On the individual level, knowing why should always be our goal and effective treatment should be the result So how do we find out why? Through the process of functional assessment.
“ Fix” tasks-tell question/answer ahead of time; prepare student that he will be called on, read story ahead of time. Behavior Momentum: slip in non-preferred task into series of preferred activities Ex. Hey you just earned yourself a token. Hey, good job, slap me five. Way to go! Open your book. Nicer job coming in from lunch. Give yourself a pat on the back. Take out your math book. Prompt incompatible: knitting/eating; carrying books/walking in line bothering people Any attention-good or bad; Donald Graves activity
BREAKING DOWN THE WALLS Strategies for Defiant Children Presented by: Steven Vitto, M.A., CCII., CTCI., MIBLSI Coach, Behavior Specialist, Muskegon Area ISD The 2010 Challenge of Children Conference
The research is clear. In over 10,000 studies conducted all over the world, the most common variable associated with a child having a healthy social emotional adjustment is: a. strict discipline and limit b. consistent punitive consequences for bad behaviors c. being your child’s friend d. rewarding good behavior e. believing that they are loved Multiple Choice
The research is clear. In over 10,000 studies conducted all over the world the most common variable associated with a child having a hearty social emotional adjustment is:
When they also often take the child's behavior personally, seeing his negativity as aimed directly at them instead of as an attempt to organize his world, the situation is compounded. "He's just doing that to make me angry
Behavior Mantra: “ It is easier to prevent a behavior from occurring than to deal with it after it has happened.” The best intervention is prevention!! Bausano & Vitto, 2007 Slide 18
Learn your child’s triggers Contra-Indicated Behaviors Strategies for the Oppositional Student
Strict Boundaries: Drawing the Line in the Sand
Counts, Warnings, Threats
Infringing on Personal Space
Response Cost and Punishment
Strict Boundaries or Contracts
Are response cost systems contributing to defiance and aggression?
Are we using evidenced based behavior management ?
Is there a balance, better yet, an overbalance of Positive Incentives and Feedback for Desired Behavior?
Are we over-relying response cost systems to manage behaviors (i.e. taking things away)?
Power and control approaches can backfire with the oppositional child resulting in passive aggressive attempts to maintain control.
The Parenting Tips Booklet Positive Approaches for Challenging Behaviors Developed by Susan Mack, MA Steven Vitto, MA MAISD Behavioral Consultants A POSITIVE BEHAVIORAL SUPPORTS PROJECT
An explanation of the diagram can be found on the slides that follow.
An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. Slow Triggers (Setting Events) Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Behavior Problem Actual Consequences Perceived Function Events that may occur before and/or during the targeted response that causes the student to respond to a “typical” situation in an “atypical” way. Specific conditions, events, or activities that make the problem behavior worse? (missed medication, history, Lack of sleep, illness, ADHD, temperament, Generalized Anxiety, etc. Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, correction, social disapproval, conflict with sibling, change in routine An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern (“No” I won’t do it.”” I did not!!” Those events that occur after the behavior (e.g., peer attention, escape task) or as a result of the behavior (e.g., time out, spanking, loss of privilage) What usually happens after the behavior occurs? (e.g., parental reactions, other sibling’ reactions, power struggle …) Obtain Attention Escape or Avoid Avoid adult control Obtain Sensory
What are the triggers or antecedents of your child’s behavior?
Given a group or individual direction
Given a demand to perform a task or routine
Expectation to follow a rule or expectation
(keep hands to self, wait your turn, sit quietly)
The removal or reduction of direct adult supervision
(outside, sibling interactions, playing with friends, alone time)
Limited access to a preferred item or activity
Expectation to terminate a desired activity
Being told “no” or “not now”
Behavior targets peers and/or adults, or specific adults
(e.g., mom or dad)
Consequences What are the consequences when your child engages in the problem behavior
Oppositional Defiant Disorder is the persistent pattern (lasting for at least 6 months) of disobedient, hostile, negativistic, and defiant behavior in a child or teen without serious violation of the basic rights of others (mentalhealth.com).
If a student displays the same kinds of behavior that DOES violate the basic rights of others it is often labeled conduct disorder. Children with ODD often become adults with conduct disorder if the right steps aren’t taken to control the behavior. (Bailey and Northey and Silverman and Wells 2003)
The cause of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is unknown at
this time. The following are some of the theories being
It may be related to the child's temperament and the family's response to that temperament.
A predisposition to ODD is inherited in some families.
There may be problems in the brain that cause ODD.
It may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain.
Children with ODD have often experienced a break in
attachment or bonding during the first 2 years of life
How does a student with ODD think? (Frank et al. )
I am the equal of those in authority- no one has the right to tell me what to do.
Yes, I sometimes do the wrong thing, but it is usually your fault.
When you punish or reward me, I feel that you are trying to control or manipulate me.
Because I know how much you want me to change, I will be very stubborn about changing behaviors. In spite of experiencing your intended punishments and/or rewards, if I change, it will be on my time and for me.
My greatest sense of control comes from how I make others feel.
The Evolution of Adversarial Relationships and Subversion
As aberrant behaviors begin to surface an unhealthy communication paradigm emerges
Children can feel a greater sense of ownership when they are invited to contribute to their behavior management plan.
Children also tend to know better than anyone else what triggers will set off their problem behaviors and what strategies they find most effective in calming themselves and avoiding conflicts or other behavioral problems.
Have the Child Participate in Creating a Behavior Plan (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995).
Defiant Kids: Teacher Command Sequence: Extended Version
Make the request. Use simple, clear language that the student understands. If possible, phrase the request as a positive ( do ) statement, rather than a negative ( don ’ t ) statement. (E.g., “ John, please start your math assignment now. ” ) Wait a reasonable time for the student to comply (e.g., 5-20 seconds)
Have a Routine for Responding to Minor Problem Behavior Specific Request If, Compliance Walk Away & wait 5-10 seconds If, Non-Compliance Reinforce! “ Please _________” Request in a calm voice If, Compliance If, Noncompliance Preplanned Consequence Walk away & Wait 5-10 sec . Reinforce!