Water quality
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  • 1. Water QualityDr. Partha ChattopadhyaySenior Principal ScientistCSIR-Institute of Minerals And Materials TechnologyBhubaneswar 751 013
  • 2. Ppo•Potable water is the water whose consumption would notaffect health adversely•Man’s requirement of water for drinking purposes is moreimportant than any other of its use•The mean daily intake of water by an individual is~ 3.1% of the body wt.•Availability of water free of bacteriological and chemicalcontamination is becoming challenging in major parts ofIndia, particularly in rural areWhat is water Quality
  • 3. Water Quality IndexA water quality index provides a single number (like a grade) that expresses overallwater quality at a certain location and time based on several water qualityparametersObjectiveTo turn complex water quality data into information that is understandable anduseable by the public
  • 4. Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI)all parameters regardless of WHO designationSource Water Quality Index (SWQI)health and microbial criteria onlyarsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluoride, lead, manganese, mercury,nitrate, nitrite,faecal coliformsAcceptability Water Quality Index (AWQI)acceptability criteria onlyammonia, chloride, iron, pH, sodium, sulphate, zinc4X4 Rule: Each parameter that contributes to the index must bemeasured at least 4 times per year at stations that have measured aminimum of 4 parameters per year.Calculation of Global Water
  • 5. Analytical Report along with Drinking Water Specification,Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) BIS 10500 : 1991Sl.No. Characteristics DesirableLimitPermissibleLimit1. Cloour (Hazen Unit) 5 52 Odour Unobjectionale Unobjectionale3 Taste Agreeable4. Turbidity, NTU 5 105. pH 6.5 – 8.5 6.5 –8.56. Total Hardness 300 6007. Iron 0.3 1.08. Chlorides 250 10009. Residual Free Chlorine 0.2 -10. Dissolved Solids 500 200011. Calcium 75 20012. Mn 0.05 1.513. Sulfate 0.10 0.314. Nitrate 200 40015. Fluoride 45 10016. Mercury 1.0 1.517. Cadmium 0.001 No relaxation18. Selenium 0.01 do
  • 6. Analytical Report along with Drinking Water Specification,Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) BIS 10500 : 1991Unit mg/L or ppm*UK Drinking Water Regulation Act 1989Sl.No. Characteristics Desirable Limit PermissibleLimit19. Arsenic 0.05No relaxation20. Cyanide 0.05do21. Lead 0.05do22. Zinc 51523. Chromium (VI) 0.05No relaxation24. Alkalinity200 60025. Aluminium 0.0326. Boron 1.0527. *Sodium150.00--28. *Potassium12.029. Mineral Oil 0.01 0.03
  • 7. Parameters Test sample, mg/L Max. permissible conc.(mg/L)Calcium 2.0 (0.1 mEq/L)Magnesium 4.0 (0.3 mEq/L)Cu 0.1Al 0.1Zn 5.0Sulphate 100Nitrate 2.0Fluoride 0.2Potassium 8.0 (0.2 mEq/L)Sodium 70.0 (3.0 mEq/L)Hemodialysis Water (AAMI Standards)
  • 8. Sl No. Parameters Test Results Max. Permissible Limit, mg/L1. Organic 2002. Inorganic(Total dissolvedsolids)30003. Chloride 20004. Sulphate 4005. pH 5.5 – 8.5Water quality for construction BIS 3025
  • 9. TARGET
  • 10. SsuSuuuuu11111111111111Summary of targets for water quality parameters included in water quality index
  • 11. MONITORING
  • 12. Many factors affecting water quality•Sedimentation•Run off•Erosion•Dissolved Oxygen•pH•Temperature•Decayed Organic Materials•Pesticides•Toxic and Hazardous Substances•Oil, grease and chemicals•Detergents•Litter and rubbish
  • 13. GUIDELINE
  • 14. Some recommended alkalinity valuesIndustry and ProcessRecommended Maximum TotalAlkalinity (in mg/L CaCO3)Carbonated beverages85Food products (canning)300Fruit juice100Washing diapers60Pulp and paper making(ground-wood process)150Rayon manufacture50Tanning hides135Textile mill products50-200Petroleum refining 500
  • 15. Water Quality Guidelines:• Guidelines for Drinking–Water Quality:The primary purpose of the Guidelines for Drinking–Water Quality is theprotection of the public health• Adequate, safe and accessible supply must be available to all• Access to safe drinking water is essential to health, a basic human rightand a component of effective policy for health protection• Safe drinking water, as defined by the Guidelines, does not represent anysignificant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption,including different sensitivities that may occur between life stages• UN General Assembly declared the period from 2005-2015as the International Decade for Action, “water for life”
  • 16. CSIR
  • 17. Potable Water and CSIR
  • 18. Water Purification Technology Inventions by CSIRProblem Solution by CSIR TechHigh arsenic •Ceramic membrane based As removal by CGCRI•Adsorbent based As removal by NML•As test kit (NEERI)High F •RO based CSCMRI•Electrolytic defluoridationHigh Fe •Ceramic based iron removal (CGCRI)•Hand pump attachable iron removal (NEERI)•Terafil (IMMT)•NEERI-Zar Potable water filter (NEERI)(High saline(brine water in coastal area) Thin film composite (TFe)RO membrane based Tech (CMCRI)Pathogen like bacteria and viruses Ultrafiltration membrane Tech (NCL)Hollow Fibre membrane Technology
  • 19. NEERI-Implementation status of key water Purification TechnologiesLaboratory Technology produced and implementedCSMCRI •Installed dozens of RO plants across the country•Installed 6 RO plants in Afganistan•Installed demonstration Solar powered /Animal power plants•Installed several plants in earth quake, cyclone and tsunami affected areCSMCRI 20 arsenic and fluoride removal units set up using ion specific resin in West Bengal, Gujrat and Tamil NaduNCL Developed and transferred ultra filtration membrane based technology for water purificationIMMT •About 1 lakh Terafil filters installed under Bharat Nirman and Jalmani schemes•Installed hundreds of filters during floods in different parts of the country•Technology transferred to >100 entrepreneursNEERI •Developed NEERI-ZAR another type of instant water filter suitable for flooded areas•Developed hundreds of unit during different floods in the country•240 hand pump attachable iron removal plants installed in North Eastern statesNGRI •Technology on rain water harvesting and artificial recharge implemented in 3 villages in Chittoor districtof AP•Technology on artificial recharge & recovery of surplus storm runoff in desert areas for use as drinkingwater source,Churu district of Rjasthan•Technology on drinking water self sufficiency for industry through rain water harvesting•Technology on interaction of lake water and ground water (5 lakes in Hyderabad)CGCRI •28 COMMUNITY MODEL PLANTS set up in WB and North East states BASED ON CERAMIC MEMBRANE FORAs and Fe removal
  • 20. TETERATERAFIL FILTER CANDLE BY IMMT (RRL BHUBANESWAR)
  • 21. Samples collected on …….Odd nos. are raw water, Even are terafil filter productTH = Total hardness, measure of sum of concentration of calcium and magnesium expressed ascarbonate in mg/L (ppm)TDS = Total dissolved solids in mg/L (ppm)BIS = Bureau of Indian Standard for drinking water (BIS 10500:1991)Sl.No.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BIS LimitDesirable/PermissibleTer. 7 nil 6 nil 8 nil 7 nil 8 5 /10NTUpH 5.55 6.63 5.53 6.84 5.63 6.97 5.63 6.68 5.64 6.71 6.5 to 8.5TH 20 50 30 40 30 50 30 40 30 40 300 /600mg/LFe 4.5 0.2 1.3 0.1 1.1 0.2 3.9 0.1 2.3 0.1 0.3 /1.0mg/LTDS 65 90 64 86 62 88 64 83 62 91 250 /2000mg/L
  • 22. Samples collected on ……….Odd nos. are raw water, Even are terafil filter productTH = Total hardness, measure of sum of concentration of Ca and Mg expressedas carbonate in mg/L (ppm)TDS = Total dissolved solids in mg/L (ppm)BIS = Bureau of Indian Standard for drinking waterSl.No.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BIS LimitDesirable/PermissibleTer. 7 nil 6 nil 8 nil 7 nil 8 5 /10 NTUpH 5.42 6.7 5.3 6.5 5.3 6.7 5.4 6.3 5.4 6.4 6.5 to 8.5TH 20 50 30 40 30 50 30 40 30 40 300 /600mg/LFe 4.5 0.2 1.3 0.1 1.1 0.2 3.9 0.1 2.3 0.1 0.3 /1.0mg/LTDS 65 90 64 86 62 88 64 83 62 91 250 /2000mg/L
  • 23. Samples collected on ……….Odd nos. are raw water, Even are terafil filter productTH = Total hardness, measure of sum of concentration of calcium and magnesium expressed ascarbonate in mg/L (ppm)TDS = Total dissolved solids in mg/L (ppm)BIS = Bureau of Indian Standard for drinking waterSl.No.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BIS LimitDesirable/PermissibleTer. 6 nil 6 nil 8 nil 7 nil 7 nil 5 /10 NTUpH 5.59 6.91 5.61 6.78 5.58 6.66 5.64 6.93 5.68 6.87 6.5 to 8.5TH 12.5 26.5 10.0 30.0 15.0 30.0 12.5 37.5 17.5 32.5 300 /600mg/LFe 1.2 <0.1 1.1 <0.1 1.3 <0.1 0.79 <0.1 1.3 <0.1 0.3 /1.0mg/LTDS 78.3 122 78.1 118 78 113 81 136 78 118 250 /2000mg/L
  • 24. pH change of raw water01234567RawFilter01234567RawFilter01234567RawFilter012345678RawFilter
  • 25. Effect of total hardness (mg/L) from raw water by passing through terafil05101520253035404550RawFilter05101520253035404550RawFilter0510152025303540RawFilter0102030405060708090RawFilter
  • 26. Removal of iron (mg/L) from raw water by passing through terafil00.511.522.533.544.5RawFilter00.511.522.533.5RawFilter00.20.40.60.811.21.4RawFilter00.10.20.30.40.50.60.7RawFilterB (5.9.07)D (29.11.07)
  • 27. Conclusion:• Raw water is acidic, high iron and low calcium – magnesium concentration• Terafil filter water improves the water quality by decreasing acidity• Total hardness increases significantly with the rise in concentration ofboth Ca and Mg• Raw water tested so far contain well above the permissible limit for iron• Terafil product brings down to much below the desired limit