7 Ivm Malaria

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7 Ivm Malaria

  1. 1. INTEGRATED VECTOR MANAGEMENT
  2. 3. <ul><li>Anti-adult measures </li></ul><ul><li>Residual spraying </li></ul><ul><li>Space applications </li></ul><ul><li>Individual protection </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-larval measures </li></ul><ul><li>Larvicides </li></ul><ul><li>Source reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated control </li></ul>
  3. 4. Anti-adult Measures <ul><li>Spraying of the indoor surfaces of houses with residual insecticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Sprayed for indefinite period – once or twice a year. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the longevity of the vector. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid community protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Not useful for outdoor vectors. </li></ul><ul><li>On discontinuation – Malaria resurgence. </li></ul>Residual Spraying :
  4. 5. <ul><li>DDT resistant vectors – Malathion & </li></ul><ul><li>Fenitrothion. </li></ul>Criteria of insecticides to be used : <ul><li>Susceptibility status of local vectors </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of the residual effect in relation </li></ul><ul><li>with the length of the transmission season. </li></ul>
  5. 6. SPACE APPLICATION <ul><li>Pesticides in the form of fog or mist – Special equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra Low Volume method – Pesticide dispersion by air or ground equipment. </li></ul>
  6. 7. INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION COILS REPELLANTS BED - NETS
  7. 8. <ul><li>Mosquitoes bite at twilight and at night, take most precautions during this time. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep in rooms screened with gauze over the windows and doors. </li></ul><ul><li>Spray the room with an insecticide before entering to kill any mosquitoes that have got inside during the day. </li></ul><ul><li>use a mosquito net around the bed, impregnated with an insecticide such as pyrethrum </li></ul><ul><li>Long trousers, long-sleeved clothing and socks to stop the mosquitoes biting </li></ul>Avoid mosquito bites
  8. 9. Use mosquito repellent cream <ul><li>Mosquito repellent containing diethyl toluamide (DEET) -the most effective form of bite-preventive treatment,safe in adults, children and pregnant women. </li></ul><ul><li>Insect repellents containing over 30 per cent DEET will effectively repel mosquitoes when applied to exposed skin . </li></ul>
  9. 10. Mosquito nets <ul><li>When sleeping outdoors or in an unscreened room, have an insecticide-treated mosquito net around your bed. </li></ul><ul><li>The net should be small-meshed, with no holes, and tucked in under the bottom sheet. During the day, it should be rolled up. </li></ul>
  10. 11. INSECTICIDE TREATED NETS <ul><li>Pyrethroids – </li></ul><ul><li>low residual action </li></ul><ul><li>Low mammalian toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>< 4 fluid ounces / per acre </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical barrier </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical protection </li></ul>Improves effectiveness
  11. 12. <ul><li>Reduces vector populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Shortens the mean mosquito life span. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces malaria sporozoite rate </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits mosquito feeding </li></ul>Reduces the reproductive potential of vectors ADVANTAGES:
  12. 13. GENERAL APPLICABILITY <ul><li>Studies suggest – Community wide distribution of ITN – Cost effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated nets – 50% protection </li></ul><ul><li>Main drawback – Low retreatment rate </li></ul><ul><li>Solution – Long Lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) </li></ul><ul><li>Rebound from partial control of transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Partial control interferes with the natural history of immunity in the intense perennial transmission zones </li></ul><ul><li>Postpones malaria morbidity & death </li></ul>
  13. 14. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL <ul><li>Gambusia Affinis </li></ul><ul><li>Eucalyptus tree </li></ul><ul><li>130 Kilodalton – Bacillus thuringiensis - Cyanobacterium agmenellum - Quadruplicatum </li></ul>
  14. 15. Larvicides : <ul><li>Oiling or dusting with Paris Green. (bonide, </li></ul><ul><li>Golden bear). </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance – Modern larvicides ( 1% </li></ul><ul><li>TEMEPHOS - Abate) – long effect, low toxicity. </li></ul><ul><li>Monomolecular films – Arosurf MSF, Agnique </li></ul><ul><li>MMF </li></ul>:
  15. 16. Source reduction : <ul><li>Reduce breeding sites </li></ul><ul><li>Draining / filling </li></ul><ul><li>Deepening / flushing </li></ul><ul><li>Management of water level </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the salt content of water & </li></ul><ul><li>intermittent irrigation </li></ul>

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