2 Malaria Epidemiology

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2 Malaria Epidemiology

  1. 1. K.A.ABINAYA PRE-FINAL YEAR
  2. 2. EPIDEMIOLOGIC INTERACTIONS
  3. 3. <ul><li>AGENT FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>MALARIA IS CAUSED BY 4 DIFF SPECIES OF PLASMODIUM </li></ul><ul><li>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PLASMODIA </li></ul><ul><li>IN INDIA: </li></ul><ul><li>P.MALARIAE-KARNATAKA </li></ul><ul><li>P.OVALE:TROPICAL AFRICA,VIETNAM </li></ul>INFECTION % PLASMODIUM SPECIES 70% P.VIVAX 25-30% P.FALCIPARUM 4-8% MIXED LESS THAN 1% P.MALARIAE
  4. 4. LIFE HISTORY OF MALARIAL PARASITE
  5. 5. <ul><li>ANIMAL RESERVOIR </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN RESERVOIR </li></ul><ul><li>CHILDREN AS RESERVOIRS </li></ul><ul><li>CONDITIONS TO SERVE AS A RESEROVIR: </li></ul><ul><li>BOTH SEXES OF GAMETOCYTES IN BLOOD </li></ul><ul><li>GAMETOCYTES MUST BE MATURE </li></ul><ul><li>GAMETOCYTES MUST BE VIABLE </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENT IN SUFFICIENT DENSITY- AT LEAST 12 /cu.mm OF BLOOD </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>AS LONG AS MATURE, VIABLE GAMETOCYTES IN BLOOD </li></ul><ul><li>GAMETOCYTES IN SUFFICIENT DENSITY </li></ul><ul><li>VIVAX INFECTION:4-5 DAYS </li></ul><ul><li>FALCIPARUM INFECTION :10-12 DAYS </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>RELAPSES : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VIVAX AND OVALE MALARIA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 YRS AFTER FIRST ATTACK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ORIGINAL SPOROZOITE INDUCED LIVER SCHIZONTS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RECURRENCES: </li></ul><ul><li>FALCIPARUM AND P.MALARIAE </li></ul><ul><li>CHRONIC BLOOD INFECTION </li></ul><ul><li>ERYTHROCYTIC SCHIZOGONY LOW LEVEL PERSISTENCE </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>AGE : </li></ul><ul><li>* ALL AGES </li></ul><ul><li>*NEW BORNS-CONSIDERABLE RESISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>SEX : MALES </li></ul><ul><li>RACE : SICKLE CELL TRAIT </li></ul><ul><li>DUFFY NEGATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>PREGNANCY :I UD OF FETUS,PRE MATURE LABOR, </li></ul><ul><li>ABORTION </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT : DIS APPEARED IN DEVELOPED NATIONS </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>HOUSING: </li></ul><ul><li>ILL VENTILATED AND ILL LIGHTED HOUSES </li></ul><ul><li>SITE,TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION, </li></ul><ul><li>NATURE OF WALLS-CONTROL PLANNING </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION MOBILITY: </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNAL MIGRATION </li></ul><ul><li>OCCUPATION : </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN HABITS : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLEEPING OUTDOORS, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REFUSAL TO SPRAYING,NOMADISM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMMUNITY : </li></ul><ul><li>AQUIRED AFTER REPEATED EXPOSURE </li></ul><ul><li>IN ENDEMIC AREAS: </li></ul><ul><li>INFANTS BORN: </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIES SPECIFIC: </li></ul><ul><li>SEMI-IMMUNE INDIVIDUALS: </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>SEASONAL DISEASE :JULY TO NOV </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPERATURE : </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIMAL TEMP:20-30 DEGREES C </li></ul><ul><li>IF TEMP BELOW 16 DEGREES C </li></ul><ul><li>TEMP >30 DEGREES C-LETHAL </li></ul><ul><li>HUMIDITY: RELATIVE HUMIDITY 60% </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>RAIN FALL: </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASES ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY </li></ul><ul><li>HEAVY RAIN- ADVERSE EFFECT </li></ul><ul><li>PARODOXICALLY, IN SRI LANKA-EPIDEMIC AFTER DROUGHT </li></ul><ul><li>ALTITUDE : NOT FOUND ABOVE 2000-2500 M </li></ul><ul><li>MAN-MADE MALARIA :BURROW PITS,GARDEN POOLS, IRRIGATION CHANNELS etc </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>FEW INTERSTING FACTS ON ANOPHELES : </li></ul><ul><li>HOW DOES A MOSQUITO BITE???(DOES IT BITE?!!?) </li></ul><ul><li>WHY DOES A MOSQUITO NEED HUMAN BLOOD? </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN DOES ANOPHELES BITE MAN? </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>HOW FAR DO THE MOSQUITOES FLY? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW LONG DO THEY LIVE? </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE DO THEY HIDE? </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE DO THEY LAY EGGS? </li></ul><ul><li>A. (A.)  sacharovi </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  aconitus </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  annularis </li></ul><ul><li>A.(C.)  culicifacies </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  fluviatilis </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  jeyporiensis </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  minimus </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  philippinensis </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  pulcherrimus </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  stephensi  malariaspecies.html </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  sundaicus </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  superpictus </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  tessellatus </li></ul><ul><li>A. (C.)  varuna </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>FACTORS DETERMINING VECTORIAL IMPORTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>DENSITY </li></ul><ul><li>CRITICAL DENSITY </li></ul><ul><li>AN.CULICIFACIES-HIGH DENSITY </li></ul><ul><li>AN.FLUVIATILIS-LOW DENSITY </li></ul><ul><li>LIFE SPAN </li></ul><ul><li>VECTOR-SHOULD LIVE ATLEAST 10 TO 12 DAYS AFTER AN INFECTIVE BLOOD MEAL. </li></ul><ul><li>STRATEGY IN ERADICATION </li></ul><ul><li>CHOICE OF HOST </li></ul><ul><li>ANTHROPOPHILIC </li></ul><ul><li>ZOOPHILIC </li></ul><ul><li>RESTING HABIT </li></ul><ul><li>ENDOPHILY </li></ul><ul><li>EXOPHILY </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>BREEDING HABITS </li></ul><ul><li>MOVING WATER-AN.FLUVIATILIS </li></ul><ul><li>BRACKISH WATER-AN. SUNDAICUS </li></ul><ul><li>STAGNANT WATER-AN.STEPHENSI </li></ul><ul><li>TIME OF BITING </li></ul><ul><li>VECTORIAL CAPACITY </li></ul><ul><li>DENSITY OF THE VECTOR POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFECTION </li></ul><ul><li>LIFE SPAN </li></ul><ul><li>PROBABILITY OF FEEDING ON MAN </li></ul><ul><li>RESISTANCE TO INSECTICIDES </li></ul>
  16. 17. VECTOR DIRECT CONGENITAL
  17. 18. <ul><li>VECTOR TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>CERTAIN SPECIES OF INFECTED FEMALE AN. MOSQUITOES </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>ACCIDENTALLY BY I.M. OR I.V. </li></ul><ul><li>PARASITES SURVIVE ATLEAST 14 DAYS IN BLOOD STORED AT -4°C </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONS WHO HAVE LIVED IN AN ENDEMIC AREA AND </li></ul><ul><li>THOSE WHO HAD MALARIA SHOULD NOT BE ACCEPTED AS BLOOD DONORS UNTIL 3 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>CONGENITAL TRANSMISSION </li></ul>

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