by  Deepanksha datta Thendrals’06
DIARRHOEA <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>The passage of  loose , liquid or watery stools </li></ul><ul><li>More than...
 
 
TYPES <ul><li>Distinction between the  ACUTE   and  CHRONIC  is  ARBITRARY  </li></ul><ul><li>CHRONIC  –  lasting for 3 we...
<ul><li>Mainly due to infections </li></ul><ul><li>GASTROENTRITIS  – described as Diarrhoeal Disease </li></ul>
PROBLEM STATEMENT <ul><li>Equals  RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS  in the morbidity worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>WHO – Diarrhoeal Di...
COURTESY – WHO SITE
RESULTS <ul><li>Mortality of the diarrhoeal diseases  </li></ul><ul><li>NO CHANGE IN THEOVERALL INCIDENCE OF THE DISEASE <...
  INDIA  <ul><li>Major health problem among children of  age under  5  years </li></ul>
<ul><li>NATIONAL DIARRHOEAL DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMME </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS OF THE DIARRHOEAL DISEASE </li></ul><ul><l...
WHO 2005 SURVEY
COMPARISON B/T COUNTRIES(WHO)
 
 
 
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS <ul><li>AGENT FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>RESERVOIR OF INFECTION </li></ul><ul><li>HOST FACTORS...
AGENT FACTORS <ul><li>In the developing countries -  INFECTIOUS  in origin </li></ul><ul><li>VIRAL   BACTERIAL </li></ul><...
VIRAL AGENTS <ul><li>Rota virus </li></ul><ul><li>Astro virus </li></ul><ul><li>Adeno virus </li></ul><ul><li>Calci virus ...
BACTERIAL AGENTS <ul><li>Campylobacter jejuni </li></ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli </li></ul><ul><li>Shigella </li></ul><ul>...
OTHER INFECTIOUS AGENTS <ul><li>Entameoba  histolytica </li></ul><ul><li>Giardia intestinalis </li></ul><ul><li>Trichurias...
ROTAVIRUS <ul><li>Leading cause of  SEVERE , DEHYDRATING DIARRHOEA IN CHILDREN < 5 YEARS . </li></ul><ul><li>First Episode...
ROTAVIRUS (cont) <ul><li>Reinfection </li></ul><ul><li>Primary infection – significant </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate – Winte...
BACTERIAL   <ul><li>ETEC  (ENTEROTOXIGENIC E . COLI) </li></ul><ul><li>Acute  watery diarrhoea in adults & children </li><...
BACTERIAL   (CONT) <ul><li>C . Jejuni – no toxin  </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella – inflammation of the bladder </li></ul><ul...
OTHERS INFECTIOUS AGENTS <ul><li>Parasites – in the duodenum and the jejunum </li></ul><ul><li>Most important </li></ul><u...
PARENTRAL   INFECTIONS <ul><li>Non digestive origin </li></ul><ul><li>ENT INFECTIONS  </li></ul><ul><li>RESPIRATORY INFECT...
<ul><li>MALNUTRITION </li></ul><ul><li>INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM  - Health gap – developed countries- enzyme deficiency,...
<ul><li>who   definition of aids for children </li></ul><ul><li>an episode of diarrhoea more than 30 days of duration </li...
RESERVOIRS OF INFECTION <ul><li>MAN  ANIMAL </li></ul><ul><li>ETEC  C. JEJUNI </li></ul><ul><li>SHIGELLA  SALMONELLA </li>...
HOST FACTORS <ul><li>DIARRHOEA- 6 MONTHS- 2 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>Highest incidence – 6 – 11 months </li></ul><ul><li>RE...
<ul><li>Malnutrition – vicious circle </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty  </li></ul><ul><li>Prematurity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced g...
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS <ul><li>Distinct seasonal variations </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPERATE REGIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial...
MODE OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>Faecal – oral route </li></ul><ul><li>Water – borne </li></ul><ul><li>Food – borne </li></ul>...
BOOGIE FEVER
REFRENCES <ul><li>WHO SITE  </li></ul><ul><li>WHO JOURNAL 2005 ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>PARK AND PARK </li></ul><ul><li>GO...
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases

6,328

Published on

kmc

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
3 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
6,328
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
273
Comments
3
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases

  1. 1. by Deepanksha datta Thendrals’06
  2. 2. DIARRHOEA <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>The passage of loose , liquid or watery stools </li></ul><ul><li>More than 3 times a day </li></ul><ul><li>Important </li></ul><ul><li>The recent change in the consistency and the character of the stool </li></ul>
  3. 5. TYPES <ul><li>Distinction between the ACUTE and CHRONIC is ARBITRARY </li></ul><ul><li>CHRONIC – lasting for 3 weeks or more </li></ul><ul><li>ACUTE ( WHO / UNICEF DEFINITION) </li></ul><ul><li>Attack of sudden onset , lasting for 3 to 7 days – may upto 10 -14 days </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Mainly due to infections </li></ul><ul><li>GASTROENTRITIS – described as Diarrhoeal Disease </li></ul>
  5. 7. PROBLEM STATEMENT <ul><li>Equals RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS in the morbidity worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>WHO – Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>ORS ADMINISTRATION </li></ul>
  6. 8. COURTESY – WHO SITE
  7. 9. RESULTS <ul><li>Mortality of the diarrhoeal diseases </li></ul><ul><li>NO CHANGE IN THEOVERALL INCIDENCE OF THE DISEASE </li></ul>
  8. 10. INDIA <ul><li>Major health problem among children of age under 5 years </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>NATIONAL DIARRHOEAL DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMME </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS OF THE DIARRHOEAL DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC BURDEN ON HEALTHSERVICES </li></ul>
  10. 12. WHO 2005 SURVEY
  11. 13. COMPARISON B/T COUNTRIES(WHO)
  12. 17. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS <ul><li>AGENT FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>RESERVOIR OF INFECTION </li></ul><ul><li>HOST FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>MODE OF TRANSMISSION </li></ul>
  13. 18. AGENT FACTORS <ul><li>In the developing countries - INFECTIOUS in origin </li></ul><ul><li>VIRAL BACTERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>OTHERS </li></ul>
  14. 19. VIRAL AGENTS <ul><li>Rota virus </li></ul><ul><li>Astro virus </li></ul><ul><li>Adeno virus </li></ul><ul><li>Calci virus </li></ul><ul><li>Corona virus </li></ul><ul><li>Norwalk virus </li></ul><ul><li>Entero virus </li></ul>
  15. 20. BACTERIAL AGENTS <ul><li>Campylobacter jejuni </li></ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli </li></ul><ul><li>Shigella </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrio cholera </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrio parahemolyticus </li></ul><ul><li>Bacillus cereus </li></ul>
  16. 21. OTHER INFECTIOUS AGENTS <ul><li>Entameoba histolytica </li></ul><ul><li>Giardia intestinalis </li></ul><ul><li>Trichuriasis </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptosporidium </li></ul><ul><li>Intestinal worms </li></ul>
  17. 22. ROTAVIRUS <ul><li>Leading cause of SEVERE , DEHYDRATING DIARRHOEA IN CHILDREN < 5 YEARS . </li></ul><ul><li>First Episode </li></ul><ul><li>Developing countries – ¾ children – before 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Developed countries – 2 – 5 years </li></ul>
  18. 23. ROTAVIRUS (cont) <ul><li>Reinfection </li></ul><ul><li>Primary infection – significant </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate – Winter </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical – year round </li></ul><ul><li>High concentration shed in – stool and vomit </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission – faeco- oral route </li></ul><ul><li>person – person </li></ul><ul><li>contaminated food </li></ul>
  19. 24. BACTERIAL <ul><li>ETEC (ENTEROTOXIGENIC E . COLI) </li></ul><ul><li>Acute watery diarrhoea in adults & children </li></ul><ul><li>Most common cause of the TRAVELLER’S DIARRHOEA </li></ul><ul><li>Heat labile and heat stable toxins – cholera toxins </li></ul>
  20. 25. BACTERIAL (CONT) <ul><li>C . Jejuni – no toxin </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella – inflammation of the bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Shigella - high mortality %age – 69% among young children </li></ul>
  21. 26. OTHERS INFECTIOUS AGENTS <ul><li>Parasites – in the duodenum and the jejunum </li></ul><ul><li>Most important </li></ul><ul><li>CRYPTOSPORIDIUM </li></ul><ul><li>Important and the undiagnosed cause of the death among the infants </li></ul><ul><li>Immunodeficient patients </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic animals </li></ul>
  22. 27. PARENTRAL INFECTIONS <ul><li>Non digestive origin </li></ul><ul><li>ENT INFECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MALARIA </li></ul><ul><li>MENINGITIS </li></ul><ul><li>TEETHING </li></ul>
  23. 28. <ul><li>MALNUTRITION </li></ul><ul><li>INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM - Health gap – developed countries- enzyme deficiency, severe infection </li></ul>
  24. 29. <ul><li>who definition of aids for children </li></ul><ul><li>an episode of diarrhoea more than 30 days of duration </li></ul>
  25. 30. RESERVOIRS OF INFECTION <ul><li>MAN ANIMAL </li></ul><ul><li>ETEC C. JEJUNI </li></ul><ul><li>SHIGELLA SALMONELLA </li></ul><ul><li>E.COLI </li></ul><ul><li>CHOLERA </li></ul><ul><li>PARASITES </li></ul>
  26. 31. HOST FACTORS <ul><li>DIARRHOEA- 6 MONTHS- 2 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>Highest incidence – 6 – 11 months </li></ul><ul><li>REASONS </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased maternal Ab </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of the acquired immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated food </li></ul><ul><li>Crawling initiation </li></ul>
  27. 32. <ul><li>Malnutrition – vicious circle </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Prematurity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced gastric acidity </li></ul><ul><li>Immunodeficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of personal & domestic hygiene </li></ul>
  28. 33. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS <ul><li>Distinct seasonal variations </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPERATE REGIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial – warm season </li></ul><ul><li>Viral - winter </li></ul><ul><li>TROPICAL REGIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial – warmer , rainy </li></ul><ul><li>Viral - dry , cold </li></ul>
  29. 34. MODE OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>Faecal – oral route </li></ul><ul><li>Water – borne </li></ul><ul><li>Food – borne </li></ul><ul><li>OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>Direct – fomites , fingers, dirt – mainly for tye children. </li></ul>
  30. 35. BOOGIE FEVER
  31. 36. REFRENCES <ul><li>WHO SITE </li></ul><ul><li>WHO JOURNAL 2005 ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>PARK AND PARK </li></ul><ul><li>GOOGLE.COM </li></ul><ul><li>CARTOONSTOCK.COM </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×