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7 Ivm Malaria

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  • 1. INTEGRATED VECTOR MANAGEMENT
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Anti-adult measures
    • Residual spraying
    • Space applications
    • Individual protection
    • Anti-larval measures
    • Larvicides
    • Source reduction
    • Integrated control
  • 4. Anti-adult Measures
    • Spraying of the indoor surfaces of houses with residual insecticides.
    • Sprayed for indefinite period – once or twice a year.
    • Reduces the longevity of the vector.
    • Rapid community protection.
    • Not useful for outdoor vectors.
    • On discontinuation – Malaria resurgence.
    Residual Spraying :
  • 5.
    • DDT resistant vectors – Malathion &
    • Fenitrothion.
    Criteria of insecticides to be used :
    • Susceptibility status of local vectors
    • Duration of the residual effect in relation
    • with the length of the transmission season.
  • 6. SPACE APPLICATION
    • Pesticides in the form of fog or mist – Special equipment.
    • Ultra Low Volume method – Pesticide dispersion by air or ground equipment.
  • 7. INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION COILS REPELLANTS BED - NETS
  • 8.
    • Mosquitoes bite at twilight and at night, take most precautions during this time.
    • Sleep in rooms screened with gauze over the windows and doors.
    • Spray the room with an insecticide before entering to kill any mosquitoes that have got inside during the day.
    • use a mosquito net around the bed, impregnated with an insecticide such as pyrethrum
    • Long trousers, long-sleeved clothing and socks to stop the mosquitoes biting
    Avoid mosquito bites
  • 9. Use mosquito repellent cream
    • Mosquito repellent containing diethyl toluamide (DEET) -the most effective form of bite-preventive treatment,safe in adults, children and pregnant women.
    • Insect repellents containing over 30 per cent DEET will effectively repel mosquitoes when applied to exposed skin .
  • 10. Mosquito nets
    • When sleeping outdoors or in an unscreened room, have an insecticide-treated mosquito net around your bed.
    • The net should be small-meshed, with no holes, and tucked in under the bottom sheet. During the day, it should be rolled up.
  • 11. INSECTICIDE TREATED NETS
    • Pyrethroids –
    • low residual action
    • Low mammalian toxicity
    • < 4 fluid ounces / per acre
    • Chemical barrier
    • +
    • Mechanical protection
    Improves effectiveness
  • 12.
    • Reduces vector populations.
    • Shortens the mean mosquito life span.
    • Reduces malaria sporozoite rate
    • Inhibits mosquito feeding
    Reduces the reproductive potential of vectors ADVANTAGES:
  • 13. GENERAL APPLICABILITY
    • Studies suggest – Community wide distribution of ITN – Cost effective.
    • Untreated nets – 50% protection
    • Main drawback – Low retreatment rate
    • Solution – Long Lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs)
    • Rebound from partial control of transmission
    • Partial control interferes with the natural history of immunity in the intense perennial transmission zones
    • Postpones malaria morbidity & death
  • 14. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
    • Gambusia Affinis
    • Eucalyptus tree
    • 130 Kilodalton – Bacillus thuringiensis - Cyanobacterium agmenellum - Quadruplicatum
  • 15. Larvicides :
    • Oiling or dusting with Paris Green. (bonide,
    • Golden bear).
    • Resistance – Modern larvicides ( 1%
    • TEMEPHOS - Abate) – long effect, low toxicity.
    • Monomolecular films – Arosurf MSF, Agnique
    • MMF
    :
  • 16. Source reduction :
    • Reduce breeding sites
    • Draining / filling
    • Deepening / flushing
    • Management of water level
    • Changing the salt content of water &
    • intermittent irrigation
  • 17.