Intro Diabetes 1


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Intro Diabetes 1

  1. 1. BY K. Dinesh kumar Roll NO- 19
  2. 2. <ul><li>Diabetes is a medical disorder, characterized by varying or persistent hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels), especially after eating. </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes is a chronic condition that needs close attention. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a condition in which the body either does not produce or properly use insulin. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Aretaeus the Cappadocian, the immortal Alexandrian physician of the second century, was confronted with a patient exhibiting excessive urination. </li></ul><ul><li>He chose a Greek word signifying siphon. </li></ul><ul><li>Dia means through or entirely; baino meaning to go. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The word mellitus however, is a word of Latin origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Mellis, in Latin means honey (and also refers to the bee) </li></ul><ul><li>The true Latin word for sweet is dulcis. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>increased from 30 million to 246 million over the last two decades, a staggering figure. </li></ul><ul><li>Every 10 seconds a person dies from diabetes-related causes. </li></ul><ul><li>Every 10 seconds two people develop diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of global death by disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of vision loss in adults </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In the writings of Aretaios (Aretaeus) of Cappadocia, a Greek physician who lived during the period 120-200 A.D., there is a reference to Diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>References to this are also found in Indian, Egyptian medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Willis was the person who coined the term mellitus meaning honey in latin. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Papyrus of Ebers, written probably in the first half of the 16th Century B.C. in Egypt, mentions the passing of excessive urine amongst the other ailments. </li></ul><ul><li>Matthew Dobson was the person who confirmed the sweet taste of urine in Diabetes patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Johann Peter Frank was the person who classified Diabetes Mellitus from Diabetes insipidus! </li></ul><ul><li>And finally Edward Albert Sharpey Schafer was the person who coined the term INSULIN. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Sir Harold Percival Himsworth was the person who differentiated Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. </li></ul><ul><li>Surprisingly there is no reference of Diabetes in Chinese, Persian and Greco-Arabic (Unani) medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>In Charaka Samhita, ancient Hindu physicians had referred this disorder as “Madhu Meha”. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Insulin- lowers blood sugar by causing glucose entry into the cells </li></ul><ul><li>Glucogon- increases blood sugar by releasing glucose stores from liver </li></ul>
  10. 10. The important roles of insulin and Glucagon: Diabetes and Hypoglycemia
  11. 11. <ul><li>Late in 1920, a medical doctor and his student (Banting and Best) discovered insulin by tying a string around the pancreatic duct of several dogs which won them the Noble Prize. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>endocrine clusters of cells in pancreas </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The islets contain four types of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Beta cells-secrets insulin and amylin; </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha cells-secrete glucagon; </li></ul><ul><li>Delta cells- somatostatin, and </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma cells- a polypeptide of unknown function. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Do you know why WORLD DIABETES DAY is celebrated on November 14th? </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>No is not JAWAHARLAL NEHRU’s birthday….. </li></ul><ul><li>Its actually Frederick Banting’s Birthday!!! </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Wish you a Sweet </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes Free Life </li></ul><ul><li>B Hapy </li></ul>