and works ,Like from childhood with mom and dad ,After that frirends,Group and finally working groups and colleagues who are change the personality. 2.Identification process- Where an individual follow another person as a model might be copy his /her Character as an Ideal.
  • 6. Situational Factors The demands of different situations may call for the different aspects of personality.Lifes good or bad experiences, sorrows and other things a part of bad or good effort on Personality.
  • 7. • Sheldon's Physiognomy Theory • Carl Jung's Extrovert and Introvert Theory • Intra-Psychic Theory • Traits Theory • Social Learning Theory • Johns Big 5 Theory • Myers-Briggs Indicator • Carl Rogers Self Theory • Holands Personality Types • Self Concept
  • 8. Sheldon's Physiognomy Theory He find out some relation between Physique and their Temperament. He identifies three body types in personality 1.Endomorph-They are generally fleshy and bulky and they are very friendly and slow to react . 2.Mesomorph-Here they are Athletic they are risk taker in organization take challenges, Aggressive 3.Ectomorph-They are thin generally and Shy and By Brain Brilliant .
  • 9. Carl Jung's Extrovert and Introvert Theory Introvert- 1.Trouble in remembering faces and names. 2.Work contentedly alone. 3.Some Problems in communicating 4.They Don’t Need Interruptions. 5.Work for a long long time with one project without disturbance. 6.Simply hates instructions.
  • 10. Extrovert- 1. Like Variety and Actions. 2. Tend to work faster and dislike complicated procedure. 3. Like to have people around. 4. Communicate freely. 5. They don not mind interruptions.
  • 11. According Carl Jung ,there are four dimensions. 1.Sensing –Thinking-Rational Decision making and Objective oriented. 2.Sensing-Feeling-They share the risk with others and then see what happened and then they take actions. 3.Intituing-Thinking-Dream a lot for making decision. 4.Intituing-Feezing-Consider others views for decision Making.
  • 12. Intra Psychic Theory This theory developed by Freudian which means the Human mind is mostly influenced by unseen forces than seen rational thoughts. • Preconscious (ID) -Associated with Only Thoughts the behaviour is Childish and never satisfied • Conscious (Ego)-This means mind which is related to Feelings,Belief,Thoughts.Realted to Logical part • Un Conscious Mind(Super Ego)-Which is learned from self-examinations.Value,Norms and ETC
  • 13. Myers-Briggs Indicator-MBIT(1920) A. This Model is useful in Team Building and Helping in hiring of employees. B. Proving Ideas to dealing with Problem C. Balance the Judgments of Organization Behaviour D. Source to conflict resolutions Sensitivity/Institution-They collect the data by sensing types organization structure and intuitive people collect the non systematically. Thinking/Felling-Thinking People Rely with Logical methods (Explicit) where the feeling (Tactical)peoples are rely with how others choice his style. Judging/Perceiving-Judging means some peoples are like to take control on judgment and Perceiving's are flexible in Nature
  • 14. • Although the test is commonly used in workplaces, few psychologists use the test • This is because it is lacking in validity, reliability and scientific research evidence • Also, there is also concern that people without a background in psychology can attend a short course to be certified to use the MBTI- therefore it can be misused • It is only based on a limited view of Jung’s theory which is not widely regarded more contemporary psychologists
  • 15. JOHN BIG FIVE MODEL Dimensions of Big Five Model is • Extroversion- Talkative and assertive • Agreeableness- Trusting and Cooperative. • Conscientiousness-Responsible and dependable. • Emotional Stability- Calm,Nervious,Enthusiastic. • Openness to Experience-Artistic ,Sensitive and intellectual
  • 16. Social Learning Theory This Theory based on the Situation of understanding of an individual. Where the individual do in that situation Competencies- Intelligence Ability, Social Skills, Other abilities. Cognitive Strategy-Collecting information for organization meaningful unit. Outcome expectation-Expectation from others on his behaviour. Subject Value Outcome-Two Individual but one personality(Like Promotion) Self-Regulatory-Self Guiding Personality
  • 17. Holland’s personality types • All people fit into one or more of 6 personality types: – Realistic (R), investigative (I), artistic (A), social (S), enterprising (E) and conventional (C) • Sometimes referred to as the RIASEC theory
  • 18. Realistic (R) characteristics • shy, conforming, honest, straightforward, practical, self- reliant, persistent and thrifty • good at and prefers hands-on activities such as using tools and machines • is not good at and prefers to avoid activities involving interactions with others, like teaching and helping or healing • has good skills in working with tools, mechanical or electrical drawings, machines, or plants and animals • often has athletic abilities is attracted to careers such as mechanic, carpenter, electrician, air traffic controller, cook, surveyor and gardener
  • 19. Investigative (I) characteristics • intellectual, analytical, curious, critical, precise, methodical, cautious and modest • good at and prefers learning by reading, studying or investigation, and solving maths or science problems • not good at and prefers to avoid activities involving leading, selling, or persuading people • attracted to careers such as mathematician, biologist, veterinarian, surgeon, laboratory assistant, engineer, computer programmer and systems analyst
  • 20. Artistic (A) characteristics • imaginative, intuitive, original, impulsive, independent, open, disorderly, unconventional, emotional and expressive • good at and prefers to do creative activities such as art, drama, crafts, dance, music, or creative writing • is not good at and prefers to avoid highly ordered or repetitive, routine-type activities such as clerical work • is attracted to careers such as musician, composer, photographer, dancer, journalist, writer, architect, actor, stage director and interior designer
  • 21. Social (S) characteristics • helpful, cooperative, friendly, idealistic, empathetic, generous, persuasive, responsible and tactful • concern for social problems and good interpersonal skills • good at and prefers to do things to help people such as teaching, providing information and giving first aid • not good at and prefers to avoid using machines and tools to achieve a goal • attracted to careers such as nursing, teaching, speech therapy, occupational therapy, welfare work, religious work, police officer, personnel manager and specialist areas of psychology that involve counselling
  • 22. Enterprising (E) characteristics • tends to be domineering, argumentative, energetic, self- confident, sociable, pleasure-seeking, energetic, exhibitionistic and optimistic • good at and prefers to lead and persuade people, and to sell ideas and things • not good at and prefers to avoid activities that require complicated scientific and systematic thinking • attracted to careers such as management, lawyer, salesperson, politician, travel agent, town planner, television production, financial planner and sports promoter
  • 23. Conforming (C) characteristics • conforming, conscientious, inflexible, obedient, persistent, practical, calm and self controlled • good at and prefers to work with numbers, written records, or business machines in a set, planned and orderly way • not good at and prefers to avoid ambiguous, unstructured activities that do not have clear directions • attracted to careers such as accountant, book keeper, postal officer, bank teller, administrative officer, payroll clerk, building inspector, secretary, radio despatcher, switch board operator, checkout operator and website editor
  • 24. Traits Theory Traits Theory Based on the three following assumptions and traits are like lazy,Aggressive,Ambitious and etc. 1.Traits are common to individual but vary in absolute amounts. 2.Traits are relatively stable. 3.Ones traits can deduced by measuring his behaviour. The Main two Part of this theory is 1.Allport- It is nothing but common traits and their measurements .Here six dimensions of Allport. 1. Religious. 2. Social 3. Economic 4. Political 5. Aesthetic 6. Theoretical
  • 25. 2.Castell- It is Surface traits and source Traits 1. Foolish 2. Affections 3. Sociable 4. Honest 5. Dishonest
  • 26. Shaping of Personality Neo- Freudian's Theory  Infancy(Birth-1 Yr)- Trust &Affection and Gratification  Early Childhood(1-3)-Autonomy & Child is still depend on Parents.  Play Age(4-5)-Testing, Imagination etc.  School Age(6-11)-Task,Tools,Duty  Puberty(12-20)-Ego Identification  Young Adulthood(20-24)-Intimacy of a person  Middle Adulthood(25-65)-Pride, Pleasure  Late Adulthood(old)-Wisdom
  • 27. Shaping of Personality Freud’s Stages of Personality Development  The Oral Stage-(0-1)-When you are a child and eating,drinking and biting stage.  Anal Stage-(1-3 Yrs)-Taking Orders,Listining to father and mother.  Phallic Stage (3-4 Yrs)-Psychological development.  Latency (4-6 Yrs)-Curocity for the Outside World  Genital(Adultood)-Belief,Satisfactions etc.