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1 Malaria Intro

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malaria symposium kmc

malaria symposium kmc

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  • 1. WELCOME
  • 2. MALARIA
  • 3. What is malaria?
    • One of the oldest diseases
    • Protozoal disease – plasmodium sp.
    • Female anopheles mosquito
    • Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease.
    • It is a public health problem today in more than 100 countries inhabited by some 2,400 million people -- 40 percent of the world's population.
    • Malaria is estimated to cause 300- 500 million clinical cases and over one million deaths each year.
    • Every 30 seconds, a child somewhere dies of malaria. In any given year, nearly ten percent of the global population will suffer a case of malaria.
    • Most survive after an illness of 10-20 days.
  • 4. HISTORY OF MALARIA
    • Mal-bad , aria-air----originally thought to be acquired from marshes and stagnant swamps
    • 5th century B.c- Hippocrates classified into quotidian , tertian and quartan
    • Roman soldiers too camped away from swamps during war times
    • Alphonse Laveran – 1 st person to try associate malaria to mosquitoes
    • Sir Ronald Ross- confirmed mosquitoes as hosts for malarial parasite in India
  • 5. HISTORICAL MILESTONES-I
    • MALARIA PARASITES AND TRANSMISSION
    • 1 ST defn. by Celsus
    • 1880 –Laveran malarial parasites in blood
    • 1897 –Ronald Ross, P.falciparum and its life cycle in sparrows
    • 1922- P.ovale – Stephens
    • TREATMENT
    • 1600- Juan Lopez peruvian tree bark
    • 1934-chloroquine
    • 1979 -82 chloroquine Resistant sp.
    • 1989 halofantrine ,1991-98 artemisinins established
  • 6. HISTORICAL MILESTONES-II
    • EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CONTROL
    • 1899- Ross ,antilarval measures in sierra leone
    • 1927 – A.albimanu eradicated in africa
    • 1935-39 India , 1 st large scale pyrethrum spraying- control rural malaria
    • 1953-National anti-malarial program
    • 1957- concept and practice of malarial eradication –WHO
    • 1998-WHO Roll back malaria
  • 7. Problem statement
    • WORLD
    • about 109 countries endemic
    • 3.3 billion at risk
    • 247 cases in 2006
    • 97 % from african nations
    • Deaths 8,87,000- 91 % africa!!
    • 85%- children <5 yrs- mainly cerebral malaria
    • Incidence increasing in south Asia
    • Drug resistance – Bhutan,Thailand,myanmar & indonesia
  • 8. Prevalence map of malaria
  • 9. Problem statement
    • INDIA
    • P.falciparum main organism
    • N.E. states,chattisgarh , M.P , A.P ,gujarat are most affected
    • Most of the areas remote and involves tribal population
    • 2005- total—1.80 mn , Pf -0.79 mn
    • 2006- total –1.67 mn , Pf-0.75 mn
    • No of deaths remains same
  • 10. PROBLEM STATEMENT
    • TAMILNADU
    • Urban more significant
    • Chennai, Erode , salem , dindigul , tuticorin
    • Rural- villupuram , krishnagiri , dharmapuri, areas around saathanur dam , rameswaram ( chloroquine resistant )
    • Chennai City contributes 60–70% malaria of Tamil Nadu
  • 11. Endemic regions of Tamilnadu
  • 12. Major epidemiological types in india
    • Tribal -limited health infrastructure & lack of drugs
    • Rural -irrigated areas , moderate health infrastructure
    • Urban -moderate to low endemicity , P.vivax
    • Malaria in project areas- in areas where there is inflow of people due to construction activities
    • Border malaria- along state and international borders, poor administrative control
  • 13. OTHER TYPES
    • Therapeutic malaria or malariotherapy-in the 1920s Julius wagner-jauregg intentionally induced malaria to treat diseases like neurosyphilis
    • Transfusion malaria is spread through blood transfusion , onset is early within 3 weeks
    • Imported malaria- immigrants from endemic areas moving into non-endemic areas spread the disease
  • 14. WORLD MALARIA DAY
    • 25 th april
    • Instituted by world health assembly in may,2007
    • Countries to learn , share and support each other in anti-malarial measures
    • Anti-malarial month- june