Efficient water management

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Efficient water management

  1. 1. EFFICIENT WATER MANAGEMENTforSUFFICIENT CROP PRODUCTIONProf. Pravat RoulAssociate Director of ResearchOrissa University of Agriculture & Technology,
  2. 2. Water is the ELIXIR of Life which makeswonders in earth if it is usedProperly,Efficiently,Economically,Environmentally,Optimally,Equitably, andJudiciouslySir C. V. Raman
  3. 3. World Water Council 2000…..envisages that “there is a water crisistoday. But the crisis is not about havingtoo little water to satisfy our needs. It is acrisis of managing water so badly thatmillions of people and environmentsuffer”.
  4. 4. National Water Policy“Efficiency of utilization in all thediverse uses of water should beoptimized and an awareness ofwater as a scarce resourceshould be fostered”… National Water Policy,2002
  5. 5. National Water Policy revised in 2002 laysemphasis on:• Integrated water resource development & management-Integrated use• Proper blending of traditional knowledge with recenttechnologies- ITK use• Creation of well developed infrastructure system-Infrastructure development• Water utilization and demand regulation with effectiveinvolvement of all stake holders- Participatory approach
  6. 6. World Water Day (22 March)… theme areasWorld Water Day (22 March)… theme areas1995-Water- everyone’s responsibility1996- Water fore the thirsty1997-Is water resource of the world enough?1998-Ground water:the invisible resource1999-Flow of water:everyone’s lifedependant upon2000- Water for 21stcentury2001- Water for health2002- Water for development2003- Water for future2004- Water and disaster2005-2015- Water for life
  7. 7. 2003- InternationalYear of Freshwater2007- InternationalYear of Water Productivity2008- Year of Irrigation
  8. 8. Proportion of water use in the World• Agriculture 69%• Industrial 23%• Domestic 08%
  9. 9. Projected demand of water in India (m ha m)Projected demand of water in India (m ha m)Purpose 2000 2010 2025 2050Irrigation 54.1(85.3%) 68.8 (84.6) 91.0 (83.2) 107.2 (74.1)Domestic 4.2(6.6) 5.6 (6.9) 7.3 (6.7) 10.2 (7.0)Energy 0.2(0.3) 0.5 (0.6) 1.5 (1.4) 13.0 (9.0)Industrial 0.8(1.3) 1.2 (1.5) 2.3 (2.1) 6.3 (4.4)Others 4.1(6.5) 5.2 (6.4) 7.2 (6.6) 8.0 (5.5)Total 63.4 81.3 109.3 144.7Source: Agril. Res. Data Book 2006, ICARUrbanisation: 10.8% in 1991, 27.8% 2001, 41% 2030
  10. 10. Projected demand of water in Odisha (m ha m)Purpose2001 2051Surface Ground Total Surface Ground TotalDomestic 0.08 0.12 0.20 0.12 0.18 0.30Agriculture 1.80 0.47 2.27 4.00 0.94 4.94Industry 0.06 0.01 0.07 0.18 0.02 0.20Environment 2.10 0.84 2.94 2.10 0.84 2.94Others 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04Total 4.05 1.45 5.50 6.42 2.00 8.44
  11. 11. India’s position….• Ranked 133rdamong 180 Nations in termsof water availability(Norway 81 383 m3/yr, Canada 76 551 m3/yr, Brazil 31 891 m3/yr,Australia, 14 850 m3/yr)• Ranked 120thin 122 countries in terms ofwater quality
  12. 12. Declining per capita availability of water• India– 5177 m3in 1951– 2500 m3in 1990– 1820 m3in 2001– 1341 m3in 2025– 1144 m3in 2050• Odisha– 3359 m3in 2001– 2218 m3in 2051Stress level - 1700 m3/yearScarcity level - 1000 m3/yearAbsolute scarcity level - < 500 m3/yearBut by 2051:Rushikulya basin will experience a scarcitycondition and basins like Budhabalangaand Bahuda will be close to scarcitycondition
  13. 13. Domestic 100Institutional 20Industrial 30Fire extinction 15Other purpose 35Total 200Water use in a farm (%)Water use in city(litre/day/head)Irrigation 80Domestic 10Farm animals 05Waste 05Total 100%
  14. 14. Need for efficient management of water inagriculture• Uses 85% fresh water• Declining water availability for agril. use (85 to 74%)• Irrigated area has to increase to 140-150 mha toproduce 450-500 mt food grains to feed 162 crorepeople by 2050• Efficiency of canal irrigation system is 40%( to 60%)ground water from 60% ( to 75%)• Development of irrigation is a costly proposition
  15. 15. Objectives of efficientirrigation water managementObjectives of efficientirrigation water management• High yield of good quality• High WUE• Low irrigation cost• Least damage to soil productivity/health• High yield of good quality• High WUE• Low irrigation cost• Least damage to soil productivity/health
  16. 16. SolidAirWaterVolume composition of soil
  17. 17. Efficiency of irrigation methodsEfficiency of irrigation methodsEfficiency Surface Sprinkler DripConveyance 60-70 100 100Application 60-70 70-80 90Ev from surface 30-40 30-40 15Overall 60-65 80-85 85-90
  18. 18. WATER USE EFFICIENCY(WUE)[Y/WR]
  19. 19. Factors affecting WUE (Y/WR)Factors affecting WUE (Y/WR)• Climatic parameters• Crops and varieties• Agronomic practices• Irrigation techniques• Fertilizer management• Pest control• Climatic parameters• Crops and varieties• Agronomic practices• Irrigation techniques• Fertilizer management• Pest controlY WR• Climatic parameters• Mulching• Wind break• Antitranspirants• Antievaporants• Growth retardants• Precised irrigation•In-situ moisture conservation
  20. 20. WUE of different field cropsWUE of different field cropsCrop WR(mm)Yield(kg/ha)WUE(kg/ha-mm)Rice 1200 4000 3.3Maize 500 4000 8.0Potato 500 20000 40.0Groundnut 480 2500 5.2Sunflower 400 2000 5.0Mustard 300 1400 4.7Sesame 250 1000 4.0Greengram 250 1000 4.0Jute 480 2800 5.8
  21. 21. Critical growth stages of cropsCritical growth stages of cropsCrop StageRice Tillering, PI, Fl, MilkWheat CRI, Tillering, Jointing, Fl, Milk, DoughMaize Knee high, Tasseling, SilkPulses Fl, Pod devel.Groundnut Fl, Pegging, Pod devel.Sunflower 4-5 leaf stage, Buttoning, Fl, Seed devel.Sugarcane Germination, Tillering, Grand growthPotato Stolonisation, Tuberisation, Tuber devel.Brinjal, Chilli,OkraSeedling, early growth, Fl., Fruit devel.
  22. 22. Effect of moisture stress on maizeEffect of moisture stress on maizeStress at Grainyield(t/ha)% ↓ WR(cm)WUE(kg/ha-cm)No stress 6.32 - 43 148Seedling 3.76 41 33 99Early growth 4.31 32 37 118Tasseling 3.13 51 35 88Milk 3.16 50 33 93Tasseling toMilk2.20 65 32 67
  23. 23. Critical growth stages of sweet potatoStage Yield, t/haStress during tuber initiation 4.4Stress during tuber development 12.4Stress during tuber maturity 6.2Non stress 8.6CD 5% 3.7
  24. 24. Effect of land levelling on WUETreatmentWR, mm WUE, kg/m3waterRice Wheat Rice WheatLLRB - 264 - 1.90TLRB - 334 - 1.38LLFB 695 353 0.91 1.31TLFB 915 527 0.55 0.82RB; raised bed, FB: flat bed, TL: tradional levelling, LL: laser levellingGill, 2006, Nat Symp. Conservation Agril, ISA, Varanasi
  25. 25. Effect of puddling on water expense in riceEffect of puddling on water expense in riceTreatment BD ,g/ccWaterexpense, mmWatersaving, %Yield,t/haUnpuddled 1.55 310 - 5.91Compaction with tractor wheel 1.70 270 13 5.68Puddling with country plough 1.63 229 26 5.92Puddling with disc harrow 1.65 229 26 5.97Puddling with rotavator 1.69 210 32 5.59Puddling with puddler 1.59 230 26 5.93
  26. 26. Alternate furrow irrigation in maizeAlternate furrow irrigation in maizeMethod Yield(t/ha)IR(cm)Watersaving (%)WUE(kg/ha-cm)Each furrow 4.36 26.8 - 1.63Alternate furrow 4.09 20.4 24 2.00Paired row 3.83 20.6 23 1.86
  27. 27. Water saving due to alternate furrowirrigationCrop Water saving, %Maize 27-29Sugarcane 45Sunflower 12Cotton 27Tomato 16
  28. 28. Importance of WM in rice• Much higher WR (1 cm/each day duration)• Most inefficient user of water (3.7 kg/ha mm)• In India- 52% is irrigated but consumes 40% of allirrigation water resources• In Odisha 43% is irrigated-but consumes 65% of allirrigation water resources• 60-83% of total water applied to rice field is lost asdeep percolation• 3000-4000 litre water is sufficient to produce 1 kg rice,but– In India it is about 15 000 litres– Even in Japan it is about 6000 litres
  29. 29. Water saving techniques in rice• Proper land leveling and puddling (saves 10%), Laser leveling improvesWUE & FUE by 20-30%· Growing rice in a compact rather than in isolated patches.· Continuous shallow sub. (5+2 cm) than deep sub. saves 10-50% irrigationwater· Saturation throughout is optimum in shallow WT (20-30 cm in rabi and 20-45 cm in kharif)· Bed planting saves 26-42% water as compared to conventional planting.·• SRI & Aerobic rice cultivation are other water saving options
  30. 30. RWUE of cropping systems in rainfeduplandSystem RWUE (kg/ha-mm)Sole Rice 2.17Rice+Arhar (4:1) 3.80Rice+Biri (4:1) 4.64Rice+G.nut (4:1) 3.75G.nut+Arhar, 4:1 6.59G.nut+Biri, 4:1 5.48G.nut+Mung, 4:1 6.13G.nut+Cowpea, 4:1 4.82Maize-HG 6.73Maize-Sesame 6.27
  31. 31. Rice based cropping systemSystem REY(t/ha)WUE,(kg/ha-mm)Net return(Rs. ha-1)B:CRice-mustard-rice 10.84 9.00 16749 1.43Rice-potato-rice 20.00 16.00 30473 1.47Rice-potato-okra 17.96 19.48 22816 1.33Rice-cauliflower-rice 17.84 15.38 27960 1.44Rice-cabbage-rice 19.54 15.89 39045 1.64Rice-rice 8.98 9.62 12197 1.30On Farm study in Hirakud Command (mean of 5 years)
  32. 32. INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM
  33. 33. Sunken and raised bed systemSunken and raised bed systemRice, fish and vegetable farmingProductivity of water 8.96 Rs/m3Net Return 1.2 lakh/ haB:C ratio 4.78
  34. 34. THANK YOU

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