Group may be defined as a common belief with a
common attitude the number peoples work together
,Integrated with each other and perceived themselves as
• Interaction among members.
• Common interest or goal.
• People see themselves as member.
• Two or more people are needed to form goal.
Types of Group
In or out Group
Formal Group-Formal group is that group which are made to perform specific task
Peoples are selected by the organization itself. A senior authority is handle it with some rules
Types of Formal Group-
• Standing Task Group or Command Group-In this group the task has been achieved by
the administrative principle and command of a supervisor whose command to the
subordinates to achieve the goals of the organization.
• Task Group-
It is temporarily created formal group which task is to solve some problems of the
organization and different department members are together to make this types of
group there is no unique command.
Characteristics of Formal Group-
• Independent task
• Creates new Innovations
• Coordinate interdepartmental efforts.
• Solve Complex Problem Together.
• Implement action plan.
• Self esteem
• Reduces stress and insecurity.
• Solving personal problems.
It is not made by any organization and not normally formed and made for need of social
contacts.The friends and references are the part of the informal groups
Types of Informal Group-
• An Interest Group-An objective which is not a part of the organizational task but interest to
achieve the objective by their interest
Eg-Solving Problem of a Marketing faculty who knows about the finance analysis
• A Friendship Group-A friendship group in an organization who has common political
• A reference Group-The References group are a group of friendship group which can be
formed inside or outside the organization. With same political views, Social Status, Religions
Importance of Informal Group-
• Satisfy the Social needs.
• Satisfy the needs of security and Support.
• Enhance feelings and self esteem.
• Appropriate Behaviour.
• Enhance assess of Information's.
• Provide sense of Identity.
Change Membership Group-
Open and Closed Group-
Open and Closed group different from each other in the following parameters
1.Changing group membership-Open Group can leave and new members are
join but close group is stable and they don not change their membership.
2.Frame of Reference-Open group enhance the group norms by increasing the
membership and add new members to group and closed group do not like these things.
3.Time Presepctive- Open group has less long planning due to unstable in nature
but closed group has a vision and planning a long term for the group .
4.Equlibrium-New Members are very imbalance in nature due to the norms and
policies of group but the close groups are stable and in equilibrium
In and Out Group-
The relation between opposing principles, forces or factors
Why People Join the Groups
• Proximity-The Behaviour and Comfort to make a group and work near to each
other with good interactions.
• Security-The Group provides a psychological strength inside the mind of the
members to reduces the stress from the mind and group support the member
against any unethical determinants against the employee by the organization.
• Esteem-It Increase the esteem inside the person some posative energy inside
the person .
• Affiliation-Some are join the group for the entretenment and frienship purpose.
• Power-The Power of unity and enjoy the group power by the part of that
• Identity-The group provides an identity to the individuals like who am I?
• Huddling-Some Information are together which are very useful to join those
From the Organization Point of View
• Working on a complex task & independently which is so hard
• New Ideas required to solve some problems.
• Facilitating the implementation of complex decision
• Serving and facilitating and developing the new employees
and group norms
STRATEGY OF THE
WHO IS THE AUTHRORITY
AND WHO TAKE THE
DECISION FOR THE
APPRAISAL & HRP
FACILITATE THE GROUP
Group Development Process By W.Cook
• This the Stage of Awareness about the group ,what is the exact purpose of the
group what are the tasks of the group.
• The Commitment about the groups
• Acceptance of the group norms and culture
• In this Stage of Development the conflict arises.
• They want to play different roles and different task
• Related to Power allocations.
Here the Single leader form and they want to develop the group process in stead
of conflict with each others by Cooperation, Support and Development
The Task achievement, Maximize the productivity, feeling proud for what they
Adjourning-The Last Stage of Group Development in this stage the leader close to
the group members and said about the emotional things give them rewards
Alternative Theory of Group Development
• Mutual Acceptance-
Know each other and Sharing information's about
themsleves.Shring Knowledge about the politics,Sports,Events
• Communication and Decision Making-
Decision are made by discussion, Opinions and Ideas from
different point of Views.
• Motivation and Productivity Stage-
Co-Operate to achieve the goal of the Organization
• Control and Organization-
Correct track and well leadership to utilize the group meaning
to accomplish the goals.
Some Limitations of the Groups
1.Status Difference-It is all about respect the high status employees
wants a respect and their views are accepted .
2.Group Norms-Some economical norms, Supportive norms which
are the limitation of the groups.
3.Risky-The Mission which made by the group might be risky because
the whole decision made .
4.Polarisations-They Support another person and cause a inefficiency
Norms are likely to be strongly to enforce the group success and
The Norms reflect the group is a strong group.
To Avoid conflict and bad situation norms must be important.
Avoid embarrassing the Inter personal problems
Group Norms Control the group
Group Norms make a strong relation among members.
CARRY OVER THE
OF LEADERTHE 1ST EXPERIENCE
How to develop the norms of a group
1.Peoples brings their past experiences from others group.
2.The 1st experiences is most important (in which way the group
3.Critical incidents in an organization developed the group norms.
4.Exiplict communication and decision develop the norms
• Production Task-All individual must gives their
input and efficiency to maximize the
• Discussion task-Summaries the resolve the
issue & presentation to the group authority
• Problem solving-Together solve the problem
find the error and send solution and
implemented the solution
COHENSIVENESS OF GROUP
Cohesiveness means the extent to which the members like to each
Action of Increase the Cohesiveness
• Decrease group size
• Maximize the interaction
• Introduce the Competition with other groups
• Allocate the reward for total group instead of the individual.
To Decrease cohesiveness
• Maximize the group size
• No Interaction
• Involve Dominating members.
• Competition inside the group itself
• Increase moral
• Performance is
• Member left the