Organization change means it is process by which organizations
move from present state to some desired future state to increase
Nature of Organization Change
It is vital when company want to avoid immobility.
It is a process not an event.
Normal and constant.
Fast and increase competitiveness of present state.
It is Natural and reaction due to external sources and Pressure.
It a shift from current to future steps and a new process.
It is depend on the organizational culture
Historical and Political
Historical and Politics-
•Where do the origins of the company lie and what are the associated values
•What are the perception of the customers hold about the company.
•What are the proposal by the individuals and what are their experiences they have
in the previous change.
•What are the condition and norms are they protect the rights or threatened
•What is the relation of power within the Organization and will that change.
•What will be the change in balance power and who will be the winner and loser.
Management and Organization-
•Senior Management more strategic stance and progress through encouragement
•The role of line Manager change from autocrat to Facilitator.
•Boundaries between jobs, Division and departments become blurred
•Project and group work both increases
•Multi Skill HR demand increases.
•Employees are required to be customer facing
•The Reaction of peoples in a small change.
•Terms,Pay,promotions,Salary and Wages and Conditions
•Carefully think about the every job changes.
Level of Changes and its Importance
Individual Level Change-
•Change in job profile.
•Change in assignment
•Physical move to other location.
•Transfer and job Enlargement
Group Level Change-
•The change in Work flow.
•The Change in Job Design.
Organizational level Change•It is both individual and group level change
•Decision made by the top Management
•They occur a long period of time planning and implement.
•Changing organizational objectives
Types of change
1. Evolutionary Change(TQM)
• This is not a drastic and sudden change
• It is the constant approach and incremental change.
• Adopt and adjust strategy not better to change the
• TQM is one the strategy which is used in Evolutionary
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Total Quality Management is a people focused Management
use to continuously customer satisfaction at continually lower
TQ-Total Quality is a systematic and Continuous approach
which analyze all the employee by function from top to
bottom of all the departments and develop whole employee
and Organization in an integration Manner
Measurements in TQM
•Breach of promise
•Performance to standard
•Process in control
•Availability of Raw Materials
•Cost of Quality
Principle of TQM
Delight the customer1.Customer means employees satisfaction
2.Internal customers are real
Management By fact1.All Work in Process
People Based Management
2.People Make Quality
1.Continuous improvement cycle
Change by TQM
SystemSystem Means the Quality control by statically measurement which provides the
accurate data about operation ,Failure, Loss and Others .
And By Bench Marketing putting other organization in process which are
successfully delivering the quality.
ProcessTQM is a continuous and review Process through project improvement, waste
elimination, and Process chain re-engineering.
The defective Products and customer complaints, Role of Individual and group and
monitor the total process chain.
PeopleWhat is the individual value ,growth and contribution of the people for the
organizational growth and hiring process, employees turnover,estblishing quality
ManagementThe Top Management Vission,Mission for the organization, their commitment for
quality, employees and appreciation of decision of employees has to be monitored
Role of TQM in OD
•Job Redesigning and Job Creation.
•Expand Training and development
•Redirection to team
•Lay off and termination where required
•Renegotiation on Labor Agreements
Revolutionary Change (Re Engineering)
By In 1990, Michael Hammer
The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of core
business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical
performance measures such as quality, cost, and cycle time.
Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign
of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical
contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality,
service and speed.
Process is a structured, measured set of activities designed to
produce a specified output for a particular customer or market. It
implies a strategy
OBJECTIVE OF RE-ENGINEERING
Customer focus. Customer service oriented processes aiming to eliminate
Speed. Dramatic compression of the time it takes to complete a task for key
Compression. Cutting major tasks of cost and capital, throughout the value
chain. Organizing the processes a company develops transparency
throughout the operational level reducing cost.
Flexibility. Adaptive processes and structures to changing conditions and
competition. Being closer to the customer the company can develop the
awareness mechanisms to rapidly spot the weak points and adapt to new
requirements of the market.
Quality. Obsession with the superior service and value to the customers.
Innovation. Leadership through imaginative change providing to
Business Process Reengineering Life Cycle
Define corporate visions
and business goals
processes to be
Analyze and measure
an existing process
Identify enabling IT &
Evaluate and select
a process redesign
improvement of the
The Envision stage: the company reviews the existing strategy and business
processes and based on that review business processes for improvement are
targeted and IT opportunities are identified.
The Initiation stage: project teams are assigned, performance goals , project
planning and employee notification are set.
The Diagnosis stage: documentation of processes and sub-processes takes
place in terms of process attributes (activities, resources, communication,
roles, IT and costs.
The Redesign stage: new process design is developed by devising process
design alternatives and through brainstorming and creativity techniques.
The Reconstruction stage: management technique changes occur to ensure
smooth migration to the new process responsibilities and human resource
The Evaluation stage: the new process is monitored to determine if goals are
met and examine total quality programs.
Process Innovation vs
Long-term, more subtle
From few to everybody
A few champions
Low initially, high to sustain
High initially, less later
Small-scale improvements in Outrageous
many places with cumulative
Scope and focus
Attention to tasks, steps,
and processes across the
Select but broad
Degree of change
Incremental and continual
Order of magnitude and
Senior management Important up front
Role of information
Lewins Force theory of changeBy Force change the organization
Force field theory provides ideas that how force for and against change the
balance of the organization
Unfreezing State-Encouraging individual and try to discard the old behaviour and
recognize people to change is needed and unfreeze them by taking some reward
from the people.
This first stage is about preparing ourselves, or others, before the change (and
ideally creating a situation in which we want the change). The more we feel that
change is necessary, the more urgent it is, the more motivated we are to make the
MovingDevelop a new behaviour ,Attitude inside the person and develop
technology and keep moving.
Support is really important here and can be in the form of training,
and expecting mistakes as part of the process. Using role models and
allowing people to develop their own solutions also help to make the
changes. It's also really useful to keep communicating a clear picture of the
desired change and the benefits to people so they don't lose sight of where
Re-Freezing-Now new attitude and Perception are established now inside
the person now tries to make it permanent
THE EIGHT STEPS KOTTER TALKS ABOUT ARE
THE EIGHT STEPS KOTTER TALKS ABOUT ARE
DETERMINE THE URGENCY OF CHANGE
FORM A STRONG NUCLEUS, LEADING CHANGE
CREATE A NEW VISION
NOTIFY ALL NEW VISION
EMPOWER OTHERS TO ACT ON THE VISION
CREATE A SHORT-TERM WINS
MAINTAIN STATE OF EMERGENCY
ANCHORING CHANGES IN CORPORATE CULTURE
Help others to find that change is necessary and it is important to act
Make sure that change is led by a powerful group - one who possesses
leadership skills, credibility, communication skills, leadership, analytical skills and a
sense of necessity.
Develop vision and strategy change. Explain how the future will differ from
the past and how it can transform the future into reality.
Communicate to be understood and to gain confidence. Make sure that a
large number of people understand and accept the vision and strategy. It is important
"walk the talk". What you do is far more important - and believable - than what you
say. Demonstrate the kind of behavior manyyou wantas possible, so that those
Empowered others to act. Remove as that barriers from others
who wish can turn vision into reality.
Create short-term targets - not just one long - term goal. You want each smaller
target to be achievable, with little room for failure.
Do not stop. After early successes, increase the pace, faster and stronger
Create a new crop. Valued new types of behavior and make sure you are
successful, to become powerful enough to replace the old traditions.
Forces changing Organization
•Globalization-The entrance of the organization to the global market and change
needed to increase the performance.
•Workforce diversity-New Market then it should be new strategy new dimension
and new innovations.
•Technology change-Centralization and decentralization and decision making.
•Government Politics-The Government Politics are changing the organization
•Competition-To Manage the completion the organization change.
•Managing Ethical Behaviour-Product Safety, Employees Health,Smoking,Acid
Rain,Pollution,Wastages which also changes the organization
Internal Forces•Change in Work Climate-Layoff, Iron Handshake and Bound to
retire cause a change in organization
•Different expectation of employees- The Old and Young
Employees have different expectation on Salary, Motivation and
•Crises- Strike, Lockouts and Economical failure cause a internal
force to change the Management.
Obstacles in Change Process
•Fear to loss
Sub-Unit Level Changes
•Power and Conflict
• Organization Structure-Organizational structure is a obstacle in change
Management because it has different structured in different style.
• Organization Culture-Change Management Has another obstacle that is
• Organization strategy-The Objective has to be changed in change
management which is a obstacle and complexity in change Management.
• Group Norms-The Group Norms And the Believe creates obstacle in Change
• Group Think-The Group thin also creates an obstacle in change Management
• Group Cohesiveness-Group Attachment creates a very very big impact in
• Fear to loss-The fear of loss job and other things can not change ones
• Selective Perception-Lack of perception of employee on change
• Habit-Bad and Good Habit- which creates an effect on Change Management
• Logical Reason-Some Logic of individual can not match the change
Aware for the Pressure for the change
Recognize the Need for Change
Diagnose the Problem
Planning the Change
Implementing The Change
Following the Change
Process of Organizational Change
• Become Aware about the change –What are the Pressure from external technoloy,Social
Trends or Inside Organizational Conflict have the pressure to change the Organization.
Recognize the Need for the change- Is the change is going to match the exact need or not.
• Diagnose the Problem- The Top Management Take Questionaires,Survey,Information and
Data Collection from departments ,Individual and others in Organization because the
organization is going to redesign.
• Planning the Change-Planning Change by TQM or Re Engineering through Top Down
approach and Bottom up Approach.
• Implement the Changing-Implement the evolutionary or Revolutionary Change Process
• Manage the Change and Follow up the ChangeI. Communicating everyday.
II. Involve in Participation.
III. Maximize the Cooperation.
IV. Explicit and Implicit Coercion
DefinitionLearning is the defined the permanent change in human behaviour occurs
from a regular Practices.
Features of Learning-
1.Learning must change the behaviour
2.It is nothing but the positive healthy Practices to changing the behaviour
3.Change through learning is positive and permanent in nature.
4.Some Good or Bad Experiences you learn from the learning.
Need of Learning
1.It is develop new skill and develop the behaviour of Individual
2.It is Modify the attitude and Perception of individual
3.Develop the new Motivational skill in ones life.
4.Provide to take better direction
5.Morale and Clarity and Confidence Building
• Stimuli-The Employee Must clearly
Communicate about the Benefits of the
• Response-The Learner is represent
himself in which manner.
• Motivation-Make them interest and
attitude for learning.
• Reward-Finally After learning individual
get the exact benefit
Process Of Learning
Quality of Learning
Degree of Motivation
Mind set and Attitude