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TUBERCULOSIS
HISTORY <ul><li>Discovered about 18000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Tubercular decays found in the spine of mummies </li></...
OTHER NAMES <ul><li>PHTHISIS </li></ul><ul><li>CONSUMPTION </li></ul><ul><li>SCROFULA </li></ul><ul><li>WHITE PLAGUE </li>...
 
FAMOUS SCIENTISTS <ul><li>IBN SINA- First to identify TB as communicable disease </li></ul><ul><li>RICHARD MORTON- Describ...
MARCH 24 th
EPIDEMIOLOGY <ul><li>According to WHO one third of the world population is exposed to risk of TB </li></ul><ul><li>Annuall...
 
PROBLEM STATEMENT-WORLD ARI% ANNUAL  DECLINE % GROUP 0.1-0.01 >10 GROUP I  (Industrialized countries eg. Norway) 0.5-1.5 5...
GLOBAL TRENDS IN TB
PROBLEM STATEMENT- INDIA PARAMETER STATISTICS POPULATION AFFECTED 1151 MILLION INCIDENCE 168 PREVALANCE 299 TB MORTALITY /...
PATTERN OF TB IN INDIA <ul><li>2 out of every 5 Indians are affected with TB </li></ul><ul><li>A  patient with infectious ...
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INDICES <ul><li>PREVALANCE OF INFECTION - %  of individuals who show positive response to  the standard TU...
<ul><li>PREVALANCE OF DISEASE- % of people whose sputum is positive for TUBERCLE bacilli on microscopic examination. </li>...
<ul><li>PREVALANCE OF DRUG RESISTANT CASES – It is the prevalence of people excreting tubercle bacilli resistant to ATT.  ...
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS AGENT HOST ENVIRONMENT
AGENT FACTORS
<ul><li>AGENT  -  MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.  Recently atypical mycobacterium . It is of four types.  </li></ul><ul><li>p...
HOST FACTORS <ul><li>AGE  – All ages affected </li></ul><ul><li>SEX  – Males </li></ul><ul><li>HERIDITARY - No role </li><...
ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS <ul><li>Poor quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Poor housing </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowding </li></ul>...
 
 
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1. Intro

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Transcript of "1. Intro"

  1. 2. TUBERCULOSIS
  2. 3. HISTORY <ul><li>Discovered about 18000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Tubercular decays found in the spine of mummies </li></ul><ul><li>PHTHISIS Greek word for TB </li></ul><ul><li>Describes by HIPPOCRATES as a fatal disease </li></ul>
  3. 4. OTHER NAMES <ul><li>PHTHISIS </li></ul><ul><li>CONSUMPTION </li></ul><ul><li>SCROFULA </li></ul><ul><li>WHITE PLAGUE </li></ul><ul><li>LUPUS VULGARIS </li></ul><ul><li>KINGS EVIL </li></ul><ul><li>KOCH’S DISEASE </li></ul>
  4. 6. FAMOUS SCIENTISTS <ul><li>IBN SINA- First to identify TB as communicable disease </li></ul><ul><li>RICHARD MORTON- Described the association of pulmonary form with tubercles </li></ul><ul><li>SCHONLEIN- Coined term tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>ROBERT KOCH- Discovered MYCOBACTERIUM </li></ul><ul><li>ALBERT CALMETTE and GUIRREIN- Developed BCG vaccine </li></ul>
  5. 7. MARCH 24 th
  6. 8. EPIDEMIOLOGY <ul><li>According to WHO one third of the world population is exposed to risk of TB </li></ul><ul><li>Annually 8 million affected </li></ul><ul><li>2 million deaths every year </li></ul><ul><li>Most important cause of death in people with HIV infection </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest infectious killer in women of reproductive age group. </li></ul>
  7. 10. PROBLEM STATEMENT-WORLD ARI% ANNUAL DECLINE % GROUP 0.1-0.01 >10 GROUP I (Industrialized countries eg. Norway) 0.5-1.5 5-10 GROUP II (Middle income countries eg. Latin America) 1-2.5 <5 GROUP III ( Middle income countries eg. SEA) 1-2.5 0-3 GROUP IV ( Sub saharan Africa, INDIA)
  8. 11. GLOBAL TRENDS IN TB
  9. 12. PROBLEM STATEMENT- INDIA PARAMETER STATISTICS POPULATION AFFECTED 1151 MILLION INCIDENCE 168 PREVALANCE 299 TB MORTALITY / 100000 POPULATION 28 % OF NEW TB CASES HIV POSITIVE 1.2% % OF NEW CASES MULTIDRUG RESISTANT 2.8% GLOBAL RANK 1
  10. 13. PATTERN OF TB IN INDIA <ul><li>2 out of every 5 Indians are affected with TB </li></ul><ul><li>A patient with infectious TB can infect 15 people. </li></ul><ul><li>More prevalent in adults in INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>15-54 age group is the most affected </li></ul><ul><li>MSSore than 3 billion us $ is spent on TB each year. </li></ul>
  11. 14. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INDICES <ul><li>PREVALANCE OF INFECTION - % of individuals who show positive response to the standard TUBERCULIN test. </li></ul><ul><li>INCIDENCE OF INFECTION - % of population under study which becomes newly infected among the non infected of the preceding survey during the course of one year. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>PREVALANCE OF DISEASE- % of people whose sputum is positive for TUBERCLE bacilli on microscopic examination. </li></ul><ul><li>INCIDENCE OF NEW CASES- % of new TB cases / 1000 population occurring during one year. </li></ul><ul><li>PREVALANCE OF SUSPECT CASES – Based on X ray examination of chest. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>PREVALANCE OF DRUG RESISTANT CASES – It is the prevalence of people excreting tubercle bacilli resistant to ATT. It is directly related to chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>MORTALITY RATE – Number of deaths from TB every year / 1000 population . This index is not used now. </li></ul>
  14. 17. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS AGENT HOST ENVIRONMENT
  15. 18. AGENT FACTORS
  16. 19. <ul><li>AGENT - MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Recently atypical mycobacterium . It is of four types. </li></ul><ul><li>photochromogens </li></ul><ul><li>Scotochromogens </li></ul><ul><li>Non photochromogens </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid growers </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCE OF INFECTION- Human and Bovine </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICABILITY - Infective till untreated </li></ul>
  17. 20. HOST FACTORS <ul><li>AGE – All ages affected </li></ul><ul><li>SEX – Males </li></ul><ul><li>HERIDITARY - No role </li></ul><ul><li>NUTRITION - Malnutrition is a predisposing factor. </li></ul><ul><li>IMMUNITY - As a result of infection or BCG immunization. </li></ul>
  18. 21. ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS <ul><li>Poor quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Poor housing </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowding </li></ul><ul><li>Under nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of education </li></ul><ul><li>Early marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Large families </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of awareness </li></ul>
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