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Leadership its Style and Theories of Leadership

Leadership its Style and Theories of Leadership

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  • 1. Conceptual Frame work for Leadership Leader Characteristics •Need of Power •Ethics •Self-Confidence •Ability Result Profitability •Goal Achievements •Job Satisfaction •Learning Organization Managerial Role •Interpersonal Role •Informational Role •Decision Role Variables •Follower Ability •Followers Role •Followers Motivation •Technology •Environments
  • 2. Style of Leadership The style of leadership is divided in to types •Style based on Authority •Task & People •Style Based on Assumption on People •Entrepreneurship Leadership
  • 3. Style based on Authority 1.AUTHORITERIAN STYLE- •In this Style the leader has the power and the authority •Leader take the decision and passed it to the followers •Less time for communication two way style •As leader is a competent leader. •Some time followers feel secure under this leader. •But it has certain Negative aspects like-Low Morale and lack of innovation with error. 2.PARTICIPATIVE STYLE- This leader has three types of characteristics •Consultative leaders-They take the opinion for problem solving and decision making but he only take the final decision •Consensual Leader-He makes a Group discussion on the issue and then take the final decision and give more authority to group than the consultative leader. •Democratic leader-Take the voting's and opinions from members and 100% decision on members
  • 4. 3.Free Rein Style- •It has only name of the leader •The power deals with whole the members •But it has some problem because it need highly committed member and fear to failure
  • 5. Based on task & People Task Oriented- •Organized and defined the role to group members. •Explain what activity must be done by whom and when •In which effective way the task will be achieved But People oriented Leader •Psychological support •Effective communication •Mutual Trust •Empathy on them
  • 6. P E O P L E T A S K
  • 7. Style Based on Assumption of peoples 1.Mc-Gergor X and Y theory X Leader- •Tight Control •Using Fear to control •Close supervision Leaders •No Challenging & Innovative decision Y-Leaders- •Challenging decision making by members. •Participative •Less supervision. Trust worth relationship among leaders and followers
  • 8. 2.Likerts Four style leadership- Exploitative Authoritative –The Communication for decision making made at top management and make distance with the Low-Management. Benevolent –Authoritarian-The Leader gives reward to make effective performance & Communication is spread through the members but limited based on the leaders power. Consultative-Communication is two way but the some extra involvement in decision making. Participative- Rewards, Two way communication, Psychologically closed & Group decision making process.
  • 9. Entrepreneurship Leadership This is simply a busy style of leadership •It’s a Inpatient leadership and focus leadership •Heavy work oriented & instruction given to achieve the target More dealing with customers than employee •No Bureaucratic Rules
  • 10. Traits Theory of Leadership- It is focus on the individual Characteristics of Individual leaders. Mr.Ralph described that leaders poses some extra characters and Traits which differentiate the leader from the followers •A strong desire to accomplishment •Visionate about the organization •Creative and intellectual •Self-assumed personality •Accept the behavioral consequences •High Tolerance and Ambiguity •Ability for better social Interaction •Low Susceptibility for interpersonal stress. •Traits Theory related that leaders are born •Passionate leadership theory.
  • 11. Limitations- No Finality & Traits of successful leaders is too long The Success of leadership is not countable and measured Leaders are Born is not acceptable always It is not cover the Task,Situational factor in this theory. Its has a wrong perception that leader once fail will come up with success.
  • 12. Transactional leaders Transitional use an exchange model, with rewards being given for good work or positive outcomes. Conversely, people with this leadership style also can punish poor work or negative outcomes.
  • 13. Quality of a Transactional Leader •Transactional leaders use reward and punishments to gain compliance from their followers. They are extrinsic motivators that bring minimal compliance from followers. They accept goals, structure, and the culture of the existing organization. Transactional leaders tend to be directive and action-oriented. •Transactional leaders are willing to work within existing systems and negotiate to attain goals of the organization. They tend to think inside the box when solving problems •Transactional leadership is primarily passive. • The behaviors most associated with this type of leadership are establishing the criteria for rewarding followers and maintaining the status quo. •Within transactional leadership, there are two factors, contingent reward and management-by-exception. Contingent reward provides rewards for effort and recognizes good performance.
  • 14. Transformational leadership According to Burns •The transforming approach creates significant change in the life of people and organizations. It redesigns perceptions and values, and changes expectations and aspirations of employees. •Enhances the motivation, morale, and performance of followers through a variety of mechanisms. • These include connecting the follower's sense of identity and self to the project and the collective identity of the organization; being a role model for followers that inspires them and makes them interested. •Challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers. • So the leader can align followers with tasks that enhance their performance.
  • 15. Individualized Consideration – •The degree to which the leader attends to each follower's needs, acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs. •The leader gives empathy and support, keeps communication open and places challenges before the followers. •This also encompasses the need for respect and celebrates the individual contribution that each follower can make to the team. •The followers have a will and aspirations for self development and have intrinsic motivation for their tasks. Intellectual Stimulation – •The degree to which the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks and solicits followers' ideas. Leaders with this style stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. •They nurture and develop people who think independently. For such a leader, learning is a value and unexpected situations are seen as opportunities to learn. •The followers ask questions, think deeply about things and figure out better ways to execute their tasks.
  • 16. Inspirational Motivation – •The degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers. Leaders with inspirational motivation challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimism about future goals, and provide meaning for the task at hand. •Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose if they are to be motivated to act. Purpose and meaning provide the energy that drives a group forward. •The visionary aspects of leadership are supported by communication skills that make the vision understandable, precise, powerful and engaging. •The followers are willing to invest more effort in their tasks, they are encouraged and optimistic about the future and believe in their abilities. Idealized Influence – •Provides a role model for high ethical behavior, instills pride, gains respect and trust.
  • 17. Transactional •Leadership is responsive •Works within the organizational culture •objectives through rewards and punishments •Motivates followers by appealing to their own self-interest . •Stress correct actions to improve performance. Transformational • Leadership is proactive •Works to change the organizational culture by implementing new ideas •objectives through higher ideals and moral values. •Intellectual stimulation: Promote creative and innovative ideas to solve problems. •Individualized consideration: Each behavior is directed to each individual to express consideration and support
  • 18. Contingency Theory of Leadership Fielders theory described that the Power of Leader and the Motivational power on situation based 1.Motivation Factors-Least Preferred Co-Workers. 2.It is Based on Situational factors- Like Leader members relationship-When the relation between the leaders and the subordinate is good then they have the power to influence and loyal followers. Poor relation has no control and less committed followers. Task Structure-Well designed task structure has an excellent control on followers and creates a favorable condition & Unstructured task make a unfavorable condition for leader. Position Power-It Means command on the followers and reward for good work and punishment for bad work. Leadership Match-According to this theory the task oriented leaders are better than the relationship oriented leaders.
  • 19. High Control Situation – •Task performance is high in this situation •It Means the Task motivates leaders are relax & considerate towards the sub ordinates. But the relation oriented person solve the problem through the interpersonal skills and no challenges. Moderate Controlling Situation-In this situation they use both interpersonal skill to utilized the control and accomplished the task. Low Controlling Situation-Task is based on the employees wants and the interpersonal relationship.
  • 20. Merits and Demerits of This Model. •Leadership based on particular task and Situational factors. •Providing further research flexibility •Leaders may modify the situation to match their personality •It has lack in structured and unstructured task analysis •Lack on data •LPC Score is criticized •No Technical competences