Conceptual Frame work for Leadership
•Need of Power
Style of Leadership
The style of leadership is divided in to types
•Style based on Authority
•Task & People
•Style Based on Assumption on People
Style based on Authority
•In this Style the leader has the power and the authority
•Leader take the decision and passed it to the followers
•Less time for communication two way style
•As leader is a competent leader.
•Some time followers feel secure under this leader.
•But it has certain Negative aspects like-Low Morale and lack of innovation with error.
This leader has three types of characteristics
•Consultative leaders-They take the opinion for problem solving and decision making but he
only take the final decision
•Consensual Leader-He makes a Group discussion on the issue and then take the final decision
and give more authority to group than the consultative leader.
•Democratic leader-Take the voting's and opinions from members and 100% decision on
3.Free Rein Style-
•It has only name of the leader
•The power deals with whole the members
•But it has some problem because it need highly committed
member and fear to failure
Based on task & People
•Organized and defined the role to group members.
•Explain what activity must be done by whom and when
•In which effective way the task will be achieved
But People oriented Leader
•Empathy on them
Style Based on Assumption of peoples
1.Mc-Gergor X and Y theory
•Using Fear to control
•Close supervision Leaders
•No Challenging & Innovative decision
•Challenging decision making by members.
Trust worth relationship among leaders and followers
2.Likerts Four style leadership-
Exploitative Authoritative –The Communication for decision making made
at top management and make distance with the Low-Management.
Benevolent –Authoritarian-The Leader gives reward to make effective
performance & Communication is spread through the members but limited
based on the leaders power.
Consultative-Communication is two way but the some extra involvement in
Participative- Rewards, Two way communication, Psychologically closed &
Group decision making process.
This is simply a busy style of leadership
•It’s a Inpatient leadership and focus leadership
•Heavy work oriented & instruction given to achieve the target
More dealing with customers than employee
•No Bureaucratic Rules
Traits Theory of Leadership-
It is focus on the individual Characteristics of Individual leaders.
Mr.Ralph described that leaders poses some extra characters and Traits which
differentiate the leader from the followers
•A strong desire to accomplishment
•Visionate about the organization
•Creative and intellectual
•Accept the behavioral consequences
•High Tolerance and Ambiguity
•Ability for better social Interaction
•Low Susceptibility for interpersonal stress.
•Traits Theory related that leaders are born
•Passionate leadership theory.
No Finality & Traits of successful leaders is too long
The Success of leadership is not countable and measured
Leaders are Born is not acceptable always
It is not cover the Task,Situational factor in this theory.
Its has a wrong perception that leader once fail will come up
Transitional use an exchange model, with rewards being given for
good work or positive outcomes. Conversely, people with this leadership
style also can punish poor work or negative outcomes.
Quality of a Transactional Leader
•Transactional leaders use reward and punishments to gain compliance from
their followers. They are extrinsic motivators that bring minimal compliance
from followers. They accept goals, structure, and the culture of the existing
organization. Transactional leaders tend to be directive and action-oriented.
•Transactional leaders are willing to work within existing systems and
negotiate to attain goals of the organization. They tend to think inside the
box when solving problems
•Transactional leadership is primarily passive.
• The behaviors most associated with this type of leadership are establishing
the criteria for rewarding followers and maintaining the status quo.
•Within transactional leadership, there are two factors, contingent reward
and management-by-exception. Contingent reward provides rewards for
effort and recognizes good performance.
According to Burns
•The transforming approach creates significant change in the life of people
and organizations. It redesigns perceptions and values, and changes
expectations and aspirations of employees.
•Enhances the motivation, morale, and performance of followers through a
variety of mechanisms.
• These include connecting the follower's sense of identity and self to the
project and the collective identity of the organization; being a role model for
followers that inspires them and makes them interested.
•Challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work, and
understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers.
• So the leader can align followers with tasks that enhance their performance.
Individualized Consideration –
•The degree to which the leader attends to each follower's needs, acts as a mentor or coach
to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs.
•The leader gives empathy and support, keeps communication open and places challenges
before the followers.
•This also encompasses the need for respect and celebrates the individual contribution that
each follower can make to the team.
•The followers have a will and aspirations for self development and have intrinsic motivation
for their tasks.
Intellectual Stimulation –
•The degree to which the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks and solicits followers'
ideas. Leaders with this style stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers.
•They nurture and develop people who think independently. For such a leader, learning is a
value and unexpected situations are seen as opportunities to learn.
•The followers ask questions, think deeply about things and figure out better ways to execute
Inspirational Motivation –
•The degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and
inspiring to followers. Leaders with inspirational motivation challenge followers
with high standards, communicate optimism about future goals, and provide
meaning for the task at hand.
•Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose if they are to be motivated to
act. Purpose and meaning provide the energy that drives a group forward.
•The visionary aspects of leadership are supported by communication skills that
make the vision understandable, precise, powerful and engaging.
•The followers are willing to invest more effort in their tasks, they are
encouraged and optimistic about the future and believe in their abilities.
Idealized Influence –
•Provides a role model for high ethical behavior, instills pride, gains respect and
•Leadership is responsive
•Works within the organizational culture
•objectives through rewards and punishments
•Motivates followers by appealing to their own self-interest .
•Stress correct actions to improve performance.
• Leadership is proactive
•Works to change the organizational culture by implementing new ideas
•objectives through higher ideals and moral values.
•Intellectual stimulation: Promote creative and innovative ideas to solve problems.
•Individualized consideration: Each behavior is directed to each individual to express
consideration and support
Contingency Theory of Leadership
Fielders theory described that the Power of Leader and the Motivational
power on situation based
1.Motivation Factors-Least Preferred Co-Workers.
2.It is Based on Situational factors-
Like Leader members relationship-When the relation between the leaders and the
subordinate is good then they have the power to influence and loyal followers. Poor
relation has no control and less committed followers.
Task Structure-Well designed task structure has an excellent control on followers and
creates a favorable condition & Unstructured task make a unfavorable condition for
Position Power-It Means command on the followers and reward for good work and
punishment for bad work.
Leadership Match-According to this theory the task oriented leaders are better than
the relationship oriented leaders.
High Control Situation –
•Task performance is high in this situation
•It Means the Task motivates leaders are relax & considerate towards the
sub ordinates. But the relation oriented person solve the problem through
the interpersonal skills and no challenges.
Moderate Controlling Situation-In this situation they use both
interpersonal skill to utilized the control and accomplished the task.
Low Controlling Situation-Task is based on the employees wants and the
Merits and Demerits of This Model.
•Leadership based on particular task and Situational factors.
•Providing further research flexibility
•Leaders may modify the situation to match their personality
•It has lack in structured and unstructured task analysis
•Lack on data
•LPC Score is criticized
•No Technical competences
PEOPLE FOLLOW YOU
BECASUSE THEY HAVE
PEOPLE FOLLOW YOU BECAUSE
THEY LIKE YOU
PEOPLE FOLLOW YOU WHAT
YOU DID FOR
PEOPLE FOLLOW YOU
WHAT YOU DONE FOR
THEY RESPECT YOU
WHO AND WHAT ARE
Maxwell Theory 5P