Motivation theories

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Motivation and OB

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  • Social Need-After achieve the Security needs
  • Motivation theories

    1. 1. Motivation means a willing to expand the energy to achieve a goal or reward. In other sense Motivation is a desire stimuli inside the person to accomplish the desire goals.
    2. 2. Types of Motivation 1.Posative Motivation 2.Negative Motivation 1.Posative Motivation- Positive Motivation willing the employees to do their desire works and the best way they will improve their performance. 2.Negative Motivation- It is Punishment, Demotions, Fear of loss the job and Minimize the production due to fear
    3. 3. Objective Of Motivation- To Build a fire inside the employees. To satisfy the economical, Social and psychological needs. To develop and harmonize human relation in enterprise. To increase efficiency and team effectiveness. To enhance Moral and Job satisfaction. To maintain Healthy relationship with Management and Labour To maintain Less Labour Turn over To achieve Operational excellences
    4. 4. Features of Motivation 1.Motivation is Psychological concept-That means There is no outside force to motivate him .He is motivated to satisfy the needs of himself . 2.Motivation is a force of organization and environment-Individual goal, needs and desire, Nature of Jobs ,facilities ,Organization culture, Norms. 3.Motivation can be Positive or Negative-Like Rewards, Timely Salary, Exact Payment, Less reduction creates a positive motivation and the inverse creates a negative motivation. 4.Motivation is a unending Process-That means Motivation is always cyclical order ,the needs and wants of human never ends. 5.Motivation Leads to satisfaction-Motivation always relates to satisfaction and minimize the frustrations. 6.Motivation is a degree of readiness-That means he is prepare and willing to innovate and give his 100% for productivity and his reward.
    5. 5. If the Motivation system is effective then ???? 1.Productivity increases-That means the sound motivation system is provides best productivity. 2.Competitive-The Best Motivation system is cost effective and cost saving . 3.Comphrensive-A sound Motivation system is compressive in nature means meet the exact needs of the employees of all level. 4.Flexible- A sound Motivational system is flexible and adjust the employee with different situation
    6. 6. The Best Commands to motivate the employees 1.Recognize the individual of individuals- Means Two persons are alike so feel the psychological needs and then motivate them accordingly. 2.Make you subordinate to feel their importance-Give them exact needs and credits 3.Guide rather than order-Facilitate them than give them teaching. 4.Show Confidence in your sub ordinates-Show them that you are the strength to achieve your and organizational goals. 5.Listen Listen and Listen Until you do not understand them-Listen them and take decision . 6.Encourage participation –Encourage them to participate with top management to take decision . 7.Do not make any secrets-Open mind and no secrets
    7. 7. Identify the needs And feel tension Identify the needs And feel tension Satisfaction Or Deficiencies Satisfaction Or Deficiencies Receive the reward or may be Punishment Receive the reward or may be Punishment PerformPerform Engage in Goal Direct Behaviour Engage in Goal Direct Behaviour Search the way to satisfy the needs Search the way to satisfy the needs EmployeeEmployee
    8. 8. Types Of Motivation Need is not satisfied Searching Information Motivation Comes Frustration Depres sion Motivation Comes Redesigning Or Lowering The Needs Need Tension Need Satisfied Tensio n Releas ed Tensio n Releas ed +ve -Ve
    9. 9. 1.+ve Motivation-This Motivation based on rewards, It is based on pull mechanism, Feeling happy, Cooperation to achieve the Organization Goal 1.Workers Participation in Management 2.Fringe Benefits. 3.Handsome Salary 4.Timely Wages and healthy Condition 5.Job Security 2.-Ve Motivation-It is nothing but the force of fear it is pushed Strategy or by force 1.Demotion 2.Loosing of job 3.Layoff 4.Autocratic Behavior
    10. 10. 3.Extrinsic Motivation-It means the motivation the external motivation 1.Smart Salary. 2.Promotions. 3.Attractive Status. 4.Liberal Retirement. 4.Intrinsic Motivation-It means the inside motivation like 1.Ethical Behaviour. 2.Good corporate Governance 3.No Barbarianism 4.Feeling and satisfactory
    11. 11. 1.Scientific Management theory- It is developed by F.W.Taylor he derives that Goal can achieved by 1.Planning Task 2.Standardization 4.Time Motion Analysis 5.Mental Revolution 6.Scientific Methods
    12. 12. 2.Content Theories 1.Maslows Needs Theory 2.Herzberg Two factor Theory. 3.Aldefers ERG Model. 4.Achievemt Motivation Theory. 3.Process theory 1.Vrooms Expectancy Theory. 2.Adms Equity Theory. 3.Porters Performance model.
    13. 13. Physiological needs-It is the human general living needs like oxygen,Food,Shelter,Clothes.For which he is working. This is the basic need of each and every living human being. Then he try for next level of motivation.
    14. 14. Safety and Security Need-When Physical Needs being fulfilled the next level is security need means Security of job, Security of Finance,Physcal security and Family Security etc
    15. 15. Social Need-This is Mutual respect in society ,Admiration, Like work group, Peer Group, Friendly Behaviour of manager and Subordinates.
    16. 16. Self Esteem –Means it is earned by himself like Feelings,capabilities,Strength,SelfCofidance,Prestige,Re putation and Attention Negative esteem Weakness and Loneliness
    17. 17. Self Actualization Need- This means the man who want to be a total kind of person It is never satisfied and stable. It is a desire to be everything. Means motivate the employees for self actualization
    18. 18. Strength of Maslow's Need Model- 1.It is not representing the Changing Motivation level of each employee. 2.It is representing the innovation to help the manager in motivation. 3.It covers the interpersonal and Intrapersonal behaviour. 4.It said that Motivation is a changing force. 5.It is simple to understand. Weakness- 1.It represent the needs in given time. 2.The Various Individuals having different motivation and needs . 3.All the needs can not fulfilled or might be employee satisfied in 3 or 4 level
    19. 19. This in known as two factor theory .Herzberg asked 200 Engineers about their good and Bad times in Organization. They Described that 1.Poor relationship with Boss 2.Unfair Practices. 3.Poor Payment 4.Lack of Industrial Relationship.
    20. 20. Herzberg makes some Policies for the theory 1.Fair Administration. 2.Supervisor who knows the work. 3.Good Working condition. 4.Fair Salary. 5.Good Industrial Relationship 6.Balance between Personal and Office life. 7.Job Security. 8.Status These are not effective motivation Process
    21. 21. A different set of factors Herzberg found for the job satisfaction and motivation 1.Oppurtunity to achieve something significant. 2.Recognition the significant of accomplishment. 3.The Job Itself. 4.Chance for increase responsibility. 5.Chance for advancement. 6.Oppurtunity to grow and develop
    22. 22. 1.Fair Administration. 2.Supervisor who knows the work. 3.Good Working condition. 4.Fair Salary. 5.Good Industrial Relationship 6.Balance between Personal and Office life. 7.Job Security. 8.Status 1.Oppurtunity to achieve something significant. 2.Recognition the significant of accomplishment. 3.The Job Itself. 4.Chance for increase responsibility. 5.Chance for advancement. 6.Oppurtunity to grow and develop Natural State of Motivation High State of Motivation
    23. 23. High State of Motivation Herzberg define that the motivator at self actualization and esteem needs of the level Motivator Hygiened
    24. 24. Merits of Herzberg Theory- 1.He describe the job satisfaction,Job enrichment,Job Enlargement process. 2.The Worker must given a natural unit work. 3.Direct feedback from the workers. 4.Time,Policies of working situations and Increase workers autonomy. Limitations 1.Limited sample he has taken only 200 number of engineers. 2.Methodlogy may be biased by the present condition of job. 3.No accuracy in intrepetion of data. 4.It is not unidirectional in nature because Motivation never go in one direction
    25. 25. Gregor divided the Human beings in to two different parts according to physical structure According to feelings,affections,sympathy and etc. On the basis of nature it is divided in to two parts X and Y and X type people can became Y type and Y type can became X type People.
    26. 26. X theory – In x theory means the workers have no power to suggest anything and only carry the order of supervisor and obey the order. 1.Most people dislike work and want to bunk their jobs and responsibility. 2.Peoples are threaten and fear ,Punishment to rebuked for the organizational goal. 3.They do not work automatically ,They wait for the instructions or order . 4.They work slowly and reduces the speed of the productivity. 5.They simple treated as machine not as employee
    27. 27. Gorger defined the X theory- 1.Workers participation in Management. 2.Organization is for workers and vice versa. 3.They must have the ideal and healthy behaviour from Organization
    28. 28. Y Theory- He Found the y theory that Employees commitment towards the organization goal and self motivation,Descipline,MBO,Job Enlargement. 1.Work is the source of satisfaction 2.Life is a hell without challenge, Workers should committed with the work and exercise self control for organization objective rather than Punished them. 3.Satisfaction to their self actualization and ego which help is organization objective. 4.When employee learn he seeks fro responsibility. 5.Utilised the full optimum of employees according to capability of each employees
    29. 29. 1.Educate and skilled the employees for better organization goal. 2.Self Control and Development 3.Enjoy the facility.
    30. 30. Vroom derived that the motivation come from the belief of reward. As man is a rational human being, he will try to maximize the perceived value of such reward
    31. 31. Equation of Vrooms Model Motivation=Valence*Expectancy *Instrumentality Effort Will My effort Improve my performance Performance Reward Will Performance Lead to reward Will Performance Lead to reward Will Reward Satisfy the Individual Goal Will Reward Satisfy the Individual Goal
    32. 32. Valence-Which means that the strength of an individual to achieve the reward, Means his effort to rewards and Goals Example-When a retired employee willing to work again. Expectancy-To the extent that someone belief that the performance will lead him to the reward. Eg-If the employee understand that after giving his effort the reward is zero he will never try for the Organizational goal. Instrumentality-It is refers to the performance Reward Probability. Means what is he is going to get for the performance. From the above discussion we find out that if the above three are weak then employee is not intrested for goal.
    33. 33. This Theory Provides the data for 1.Individual desires and goals and which influence the organizational goal. 2.This is beyond the theory of Maslow and Herzberg theory.
    34. 34. Likert suggest that employer should take care about the employee and employee must take care about the Organization. This theory of motivation is based on Proper Management. Participative- Authoritative Consultative- Authoritative Benevolent- Authoritative Benevolent- Authoritative Exploitative- Authoritative Exploitative- Authoritative
    35. 35. Exploitative-Authoritative –In this this Stage the manager has no confidence in his subordinates, and the decision made by top management. The Goal Achieved by Punishment. Benevolent-Authoritative-In this Stage the Manager has enough confidence and trust on subordinates but the maximum decision taken by Top management. Some reward and some time punishment is used for motivation. Consultative-Authoritative-Some decision has been taken by the subordinates and Management has less belief on the employees. Rewards and little Punishment has given for motivation. Participative-Authoritative-Highly decentralized decision making with great deals of rewards to motivate the employees
    36. 36. Existence Growth Relatedness
    37. 37. The ERG Model developed by the alder in 1972 which derives that E-Existence-The Alder defines that some needs are related to existence need of the human being Physiological and some safety needs also related to that need. R-Relatedness-The related means interpersonal in workplace and other places. G-Growth Need-Feeling the potential and Ego and personal growth
    38. 38. E R G Satisfaction Satisfaction Satisfaction Frustration Frustration Frustration
    39. 39. Advantages of ERG Model- 1.It Provides the data related to personal income, Satisfactions and Education 2.It is exactly defined the needs better than Maslow Disadvantages- 1.Less Accuracy because of bias 2.Assumption might be wrong on motivation

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