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Semantic
    Complex Event Processing
    „The Future of Dynamic IT“

    Paul Vincent
    Adrian Paschke
    Harold Boley...
Agenda


     Complex Event Processing – What is it?

     Semantic Complex Event Processing (SCEP) –
      Why is seman...
Complex Events – What are they?

     Complex Events are aggregates, derivations, etc. of Simple Events


           Simp...
Complex Event Processing – What is it?

     CEP is about complex event detection and reaction to complex events
       –...
CEP Functions




5                   Source: Event Processing Technical Society Reference Architecture Working Group
Some CEP Scenarios …
                               Real Time               BAM, Agile ITSM
                              ...
The Many Roots of Event Processing

                                 Agents
                                           Dis...
Semantic CEP: The Combination


    Semantic CEP (or SCEP) combines approaches of


     (Complex) Event Processing: even...
Semantic CEP: The Benefits

     Event data becomes meaningful information / declarative knowledge
      while conforming...
Ontologies used for SCEP

      Top-Level Ontologies required for SCEP
       (core selection)
       – Spatial
       – ...
Examples of Ontologies which include Events

      CIDOC CRM: museums and libraries
      ABC Ontology: digital librarie...
Modular Ontology Model for SCEP

                                                            Top Level Ontologies
        ...
Example:
       Situation Top-Level Ontology Model

                Situation                   use the other          Sit...
Summary of Ontology Benefits for SCEP



     Ontologies can be applied to CEP application
      domains as in any other ...
Rule-based Complex Event Processing

      CEP complex event detection can use reaction rules
       – e.g. event-conditi...
Production Rules and CEP

      Production Rules react to fact changes (facts = data)

      However, PR systems typical...
Event Condition Action Rules and CEP

      ECA Rule
             “on Event if Condition do Action”
       – Explicit eve...
Research Standards Area: Reaction RuleML

      RuleML = family of rule languages in homogeneous interchange format
     ...
General Syntax for Reaction Rules

     <Rule style="active|messaging|reasoning" eval="strong|weak|defeasible|fuzzy">

   ...
Reaction RuleML – Example Rule Types

      Production Rule:     <Rule style="active">
                                  ...
Reaction RuleML Features

      Action Algebra:
        Succession (Ordered Sequence), Choice (Non-Deterministic Selectio...
Underlying Semantics: Interval-based Event Calculus


     – Events initiate and terminate Situations (Fluents) which hold...
CEP Use Cases

      Current CEP technologies and applications mostly concentrate on
       performance (vs knowledge, se...
Live CEP Use Cases that Involve Semantics (1)


     Logistics
     • Optimization of shipping movements in transit
      ...
Live CEP Use Cases that Involve Semantics (2)


     Energy
     • Predictive energy usage / energy event processing
     ...
Live CEP Use Cases that Involve Semantics (3)


     Government
     • Track and Analyze „patterns‟ that were otherwise
  ...
CEP and SCEP as a Software Market




28
SCEP Implementation via Heterogeneous Integration


                                                           RMS
       ...
SCEP Research: Event-Driven Business Process Management
     (edBPM) BPMN -> Orchestrated BPEL + Choreography Rule Workflo...
Summary for Semantic Complex Event Processing


      Event processing engines understand what is happening
       in ter...
Thank you …




32
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Semantic Complex Event Processing at Sem Tech 2010

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Semantic Complex Event Processing - The Future of Dynamic IT

Presentation by Paul Vincent, Adrian Paschke, Harold Boley

at the RuleML Semantic Rules Track of the Semantic Technologies Conference 2010 (SemTech 2010), San Francisco, CA, USA

http://semtech2010.semanticuniverse.com/rules

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Transcript of "Semantic Complex Event Processing at Sem Tech 2010"

  1. 1. Semantic Complex Event Processing „The Future of Dynamic IT“ Paul Vincent Adrian Paschke Harold Boley 1
  2. 2. Agenda  Complex Event Processing – What is it?  Semantic Complex Event Processing (SCEP) – Why is semantics important in event processing?  SCEP + Ontologies  SCEP + (Reaction) Rules – Example: Reaction RuleML  Use Cases for Semantics in CEP Systems  Summary 2
  3. 3. Complex Events – What are they?  Complex Events are aggregates, derivations, etc. of Simple Events Simple Events Event Simple Events Complex Events Simple Events Patterns Simple Events  Complex Event Processing (CEP) will enable, e.g. – Detection of state changes based on observations – Prediction of future states based on past behaviors 3
  4. 4. Complex Event Processing – What is it?  CEP is about complex event detection and reaction to complex events – Efficient (near real-time) processing of large numbers of events – Detection, prediction and exploitation of relevant complex events – Situation awareness, track & trace, sense & respond new auto pay logout deposit account login Continuous Event Queries withdrawal new auto pay transfer INSERT INTO OrdersMatch_s book logout account login SELECT B.ID, S.ID, B.Price deposit Complex Events enquiry Event Cloud FROM BuyOrders_s B, Trades_s T, SellOrders_s S, MATCHING [30 SECONDS: B, !T, S] (unordered events) enquiry ON B.Price = S.Price = T.Price; account balance request incident new auto pay enquiry account login deposit withdrawal new auto pay Patterns, Rules transfer account login logout enquiry deposit activity history B Event Streams A C (ordered events) 4
  5. 5. CEP Functions 5 Source: Event Processing Technical Society Reference Architecture Working Group
  6. 6. Some CEP Scenarios … Real Time BAM, Agile ITSM Enterprise and BPM Reactions to threats Monitor and detect and opportunities IT service, SLA, and according to business behavior events in exceptions from business observed events transactions Semantic Systems Enterprise Decision Valuable Management Information at the Right Time Detect Real-time Decision Decide Guidance and Expert to the Right Respond Recipient Decision Support Dynamic Real Time Decision Information Management Dissemination 6
  7. 7. The Many Roots of Event Processing Agents Distributed Event-based Active Databases Computing Event-driven CEP Rules Event-based Workflows / Business Processes Discrete event simulation Detect Messaging / High performance Decide Middleware databases Respond 7
  8. 8. Semantic CEP: The Combination Semantic CEP (or SCEP) combines approaches of  (Complex) Event Processing: events, complex events, patterns, … +  Semantic technologies: ontologies, definitions + behavior rules 8
  9. 9. Semantic CEP: The Benefits  Event data becomes meaningful information / declarative knowledge while conforming to an underlying formal semantics – e.g., automated mediation between different heterogeneous domains and abstraction levels  Better understanding of situations (states) by machines (agents) – e.g., a process is executing when it has been started and not ended  Better understanding of the relationships between events e.g., temporal, spatial, causal, .., relations between events, states, activities, processes – e.g., a service is unavailable when the service response time is longer than X seconds and the service is not in maintenance state  Declarative processing of events and reaction to situations – Semantically grounded event-driven rules (= reaction rules) 9
  10. 10. Ontologies used for SCEP  Top-Level Ontologies required for SCEP (core selection) – Spatial – Temporal – Event – Situation – Process (can be further specialized by domain ontologies such as OWL-S, WSMO, PSL) – Actor/Agent (can be further specialized, by special ontologies such as FIPA, ACL, ...) – Action: (can be used in e.g. RIF, RuleML, …)  Domain Ontologies for application verticals (samples domains of CEP applications) – Healthcare - e.g., Hospital Activity Monitoring – Finance - e.g., Fraud Detection – Logistics and Cargo – Supply Chain Management – Insurance – Mortgage 10
  11. 11. Examples of Ontologies which include Events  CIDOC CRM: museums and libraries  ABC Ontology: digital libraries  Event Ontology: digital music  DOLCE+DnS Ultralite: event aspects in social reality  Event-Model-F: event-based systems  VUevent Model: An extension of DOLCE and other event conceptualizations  IPTC. EventML: structured event information  GEM: geospatial events  Event MultiMedia: multimedia  LODE: events as Linked Data  CultureSampo: Publication System of Cultural Heritage  OpenCyC Ontology: human consensus reality, upper ontology with lots of terms and assertions  Super BPEL: ontology for the business process execution language  Semantic Sensor Net Ontology: ontology for sensor networks 11
  12. 12. Modular Ontology Model for SCEP Top Level Ontologies General concepts such as space, time, event and their properties and relations Event Situation Process Temporal Spatio Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology specializing the specialize the concepts concepts introduced in the top- introduced in the Domain Task level ontology for top-level ontology generic tasks or activities for a specific Ontologies Ontologies domain Specific user/application Application e.g. ontologies describing roles played by domain entities while ontologies Ontologies perfoming application activities Source: Kia Teymourian and Adrian Paschke: Towards 12 Semantic Event Processing, DEBS 2009, July 6-9, 2009
  13. 13. Example: Situation Top-Level Ontology Model Situation use the other Situation Situation top-level Descriptions Properties ontologies Content (time, location, participants, …) hasProperties hasContent Situation Situation Types Heterogeneous Homogenous Situation Situation Dynamic Time Frequency State Process Iterative Habitual Change Frame Situation Situation Situation Situation Situation Situation Situation TrafficLight Within Rings3 LaysOn He He He Situation Changes 5Minutes Times TheFloor Runs Coughs Smokes Individuals 13
  14. 14. Summary of Ontology Benefits for SCEP Ontologies can be applied to CEP application domains as in any other IT system Ontologies for time-based events + event operations etc can also improve formalisation of CEP 15
  15. 15. Rule-based Complex Event Processing  CEP complex event detection can use reaction rules – e.g. event-condition-action rule: incoming event + conditions over situations (effects + context) (re)action  Detected Complex (aggregated) events and their effects (situations) trigger reaction rules for decision + behavioral reaction logic – e.g. CEP event-condition-action rule: complex event + decisioning conditions response actions  Rule-based Event Processing Languages (EPLs) – e.g. Reaction RuleML, IBM Amit Situation Manager Rule, 16 TIBCO BusinessEvents, ...
  16. 16. Production Rules and CEP  Production Rules react to fact changes (facts = data)  However, PR systems typically use an object model + events: can represent external fact updates extensible for use in CEP – Event types and object classes are defined in the rule declarations – New events are added to the fact base / working memory – might become an event channel (such as an event queue) (facts = events and data) – Instance tuples are filtered and joined in the rule conditions and for valid tuples the action part of the rule is executed  Can be further extended with mechanisms such as query languages, state models and temporal constraints  Examples: TIBCO BusinessEvents, Red Hat Drools 17
  17. 17. Event Condition Action Rules and CEP  ECA Rule “on Event if Condition do Action” – Explicit event part (trigger) + separate data conditions actions – e.g. on customer order (event) + check if credit card is valid (condition) process order (action)  Evolved from active databases – extend databases with trigger-type reactions, e.g. HiPac, Chimera, ADL, COMPOSE, NAOS – Composite event algebras, e.g. SAMOS, COMPOSE, Snoop – Sequence | Disjunction | Xor | Conjunction | Concurrent | Not | Any | Aperiodic | Periodic 18
  18. 18. Research Standards Area: Reaction RuleML  RuleML = family of rule languages in homogeneous interchange format – Technology input to standards bodies like W3C (RIF) and OMG (PRR)  Reaction RuleML = general reaction rule format that can be specialized as needed for different rule types (e.g. PR, ECA style rules, …) – Platform-independent XML-based rule interchange format – translation into platform-specific executable rule languages, e.g. Prova – Three general execution semantics: – Active: actively 'poll' external event source for events e.g. ping a service/system or query an internal or external event database – Messaging: wait for incoming event from a messaging system – Reasoning: KR event/action logic reasoning and transitions/transactions (e.g. as in Event Calculus, Situation Calculus, Temporal Action Logic formalizations) – Appearance – Global: „globally‟ defined reaction rule – Local: „locally‟ defined reaction rule (switched on) for a specific context 19
  19. 19. General Syntax for Reaction Rules <Rule style="active|messaging|reasoning" eval="strong|weak|defeasible|fuzzy"> <oid> <!– object id --> </oid> <label> <!– meta data of the rule --> </label> <scope><!– scope of the rule e.g. a rule module --> </scope> <qualification> <!– e.g. priorities, validity, fuzzy levels --> </qualification> <quantification> <!- e.g. variable bindings--> </quantification> <on> <!– event part --> </on> <if> <!– condition part --> </if> <then> <!– (logical) conclusion part --> </then> <do> <!-- action part --> </do> <after> <!– postcondition part after action, e.g. to check effects --> </after> </Rule> 20
  20. 20. Reaction RuleML – Example Rule Types  Production Rule: <Rule style="active"> <if>...</if> <do>...</do> </Rule>  Trigger Rule: <Rule style=“active"> <on>...</on> <do>...</do> </Rule>  ECA Rule: <Rule style="active"> <on>...</on> <if>...</if> <do>...</do> </Rule> 21
  21. 21. Reaction RuleML Features  Action Algebra: Succession (Ordered Sequence), Choice (Non-Deterministic Selection), Flow (Parallel Concurrent Flow), Loop (Iteration)  Event Algebra: Sequence (Ordered), Disjunction (Or) , Xor (Mutal Exclusion), Conjunction (And), Concurrent , Not, Any, Aperiodic, Periodic  Event / action messaging  External data models and ontologies  Different detection, selection and consumption policies  Intervals (Time, Event)  Situations (States, Fluents)  External event query languages  ... 22
  22. 22. Underlying Semantics: Interval-based Event Calculus – Events initiate and terminate Situations (Fluents) which hold during a time interval – Interval-based Event Calculus semantics (model-theory + proof theory) based on time intervals modeled as fluents I: Ti x Fl  {true, false} – Example: A;(B;C) (Sequence) T1 T2 T3 T4 A B C – Rule-based interpretation of typical complex event detection operators – Rule-based inference involving times and durations, e.g. Allen‟s interval logic 23
  23. 23. CEP Use Cases  Current CEP technologies and applications mostly concentrate on performance (vs knowledge, semantics, provable correctness )  CEP technologies like TIBCO BusinessEvents provide certain level of semantics: – UML-level for class, event relationships (inheritance, containment, reference) – UML-level for state behaviors – BPMN-level for process behaviors – UML PRR-level for declarative rule behaviors – etc.  Utilize essentially fixed-schema data representations (e.g. object definitions)  Machine learning, currently limited to rule / query parameterization (etc.) 24
  24. 24. Live CEP Use Cases that Involve Semantics (1) Logistics • Optimization of shipping movements in transit and in port to obtain greater efficiencies and to reduce fuel costs • Real-time tracking of cargo, packages border crossing manifests • Revenue management, baggage handling in airlines Telco • Track missing events, SLA violations, re- sequence out-of-order events according to context • Identify under-performing business systems to ensure service levels can be met and enhanced • Location-based services for targeted campaigns 25
  25. 25. Live CEP Use Cases that Involve Semantics (2) Energy • Predictive energy usage / energy event processing • Smart Grid Initiatives • Transmission, Outage Intelligence Fault Management • Finance Credit derivative trades: real-time workflow and matching of trades • Visualize market data, order executions • Fraud / Intrusion Detection • Track and Trace for Trades/Deals/Settlements and Pre/Post trade exceptions 26
  26. 26. Live CEP Use Cases that Involve Semantics (3) Government • Track and Analyze „patterns‟ that were otherwise very difficult to detect • Real-time tracking of people, places and things • Capacity planning Adaptive Marketing • Capture opportunity with customer while “window” is open • Ability to (automatically) learn from successful/failures of campaign in progress to fine tune the offer 27
  27. 27. CEP and SCEP as a Software Market 28
  28. 28. SCEP Implementation via Heterogeneous Integration RMS (Rules Management System, e.g. Prova ) CEP Logic Reaction Logic ESB-based Agent Inference Decision Logic Middleware http://responder.ruleml.org Constraints TripleStore Access External Datasources 29
  29. 29. SCEP Research: Event-Driven Business Process Management (edBPM) BPMN -> Orchestrated BPEL + Choreography Rule Workflow Prova Rule Engine Rules-enabled BPEL+ Application events, BRMS (Business Rules facts Management System) CEP Logic Reaction Logic % receive query and delegate it to another party results rcvMsg(CID,esb, Requester, acl_query-ref, Query) :- Decision Logic responsibleRole(Agent, Query), Constraints sendMsg(Sub-CID,esb,Agent,acl_query-ref, Query), BPEL run-time Rule Inference rcvMsg(Sub-CID,esb,Agent,acl_inform-ref, Answer), Service ... (other goals)... SBPMN -> BPEL+ sendMsg(CID,esb,Requester,acl_inform-ref,Answer). •Paschke, Rule Responder BPM / ITSM Project •Barnickel, Böttcher, Paschke, Semantic Mediation of Information Flow in Cross-Organizational Business Process Modeling, 5th Int. Workshop on Semantic Business Process Management at ESWC 2010 •Adrian Paschke and Kia Teymourian, Rule Based Business Process Execution with Oryx BPEL+ , i-Semantics 2009, Graz SBPM • Paschke, A., Kozlenkov, A.: A Rule-based Middleware for Business Process Execution, at MKWI'08, München, Germany, 2008. 30
  30. 30. Summary for Semantic Complex Event Processing  Event processing engines understand what is happening in terms of (top-level and domain) ontologies  Reaction rule engines know what (re)actions and processes they can invoke and what events they can signal  Makes it possible to detect and process semantically related (complex) events  Needs a formal semantics to concepts relevant in event processing, e.g. time, spatio, state, action behavior … – Also support interchange across domain boundaries with different vocabularies  Many use cases in different industrial domains demonstrate usefulness of the combination of Semantics (Rules & Ontologies) + CEP 31
  31. 31. Thank you … 32
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