Steve Vitto Breaking Down the Walls for Karen West MATCEI CONFERENCE 2013

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presentation at spring 2013 MATCEI Conference in Mount Pleasant Michigan
Strategies for treating Defiance, Social Maladjustment, ODD
presented by Steven Vitto

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  • SUMMARIZE A CASE STUDY
  • 27
  • Problem behaviors are irrelevant when Child doesn’t need to escape anymore Child has access to positive events more commonly Problem behaviors are inefficient when Alternative behavior is available Alternative behavior is taught Problem behaviors are ineffective when Problem behavior NO LONGER works- it does not get the child what they want to obtain or what they want to avoid.
  • After developing an intervention pathway– make sure your plan has the three intervention components: Prevention – make the behavior irrelevant Change the environment so it’s not necessary Teaching – make the behavior inefficient Teach a replacement skill that works better Managing Function/Consequence – make the behavior ineffective Remove reinforcement of the problem behavior Maximize reinforcement of the replacement behavior
  • Problem behaviors are irrelevant when Child doesn’t need to escape anymore Child has access to positive events more commonly Problem behaviors are inefficient when Alternative behavior is available Alternative behavior is taught Problem behaviors are ineffective when Problem behavior NO LONGER works- it does not get the child what they want to obtain or what they want to avoid.
  • After developing an intervention pathway– make sure your plan has the three intervention components: Prevention – make the behavior irrelevant Change the environment so it’s not necessary Teaching – make the behavior inefficient Teach a replacement skill that works better Managing Function/Consequence – make the behavior ineffective Remove reinforcement of the problem behavior Maximize reinforcement of the replacement behavior
  • Steve Vitto Breaking Down the Walls for Karen West MATCEI CONFERENCE 2013

    1. 1. MATCEIMATCEIMichigan Association of Teachers ofMichigan Association of Teachers ofChildren with Emotional ImpairmentsChildren with Emotional ImpairmentsBREAKING DOWN THE WALLSBREAKING DOWN THE WALLSPresented by: Steven Vitto, M.A., CCII., CTCI., Behavior ConsultantPresented by: Steven Vitto, M.A., CCII., CTCI., Behavior ConsultantMuskegon Community College , State of Michigan MIBLSi TrainerMuskegon Community College , State of Michigan MIBLSi Trainer
    2. 2. Breaking Down the WallsBreaking Down the WallsAgendaAgenda The ChallengeThe Challenge Competing PathwaysCompeting Pathways Why we are here?Why we are here? Setting Events- The Power of RelationshipsSetting Events- The Power of Relationships The Crisis Cycle and CPI (Diffusion and De-escalation)The Crisis Cycle and CPI (Diffusion and De-escalation) Fast Triggers and PreventionFast Triggers and Prevention Replacement StrategiesReplacement Strategies Reinforcement Systems- Praise and SBIReinforcement Systems- Praise and SBI Consequence StrategiesConsequence Strategies The Tools- Evidence Based Classroom ManagementThe Tools- Evidence Based Classroom Management Children is Shut DownChildren is Shut Down Pathways TemplatePathways Template
    3. 3. Your ChallengeYour Challenge What would it take?What would it take? Can you preform the skill?Can you preform the skill? What supports would you need?What supports would you need? Under what conditions would you performUnder what conditions would you performthe skill?the skill?
    4. 4. What influences you?What influences you? Other people will be watching meOther people will be watching me I am uncomfortable doing that kind ofI am uncomfortable doing that kind ofthing in front of othersthing in front of others He is trying to prove a point of some kindHe is trying to prove a point of some kindand I don’t really trust himand I don’t really trust him The risk of not doing this well is far greatThe risk of not doing this well is far greattan the benefits of succeedingtan the benefits of succeeding
    5. 5. Potential Problems with PraisePotential Problems with Praise The Great Job SyndromeThe Great Job Syndrome I really like the way you….I really like the way you…. You are soooooo smartYou are soooooo smart You are a great athleteYou are a great athlete You are an amazing studentYou are an amazing studentConsider the SBI approach…Consider the SBI approach…Situation, Behavior, ImpactSituation, Behavior, ImpactWhen this happened, you did….., and the impact was ….When this happened, you did….., and the impact was ….That showed ….. (e.g., se;f control)That showed ….. (e.g., se;f control)
    6. 6. Potential Problems with ChoicesPotential Problems with Choices Do you want to do this?Do you want to do this? Would you like to do this?Would you like to do this? Would you come over and do this?Would you come over and do this? Is it alright if we do this?Is it alright if we do this?DISTINGUISH BETWEEN WHAT IS ADISTINGUISH BETWEEN WHAT IS ACHOICE AND WHAT IS A DIRECTION!!!CHOICE AND WHAT IS A DIRECTION!!!
    7. 7. Power based on RELATIONSHIP is aPower based on RELATIONSHIP is athousand times more effective andthousand times more effective andpermanent than the one derived from fearpermanent than the one derived from fearof punishment.of punishment.THE EVIDENCE
    8. 8. ``The key to controllingThe key to controllingsomeone else is teachingsomeone else is teachingthem how to controlthem how to controlyou!!you!!
    9. 9. DEFIANCEDEFIANCEWhat it looks like…What it looks like…
    10. 10. What effect it has on us..What effect it has on us..
    11. 11. How do we respond?How do we respond?
    12. 12. PAIR SHARE ACTIVITY #1PAIR SHARE ACTIVITY #1 Take a few minutes and discuss a childTake a few minutes and discuss a childyou are working with that displaysyou are working with that displaysdefiant behavior. What does thedefiant behavior. What does thebehavior look like? What effect does itbehavior look like? What effect does ithave on you?have on you?
    13. 13. STRATEGIES FOR DEFIANCESTRATEGIES FOR DEFIANCE
    14. 14. Competing Behavior ModelSettingEvents/Slow TriggersAntecedents/Fast TriggersDesiredBehaviorProblemBehaviorReplacement BehaviorReinforcingConsequenceReinforcingConsequencealternative,functionallyequivalentbehaviorLong-termdesiredbehavior
    15. 15. Slow TriggersSlow Triggers(Setting Events)(Setting Events)Fast TriggersFast Triggers(Antecedents)(Antecedents)BehaviorBehaviorProblemProblemActualActualConsequencesConsequencesPerceivedPerceivedFunctionFunctionEvents that mayoccur before and/orduring the targetedresponse thatcauses the studentto respond to a“typical” situation inan “atypical” way.Specific conditions,events, or activitiesthat make theproblem behaviorworse? (missedmedication, historyof academic failure,conflict at home,missed meals, lackof sleep, history ofproblems withpeers…Events with adiscrete onsetand offset, thatoccurimmediatelybefore thechallengingbehavior (e.g.,task demand,teacher direction,socialinteraction)Anobservableandmeasurabledescription ofthebehavior(s)of concern.Those events thatoccur after thebehavior (e.g., peerattention, escapetask) or as a result ofthe behavior (e.g.,time out,suspension,detention, …)What usuallyhappens after thebehavior occurs?(e.g., teacher’sreaction, otherstudents’ reactions,power struggle …)ObtainObtainAttentionAttentionEscape orEscape orAvoidAvoidAvoid adultAvoid adultcontrolcontrolObtainObtainSensorySensoryAn InitialLine o f Inq uiryStre ng ths o f stude nt: What the stude nt do e s we ll. Stude nt’s stre ng ths, g ifts, & tale nts.
    16. 16. When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication &teachers make multiple task demands, she makesnegative self-statements & writes profanelanguage on her assignments. Teaching stafftypically send her to the office with a disciplinereferral for being disrespectful.Setting event Antecedent Response ConsequenceMisses 12:30medicationTeachersmakemultipletask demandsSequoia makesnegative self-statements &writes profanelanguageTeacher sendsSequoia tooffice for beingdisrespectfulWhat function?Avoid difficult taskstasks
    17. 17. Beginning the PathwaysBeginning the PathwaysDefining the behaviorDefining the behavior Define the behaviors of concernDefine the behaviors of concern Refusing to follow directionsRefusing to follow directions What does the behavior look like?What does the behavior look like? How often does it occur?How often does it occur? How long does it last?How long does it last? How intensive is it (swearing versusHow intensive is it (swearing versussaying “ no way”?saying “ no way”? Prioritizing and clustering behaviorsPrioritizing and clustering behaviors
    18. 18. Identifying and Defining theIdentifying and Defining theProblem behaviorProblem behavior Why frequency may be skewed.Why frequency may be skewed. Why other kids may be doing the sameWhy other kids may be doing the samething and it may not be as problematic.thing and it may not be as problematic. What does it mean to be out of control?What does it mean to be out of control? Can someone be out of control and stillCan someone be out of control and stillhave boundaries- i.e., absence ofhave boundaries- i.e., absence ofswearing, threatening ?swearing, threatening ?
    19. 19. What does the behaviorWhat does the behaviorlook like?look like? May be overt and disrespectfulMay be overt and disrespectful May be silly and uncaringMay be silly and uncaring May be partial refusal or completeMay be partial refusal or completeshutdownshutdown May be threatening and intimidatingMay be threatening and intimidating May be passive aggressiveMay be passive aggressive May occur with staff or adultsMay occur with staff or adults May translate to bullying peersMay translate to bullying peers
    20. 20. What are the triggers orWhat are the triggers orantecedents of your student’santecedents of your student’sbehavior?behavior? Given a group or individual directionGiven a group or individual direction Given a demand to perform a task or routineGiven a demand to perform a task or routine Expectation to follow a rule or expectationExpectation to follow a rule or expectation(keep hands to self, wait your turn, sit quietly)(keep hands to self, wait your turn, sit quietly) The removal or reduction of direct adult supervisionThe removal or reduction of direct adult supervision(recess, cafeteria, alone time)(recess, cafeteria, alone time) Limited access to a preferred item or activityLimited access to a preferred item or activity Expectation to terminate a desired activityExpectation to terminate a desired activity Being told “no” or “not now”Being told “no” or “not now” Behavior targets peers and/or adultsBehavior targets peers and/or adults
    21. 21. Being Accurate About TriggersBeing Accurate About Triggerssample responses for aggression and defiancesample responses for aggression and defiance I told him he could go outside until his work was finishedI told him he could go outside until his work was finished I told him to give me the Poke Man CardsI told him to give me the Poke Man Cards I told the class to put their head downI told the class to put their head down I told him to be quiet when he was talkng to his friendsI told him to be quiet when he was talkng to his friends I told him he needed to follow directionsI told him he needed to follow directions I told him he couldn’t take the book homeI told him he couldn’t take the book home We told him it was time to put the toy away.We told him it was time to put the toy away. I told him he couldn’t call his mom right now.I told him he couldn’t call his mom right now.Did these directions trigger the behavior or was itDid these directions trigger the behavior or was itthe staff response to the noncompliance??the staff response to the noncompliance??
    22. 22. ConsequencesConsequencesWhat are the consequences when yourWhat are the consequences when yourchild engages in the problem behaviorchild engages in the problem behavior IgnoringIgnoring Reprimands and social disapprovalReprimands and social disapproval Looses privileges or rewards at school or at homeLooses privileges or rewards at school or at home Loss of credit or bad gradesLoss of credit or bad grades Time outTime out Forced complianceForced compliance Gets attention from adults and peersGets attention from adults and peers Gets different reactions from different adultsGets different reactions from different adults Sent to office or suspendedSent to office or suspended Phone call homePhone call home Spanked or punished at homeSpanked or punished at home Gets Status or Attention from other StudentsGets Status or Attention from other Students Gets out of school work or non-preferred tasks orGets out of school work or non-preferred tasks oractivitiesactivities OtherOther
    23. 23. A Setting EventA Setting Event A pre-existing conditionA pre-existing condition The “origin” of the behaviorThe “origin” of the behavior Effected by historyEffected by history Effected by biologyEffected by biology Something we may or may not be able toSomething we may or may not be able tochangechange
    24. 24. Setting EventsSetting Events What are the causes of defiantWhat are the causes of defiantbehavior?behavior?
    25. 25. ATTACHMENT DISORDERATTACHMENT DISORDEROPPOSITIONAL DEFIANCE DISORDEROPPOSITIONAL DEFIANCE DISORDERCONDUCT DISORDERCONDUCT DISORDERATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDERATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDEREMOTIONAL IMPAIRMENTEMOTIONAL IMPAIRMENTASPERGERS SYNDROME-AUTISM SPECTRUMASPERGERS SYNDROME-AUTISM SPECTRUMDOWN SYNDROME-FRAGILE XDOWN SYNDROME-FRAGILE X
    26. 26. What is Social MaladjustmentWhat is Social Maladjustment Their antisocial behavior is most frequently seen asTheir antisocial behavior is most frequently seen asresulting from their tendency to place their ownresulting from their tendency to place their ownneeds above those of all other people and theneeds above those of all other people and theimmediate gratification that such behavior bringsimmediate gratification that such behavior bringsthem.them. These students are not in chronic distress (one ofThese students are not in chronic distress (one ofthe criteria for emotional disturbance under the law)the criteria for emotional disturbance under the law)although they can exhibit situational anxiety,although they can exhibit situational anxiety,depression, or distress in response to certaindepression, or distress in response to certainisolated events - particularly facing theisolated events - particularly facing theconsequences of their own actions.consequences of their own actions. These students do not typically respond to the sameThese students do not typically respond to the sametreatment interventions that benefit emotionallytreatment interventions that benefit emotionallydisordered students.disordered students.
    27. 27. What is OppositionalWhat is OppositionalDefiance Disorder?Defiance Disorder?
    28. 28. Definition of ODDDefinition of ODD Oppositional Defiant Disorder is the persistentOppositional Defiant Disorder is the persistentpattern (lasting for at least 6 months) ofpattern (lasting for at least 6 months) ofdisobedient, hostile, negativistic, and defiantdisobedient, hostile, negativistic, and defiantbehavior in a child or teen without seriousbehavior in a child or teen without seriousviolation of the basic rights of othersviolation of the basic rights of others(mentalhealth.com).(mentalhealth.com).If a student displays the same kinds of behavior thatIf a student displays the same kinds of behavior thatDOES violate the basic rights of others it is oftenDOES violate the basic rights of others it is oftenlabeled conduct disorder. Children with ODD oftenlabeled conduct disorder. Children with ODD oftenbecome adults with conduct disorder if the right stepsbecome adults with conduct disorder if the right stepsaren’t taken to control the behavior. (Bailey andaren’t taken to control the behavior. (Bailey andNorthey and Silverman and Wells 2003)Northey and Silverman and Wells 2003)
    29. 29. Signs of ODDSigns of ODD(Kirby 2002)(Kirby 2002) Oppositional Behaviors:Oppositional Behaviors:Often loses temper.Often loses temper.Often argues with adults.Often argues with adults.Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’requests or rules.requests or rules.Often deliberately annoys people.Often deliberately annoys people.Often blames others for his/her mistakes orOften blames others for his/her mistakes ormisbehavior.misbehavior.Is often touchy or easily annoyed by others.Is often touchy or easily annoyed by others.Is often angry or resentful.Is often angry or resentful.Is often spiteful or vindictive.Is often spiteful or vindictive.
    30. 30. ““But he can be charming and politeBut he can be charming and politewhen he want to…”when he want to…” My ODD son will walk half a block down the street to help aMy ODD son will walk half a block down the street to help asenior citizen bring in her groceries, but he won’t ever take outsenior citizen bring in her groceries, but he won’t ever take outthe trash at OUR house. Why is this?the trash at OUR house. Why is this? At the core, many ODD youngsters are good kids. They don’tAt the core, many ODD youngsters are good kids. They don’tnecessarily stop being good, kind and caring young peoplenecessarily stop being good, kind and caring young peoplesimply because they show a syndrome of behaviors. They aresimply because they show a syndrome of behaviors. They aregenerally selective, however, in where, how and with whomgenerally selective, however, in where, how and with whomthey will demonstrate their best side. (How about the teen whothey will demonstrate their best side. (How about the teen whocan give her parents mega-fits, yet spend an entire week atcan give her parents mega-fits, yet spend an entire week atchurch camp without an incident?)church camp without an incident?) Familiarity is also an issue here. Just about all of us will do orFamiliarity is also an issue here. Just about all of us will do orsay things to the folks we are closest to that we would neversay things to the folks we are closest to that we would neverdo or say to anyone else. We tend to be most “comfortable”do or say to anyone else. We tend to be most “comfortable”showing our true self and all its behavior to the folks we knowshowing our true self and all its behavior to the folks we knowvery, very well. In fact, one sure sign of an ODD youngstervery, very well. In fact, one sure sign of an ODD youngstergetting worse would be that he would no longer care to hidegetting worse would be that he would no longer care to hidehis at-home behaviorshis at-home behaviors..
    31. 31. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SMTHE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SMAND EIAND EIFor EI diagnosisFor EI diagnosis (even if the child reacts by externalizing - arguing, losing(even if the child reacts by externalizing - arguing, losingtemper, anger, initiating fights, physically cruel, destroying property, etc: )temper, anger, initiating fights, physically cruel, destroying property, etc: ) Impairment in affective regulation (anxious/depressed/unstable mood)Impairment in affective regulation (anxious/depressed/unstable mood) Low self-esteemLow self-esteem Tend to be rejected by othersTend to be rejected by others Outbursts are reactiveOutbursts are reactive Often feels regretOften feels regretFor SMFor SM, consider:, consider: Low fear, low anxiety, low behavior inhibitionLow fear, low anxiety, low behavior inhibition High daring/reward seekingHigh daring/reward seeking Preference for dangerous activitiesPreference for dangerous activities Insensitive to the emotional distress of othersInsensitive to the emotional distress of others Impaired conscience developmentImpaired conscience development A primary question to ask is, "Is the externalizing behavior more of a reaction orA primary question to ask is, "Is the externalizing behavior more of a reaction oris it planned?" and "Is the behavior an attempt to control their mood?" If yes,is it planned?" and "Is the behavior an attempt to control their mood?" If yes,then the child is probably ED.then the child is probably ED.
    32. 32. Students with EmotionalStudents with EmotionalImpairment engage inImpairment engage ininvoluntaryinvoluntary patterns ofpatterns ofbehavior and experiencebehavior and experienceinternalized distressinternalized distress aboutabouttheir behaviors.their behaviors.
    33. 33. Why Educate Ourselves AboutWhy Educate Ourselves AboutODD?ODD? Because each year we can expect to have atBecause each year we can expect to have atleast 1 student with ODD, and several more thatleast 1 student with ODD, and several more thatexhibit oppositional behavior at some time.exhibit oppositional behavior at some time. Because our lives will be a lot easier, and ourBecause our lives will be a lot easier, and ourclasses will be more productive, if we know howclasses will be more productive, if we know howto deal with oppositional behavior.to deal with oppositional behavior. Because all students have the right to learn inBecause all students have the right to learn inour classes, even those with ODD.our classes, even those with ODD. Because good teachers know that there are noBecause good teachers know that there are nobad students, just bad behaviors. When webad students, just bad behaviors. When weappropriately deal with the bad behaviors we getappropriately deal with the bad behaviors we getto see how awesome the student can truly be.to see how awesome the student can truly be.
    34. 34. Understanding AggressiveUnderstanding AggressiveBehaviorsBehaviors Reactive AggressionReactive AggressionAffective or expressive aggressionAffective or expressive aggressionLoss of control and emotional floodingLoss of control and emotional floodingEmotions are dominantEmotions are dominant Proactive AggressionProactive AggressionInstrumental or operant aggressionInstrumental or operant aggressionGoal orientedGoal orientedCognitions are dominantCognitions are dominantTCI TRAINING [11]
    35. 35. The Grocery StoreThe Grocery Store
    36. 36. What Causes OppositionalWhat Causes OppositionalDefiance Disorder?Defiance Disorder? The cause of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is unknown atThe cause of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is unknown atthis time. The following are some of the theories beingthis time. The following are some of the theories beinginvestigated:investigated: It may be related to the childs temperament and the familysIt may be related to the childs temperament and the familysresponse to that temperament.response to that temperament. A predisposition to ODD is inherited in some families.A predisposition to ODD is inherited in some families. There may be problems in the brain that cause ODD.There may be problems in the brain that cause ODD. It may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain.It may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain.Children with ODD have often experienced a break inChildren with ODD have often experienced a break inattachment or bonding during the first 2 years of lifeattachment or bonding during the first 2 years of life
    37. 37. Prognosis:Prognosis: Eighty percent of children with OppositionalEighty percent of children with OppositionalDefiance Disorder showed insecureDefiance Disorder showed insecureattachment.attachment. Insecurely attached children often grow up toInsecurely attached children often grow up tobecome insecurely attached parents, and thebecome insecurely attached parents, and thecycle continuescycle continues
    38. 38. ““AN ATTACHMENT DISORDER OCCURSAN ATTACHMENT DISORDER OCCURSWHEN THE ATTACHMENT PERIOD ISWHEN THE ATTACHMENT PERIOD ISDISRUPTED OR INADEQUATE, LEAVINGDISRUPTED OR INADEQUATE, LEAVINGTHE CHILD WITH THE INABILITY TO FORMTHE CHILD WITH THE INABILITY TO FORMA NORMAL RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERSA NORMAL RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERSAND CAUSING AN IMPAIRMENT INAND CAUSING AN IMPAIRMENT INDEVELOPMENT.”DEVELOPMENT.”
    39. 39. Characteristics or Symptoms ofCharacteristics or Symptoms ofAttachment Disorder:Attachment Disorder: Superficially charming: uses cuteness to get her or his way.Superficially charming: uses cuteness to get her or his way. Cruel to animals or people.Cruel to animals or people. Fascinated by fire/death/blood/gore.Fascinated by fire/death/blood/gore. Severe need for control over adults even over minute situations.Severe need for control over adults even over minute situations. Manipulative-plays adults against each other.Manipulative-plays adults against each other. Difficulty in making eye-contact.Difficulty in making eye-contact. Lack of affection on parental terms yet overly affectionate toLack of affection on parental terms yet overly affectionate tostrangers.strangers. Bossy.Bossy. Shows no remorse---seems to have no conscience.Shows no remorse---seems to have no conscience. Lies and steals.Lies and steals. Low impulse control.Low impulse control. Lack of cause/effect thinking.Lack of cause/effect thinking. Destructiveness to self, others and material things.Destructiveness to self, others and material things.
    40. 40. What the research says aboutWhat the research says aboutovercoming the effects of insecure orovercoming the effects of insecure orinterrupted attachment.interrupted attachment. Prognosis is TenuousPrognosis is Tenuous High Risk for Interpersonal ProblemsHigh Risk for Interpersonal Problems High Risk for Not Responding to TraditionalHigh Risk for Not Responding to TraditionalBehavioral Treatment ApproachesBehavioral Treatment Approaches High Risk for Oppositional DefianceHigh Risk for Oppositional DefianceDisorderDisorder High Risk for Conduct DisorderHigh Risk for Conduct Disorder Age of Intervention is a significant variableAge of Intervention is a significant variable Most Frequently Identified Protective FactorsMost Frequently Identified Protective Factorsinclude: Intelligence, Proximity, andinclude: Intelligence, Proximity, andConstancyConstancy
    41. 41. Students with conduct disorder engage inStudents with conduct disorder engage indeliberate acts of self-interest to gain attention or todeliberate acts of self-interest to gain attention or tointimidate others.intimidate others.They experience no distress or self-devaluation orThey experience no distress or self-devaluation orinternalized distress.internalized distress.
    42. 42. Conduct Disorder is best understood as aConduct Disorder is best understood as adistinctive pattern of antisocial behavior thatdistinctive pattern of antisocial behavior thatviolates the rights of others. Individuals withviolates the rights of others. Individuals withconduct disorder break rules/violate normsconduct disorder break rules/violate normsacross settings.across settings.Conduct DisorderConduct Disorder
    43. 43. Maladjusted/Conduct DisorderMaladjusted/Conduct Disorderstudents:students: perceive themselves as normalperceive themselves as normal are capable of behaving appropriatelyare capable of behaving appropriately choose to break rules and violate norms.choose to break rules and violate norms. view rule breaking as normal and acceptable.view rule breaking as normal and acceptable. are motivated by self-gain and strong survival skillsare motivated by self-gain and strong survival skills lack age appropriate concern for their behaviorlack age appropriate concern for their behavior displayed behavior which may be highly valued in adisplayed behavior which may be highly valued in asmall subgroupsmall subgroup display socialized or unsocialized forms ofdisplay socialized or unsocialized forms ofaggressionaggression due not display anxiety unless they fear being caughtdue not display anxiety unless they fear being caught intensity and duration of behavior differs markedlyintensity and duration of behavior differs markedlyfrom peer groupfrom peer group
    44. 44. ScottScott
    45. 45. The StatisticsThe Statistics Studies show that ODD presents in 5-15% of allStudies show that ODD presents in 5-15% of allschool aged children. (aacap.org)school aged children. (aacap.org) ODD is reported in boys almost twice as muchODD is reported in boys almost twice as muchas it is reported in girls. (Carlson and Gaub andas it is reported in girls. (Carlson and Gaub andTamm 1997).Tamm 1997). 50% of the children diagnosed with ODD are50% of the children diagnosed with ODD arealso diagnosed with ADHD. (Birmaher andalso diagnosed with ADHD. (Birmaher andBurke and Loeber 2002)Burke and Loeber 2002)
    46. 46. How does a student with ODD think?How does a student with ODD think?(Frank et al. )(Frank et al. ) I am the equal of those in authority- no one hasI am the equal of those in authority- no one hasthe right to tell me what to do.the right to tell me what to do. Yes, I sometimes do the wrong thing, but it isYes, I sometimes do the wrong thing, but it isusually your fault.usually your fault. When you punish or reward me, I feel that youWhen you punish or reward me, I feel that youare trying to control or manipulate me.are trying to control or manipulate me. Because I know how much you want me toBecause I know how much you want me tochange, I will be very stubborn about changingchange, I will be very stubborn about changingbehaviors. In spite of experiencing your intendedbehaviors. In spite of experiencing your intendedpunishments and/or rewards, if I change, it willpunishments and/or rewards, if I change, it willbe on my time and for me.be on my time and for me. My greatest sense of control comes from how IMy greatest sense of control comes from how Imake others feel.make others feel.
    47. 47. ““He doesn’t seem to have aHe doesn’t seem to have aconscience”conscience” ““He shows no remorse”He shows no remorse” ““He lies and steals”He lies and steals” ““He hurts other children.”He hurts other children.” ““He threatens adults.”He threatens adults.” ““He can be charming an polite.”He can be charming an polite.” ““He can turn his behavior on and off.”He can turn his behavior on and off.”
    48. 48. StudentsStudents who are prone to conflictwho are prone to conflictoften do poorly in school.often do poorly in school. They may act out in part to mask theirThey may act out in part to mask theirembarrassment about their limited academicembarrassment about their limited academicskills.skills. These students may also lack basic prosocialThese students may also lack basic prosocialstrategies that would help them to work throughstrategies that would help them to work througheveryday school difficulties.everyday school difficulties. These students may become confrontationalThese students may become confrontationalbecause they do not know how to ask for helpbecause they do not know how to ask for helpon a difficult assignment, lack the ability to siton a difficult assignment, lack the ability to sitdown with a peer and calmly talk through adown with a peer and calmly talk through aproblem, or are unable to negotiate politely withproblem, or are unable to negotiate politely witha teacher to get an extension on an assignment.a teacher to get an extension on an assignment.
    49. 49. Tabla RosaTabla Rosa
    50. 50. Many Kids Have Low Self Esteem &Negative Self Concepts Due To?• Rotten childhoods filled with negative experiences.•Abuse, neglect, and/or consistent messages of rejection.•Inconsistently due to multiple care-takers using verydifferent practices, and/or giving very different messages.•Inconsistent caretaking from primary adults who are:•alcoholic/substance addicted•mentally ill (unmanaged)•manic-depressive (unmanaged)•negatively oriented authoritarian personalities•incompetent due to lack of childrearing knowledge.
    51. 51. Reiterated negativelabels & messages:“You rude little son of a b----. When I catch you, I’ll…”“You little criminal. You’re going to end updead or in jail someday.”“Man, you’re strange.”“Why don’t you use your head once in awhile? Stupid.”“What’s wrong with you, anyway? Get outta myface before I…”“You little loser. Why can’t you be like Fran?”“You evil little beast! I’ll beat the devil out of you!” Client to psychologist friend of mine when the parent wasClient to psychologist friend of mine when the parent wasasked what he does when his 10 year old son acts upasked what he does when his 10 year old son acts up::““I tell him he’s an a- -h-leI tell him he’s an a- -h-le..””
    52. 52. The Perceptions That Might Develop FromMaltreatment, Neglect, Rejection• “My parents treated me badly.” (Fact)•“I can’t count on my parents to care forme or treat me well.” (Fact)• “I was treated badly because I am a bad person.Because I’m ‘BAD’, no one could ever like me,care for me, or treat me well.” (Di st ort ed belief)•“You say that you want to help me, but I know adults…When I show you why I’m not likeable, you’ll quicklyreject and hurt me like my parents (and past teachers).(Identity and reaction pattern become further ingrained~)• You say you’re different… While I hope that is true,you’ll have to PROVE IT!PROVE IT! ”(over & over again as I seek reassurance that you really are different).
    53. 53. Coercive Family Behavior and ConductCoercive Family Behavior and ConductProblemsProblems Conduct problems can evolveConduct problems can evolvefrom ongoing patterns offrom ongoing patterns ofcoercive parent-childcoercive parent-childinteractions that areinteractions that arecharacterized by;characterized by;Escalating parent and childEscalating parent and childdemands,demands,Escalating negativeEscalating negativeconsequencesconsequencesWhere the person whoWhere the person whodispenses the most negativedispenses the most negativeconsequence “wins”.consequence “wins”.Problems with “winning theProblems with “winning thebattle” while “losing thebattle” while “losing thewar”.war”.
    54. 54. Can Johnny Control HisCan Johnny Control HisBehavior?Behavior? Loss of Rational Control or Oscar WorthyLoss of Rational Control or Oscar WorthyPerformance?Performance?
    55. 55.  What are the setting events for yourWhat are the setting events for yourstudent?student?
    56. 56. What is the Function or MotivationWhat is the Function or Motivationof Defiant Behavior?of Defiant Behavior?ObtainObtain…… Peer AttentionPeer Attention Adult AttentionAdult Attention Items/ActivitiesItems/Activities(tangible)(tangible) Sensory (seeking)Sensory (seeking)Avoid…Avoid… Peer(s)Peer(s) AdultAdult Task or ActivityTask or Activity Sensory (defensive)Sensory (defensive)
    57. 57. What is the motivation or functionWhat is the motivation or functionof defiance?of defiance? Most adults say it is “control.”Most adults say it is “control.” But is reality is avoidance of being controlled byBut is reality is avoidance of being controlled byothers?others? In many instances the defiant student is resistingIn many instances the defiant student is resistingthe control of the adult, not trying to make thethe control of the adult, not trying to make theadult do something they don’t want to do.adult do something they don’t want to do. In many instances the defiant student is resistingIn many instances the defiant student is resistingthe agenda of the adult or authority figurethe agenda of the adult or authority figure
    58. 58. Imagine starting your day this way!Imagine starting your day this way! Someone comes in an wakes you 30 minutes before your alarm is setSomeone comes in an wakes you 30 minutes before your alarm is setto ring.to ring. Someone hands you some clothes and tell you this is what you’ll beSomeone hands you some clothes and tell you this is what you’ll bewearing today.wearing today. You sit down for breakfast and instead of your favorite frozen wafflesYou sit down for breakfast and instead of your favorite frozen wafflesyou are given two scrambled eggs.you are given two scrambled eggs. As you reach for your cup of coffee someone tells you it is bad for youAs you reach for your cup of coffee someone tells you it is bad for youand hand you a glass of grapefruit juice.and hand you a glass of grapefruit juice. As you walk out to the car you find a letter on your car saying you willAs you walk out to the car you find a letter on your car saying you willneed to walk today.need to walk today. When you get to school there is a sign on the door you usually enterWhen you get to school there is a sign on the door you usually entersaying go around to the other side of the building.saying go around to the other side of the building. When you get to your classroom you find your desk has been movedWhen you get to your classroom you find your desk has been movedto the other side of the room.to the other side of the room. When you go to log on your computer you find its been moved toWhen you go to log on your computer you find its been moved toanother room and you will be sharing it with the teacher next door.another room and you will be sharing it with the teacher next door.HOW WOULD ALL THESE EVENTS MAKE YOU FEEL??HOW WOULD ALL THESE EVENTS MAKE YOU FEEL??
    59. 59. Defiant Kids: Why Are There SoDefiant Kids: Why Are There SoMany Classroom Conflicts?Many Classroom Conflicts?Students may act out because:• they are embarrassed about (or try to hide) pooracademic skills• they enjoy ‘pushing the buttons’ of adults• they use misbehavior as a deliberate strategy tohave work expectations lightened• They have a difficult time relinquishing controlto authority figures• They may not see you rules as relevant orapplicable to them!
    60. 60. We all like to be in control of ourWe all like to be in control of ourlives. It’s how we meet that needlives. It’s how we meet that needthat sets us apart.that sets us apart.
    61. 61. What can a Child ControlWhat can a Child Control Items and Things-e.g., Video GamesItems and Things-e.g., Video Games Others-peers and adultsOthers-peers and adults Choosing to follow adult expectationsChoosing to follow adult expectations Choosing to participate or engageChoosing to participate or engage Appearance and HygieneAppearance and Hygiene Eating and toiletingEating and toileting
    62. 62. Attention, Sensory or Escape AvoidanceAttention, Sensory or Escape AvoidanceControlControl
    63. 63. THE FUNCTIONTHE FUNCTION What is the motivation or functionWhat is the motivation or functionof your child’ defiant behavior? Is itof your child’ defiant behavior? Is itattention, escape/avoidance,attention, escape/avoidance,control?control?Discuss your hypothesis with yourDiscuss your hypothesis with yourpartner.partner.Enter the function in your pathwaysEnter the function in your pathwaysform.form.
    64. 64. HOW TO WE BEST RESPOND?HOW TO WE BEST RESPOND?WHAT IS EVIDENCED BASED PRACTICEWHAT IS EVIDENCED BASED PRACTICE Setting Event StrategiesSetting Event Strategies Antecedent StrategiesAntecedent Strategies Teaching Replacement StrategiesTeaching Replacement Strategies Consequence StrategiesConsequence Strategiesa. reward systemsa. reward systemsb. reduction strategiesb. reduction strategies
    65. 65. Behavior Mantra:Behavior Mantra:““It is easier to prevent aIt is easier to prevent abehavior from occurringbehavior from occurringthan to deal with it after itthan to deal with it after ithas happened.”has happened.”
    66. 66. If you’ve told a child a thousandIf you’ve told a child a thousandtimestimesand she/he still doesn’tand she/he still doesn’tunderstand,understand,then it is not the CHILDthen it is not the CHILDwho is the slow learner!who is the slow learner!AnonymousAnonymous70
    67. 67. Specialized IndividualInterventions(Individual StudentSystem)Continuum of Effective BehaviorSupportSpecialized GroupInterventions(At-Risk System)Universal Interventions(School-Wide SystemClassroom System)StudentswithoutSeriousProblemBehaviors(80 -90%)Students At-Riskfor ProblemBehavior(5-15%)Students withChronic/IntenseProblem Behavior(1 - 7%)Primary PreventionSecondary PreventionTertiary PreventionAll Students in SchoolCirca 1996
    68. 68. RTI- Are classroom response costRTI- Are classroom response costsystems contributing to defiance?systems contributing to defiance? Response to InterventionResponse to Intervention Are we using evidenced based classroom behaviorAre we using evidenced based classroom behaviormanagement systems at the universal level? Aremanagement systems at the universal level? Areclassroom response cost systems evidenced based?classroom response cost systems evidenced based?Is there a balance, better yet, an overbalance ofIs there a balance, better yet, an overbalance ofPositive Incentives and Feedback for DesiredPositive Incentives and Feedback for DesiredBehavior?Behavior? When universal consequences (e.g., ClassroomWhen universal consequences (e.g., ClassroomResponse Cost System) are not effective, or whenResponse Cost System) are not effective, or whenthey trigger an escalation of behavior, do wethey trigger an escalation of behavior, do wedifferentiate our approach?differentiate our approach? Are we over-relying on classroom response costAre we over-relying on classroom response costsystems to manage student behaviors?systems to manage student behaviors?
    69. 69. Potential Problems with the RedPotential Problems with the RedLight SystemLight System The Case Against Flip ChartsThe Case Against Flip ChartsHOWWOULDYOUFEEL?
    70. 70. SelfSelfdisciplinedisciplineisn’t taughtisn’t taughtininobedienceobedienceschool.school.
    71. 71.  When teachers attempt to overpower a kidWhen teachers attempt to overpower a kidwho has defeated more powerfulwho has defeated more powerfuladversaries, they fight a losing battle.adversaries, they fight a losing battle. These teachers create the very conflict aboutThese teachers create the very conflict aboutwhich they complainwhich they complain..
    72. 72. Limits of Traditional ApproachesLimits of Traditional ApproachesBehavior ModificationBehavior Modification Children with ODD have unique temperaments.Children with ODD have unique temperaments.Because they are impulsive, they are incapable ofBecause they are impulsive, they are incapable ofusing the promise of reward or the threat ofusing the promise of reward or the threat ofpunishment to change their behavior. Furthermore,punishment to change their behavior. Furthermore,when the child with ODD strives for a reward butwhen the child with ODD strives for a reward butnever earns it or worries about a punishment butnever earns it or worries about a punishment butnever avoids it, he or she gives up on the adult whonever avoids it, he or she gives up on the adult whodangles the carrot or wags the stick.dangles the carrot or wags the stick. The bond between them weakens and eventuallyThe bond between them weakens and eventuallybreaks. What is worse is that these childrenbreaks. What is worse is that these childrenfrequently give up on themselvesfrequently give up on themselves..
    73. 73. Underlying Systems of ControlUnderlying Systems of Controlin Schoolin School The use of reinforcementThe use of reinforcement Response Cost-loss of privileges, loss of points,Response Cost-loss of privileges, loss of points,loss of access to reinforcing events, etc.loss of access to reinforcing events, etc. Restrictive classroom rules and boundaries-e.g.,Restrictive classroom rules and boundaries-e.g.,“ No going in my desk.”“ No going in my desk.”““ Not going into this area.”Not going into this area.”““ No talking while in line.”No talking while in line.”““ Sitting with both both feet on the floor.”Sitting with both both feet on the floor.”““ Raising your hand before talking.”Raising your hand before talking.” Expecting immediate complianceExpecting immediate compliance Following my rulesFollowing my rules Suspension, Detention, and other forms ofSuspension, Detention, and other forms ofpunishment
    74. 74. Reconnaissance 101Reconnaissance 101 Gather information on your challenge.Gather information on your challenge. Use this information to inform your actions.Use this information to inform your actions. Sun Tzu:Sun Tzu: ((The art of warThe art of war).). The greatest victory isThe greatest victory isto win without ever having battledto win without ever having battled.. Tom McIntyre:Tom McIntyre: The sweetest victory is one inThe sweetest victory is one inwhich both sides are winnerswhich both sides are winners..
    75. 75. SETTING EVENTSETTING EVENTSTRATEGIESSTRATEGIES
    76. 76. SETTING EVENT STRATGIESSETTING EVENT STRATGIESGoal: to minimize or eliminate the effect thatGoal: to minimize or eliminate the effect thatthe setting event has on the child’s behaviorthe setting event has on the child’s behavior Can we eliminate the setting event?Can we eliminate the setting event?(making the behavior irrelevant)(making the behavior irrelevant) Can we take preventative actions to minimizeCan we take preventative actions to minimizethe setting event?the setting event? Can we provide systematic support toCan we provide systematic support togradually lessen the impact of the settinggradually lessen the impact of the settingevent?event? Can we bring home and school together?Can we bring home and school together?
    77. 77. Setting Event StrategiesSetting Event Strategies Building a connection or positiveBuilding a connection or positiverelationshiprelationship Designing the physical spaceDesigning the physical space Establishing a predictable agendaEstablishing a predictable agenda Establishing classroom expectationsEstablishing classroom expectations Establishing routinesEstablishing routines Meaningful InstructionMeaningful Instruction Allowing choicesAllowing choices Allowing leadership opportunitiesAllowing leadership opportunities
    78. 78. Changing PerspectiveChanging Perspective Does the defiant child think your behavior isDoes the defiant child think your behavior isabout your needs or his????about your needs or his???? Establishing Program Expectations andEstablishing Program Expectations andConsequencesConsequences Allowing the Child’s Input whenever possibleAllowing the Child’s Input whenever possible Reframe the child in a positive light. Can youReframe the child in a positive light. Can yougive him a clean slate every daygive him a clean slate every day Reflect back the person you would like him toReflect back the person you would like him tobecome.become.
    79. 79. Recovery PhaseRecovery PhaseTCI TRAINING [6]Higher (Educateur)No Change (Fire Fighter)Lower (Abuser)RecoveryPhase
    80. 80. How do we become an educateur?
    81. 81. Can you form relationships withCan you form relationships withthese children?these children? Yes, with time and time and more timeYes, with time and time and more time How:How:Eye contactEye contactTouchTouchSmileSmileWorking together in reciprocal wayWorking together in reciprocal wayDemonstrate affection regardless of responseDemonstrate affection regardless of responseConsistencyConsistencyReliabilityReliabilityProximityProximity
    82. 82. How do we establish positive relationshipsHow do we establish positive relationshipswith our studentswith our students?? Give them “the time of day”.Give them “the time of day”. Develop a history of positive interactions.Develop a history of positive interactions. Make sure that the first contact of the day or period is aMake sure that the first contact of the day or period is apositive one.positive one. Make sure that the last contact of the day is a positive one.Make sure that the last contact of the day is a positive one. Remain consistently supportive and encouraging, evenRemain consistently supportive and encouraging, evenwhen needing to administer consequences.when needing to administer consequences.““You made a mistake in judgment, but they are further and fartherYou made a mistake in judgment, but they are further and fartherbetween. I’m sure that the future will bring even more good choicesbetween. I’m sure that the future will bring even more good choices..”” Find the little bit of positive inside an inappropriate action.Find the little bit of positive inside an inappropriate action.““I admire your loyalty to friends. However, it is not OK to pummel othersI admire your loyalty to friends. However, it is not OK to pummel otherson their behalf.”on their behalf.”““Even though you refused the direction, I want to thank you for doing itEven though you refused the direction, I want to thank you for doing itwith acceptable words. That shows maturity. However, ...with acceptable words. That shows maturity. However, ...””
    83. 83. Teacher Tips on How to Deal withTeacher Tips on How to Deal withthe ODD Studentthe ODD Student(Barkley and Benton 1998) (Wenning 1999)(Barkley and Benton 1998) (Wenning 1999) Pick your battles- Keep in mind the struggles thatPick your battles- Keep in mind the struggles thatstudents with ODD go through everyday and allowstudents with ODD go through everyday and allowyourself to ignore some of the less serious behavior.yourself to ignore some of the less serious behavior. Don’t react, act- If you react you are giving the studentDon’t react, act- If you react you are giving the studentexactly what he/she wants.exactly what he/she wants. Act, don’t discuss- Prompt actions work better thenAct, don’t discuss- Prompt actions work better thentrying to reason with a student that has ODD. It cantrying to reason with a student that has ODD. It canquickly turn argumentative.quickly turn argumentative. Phrase directions as statements not as questions- If youPhrase directions as statements not as questions- If youask an ODD student to do something he/she probablyask an ODD student to do something he/she probablywon’t.won’t. Do not bring up the past- You can do nothing to changeDo not bring up the past- You can do nothing to changeit.it. Have clear rules and appropriate consequencesHave clear rules and appropriate consequences in place.in place.
    84. 84.  Students can feel a greater sense ofStudents can feel a greater sense ofownership when they are invited toownership when they are invited tocontribute to their behavior managementcontribute to their behavior managementplan. Students also tend to know betterplan. Students also tend to know betterthan anyone else what triggers will set offthan anyone else what triggers will set offtheir problem behaviors and whattheir problem behaviors and whatstrategies they find most effective instrategies they find most effective incalming themselves and avoiding conflictscalming themselves and avoiding conflictsor other behavioral problems.or other behavioral problems.Have the Student Participate in Creating aHave the Student Participate in Creating aBehavior Plan (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey,Behavior Plan (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey,1995).1995).
    85. 85. ANTECEDENT STRATEGIESANTECEDENT STRATEGIESshould make the target behaviorshould make the target behaviorirrelevantirrelevant
    86. 86. Antecendent StrategiesAntecendent Strategiesfor the Defiant Childfor the Defiant Child Should interrupt the conflict cycle before itShould interrupt the conflict cycle before itbeginsbegins Should be viewed as a process as the childShould be viewed as a process as the childdevelops more functional coping skills (e.g.,develops more functional coping skills (e.g.,saying “no”, providing choices)saying “no”, providing choices) Should be consistent as possible acrossShould be consistent as possible acrosscare providerscare providers Should have a goal of engagment,Should have a goal of engagment,participation, and social emotional growthparticipation, and social emotional growth(Vitto, 2008)(Vitto, 2008)
    87. 87. Contra-Indicated BehavioralContra-Indicated BehavioralStrategies for the ODD ChildStrategies for the ODD Child UltimatumsUltimatums Strict Boundaries: Drawing the Line in the SandStrict Boundaries: Drawing the Line in the Sand Counts, Warnings, ThreatsCounts, Warnings, Threats Prolonged Eye-ContactProlonged Eye-Contact Infringing on Personal SpaceInfringing on Personal Space Social DisapprovalSocial Disapproval Judgmental ResponsesJudgmental Responses Response Cost and PunishmentResponse Cost and Punishment Strict Boundaries or ContractsStrict Boundaries or Contracts Suspension and Detention, ProgressiveSuspension and Detention, ProgressiveDisciplineDisciplineMarion
    88. 88. Avoiding TriggersAvoiding Triggers ASD ExampleASD Example Treating with mutual respectTreating with mutual respect Avoiding the three “don’ts”Avoiding the three “don’ts”
    89. 89. Defiant Kids:Defiant Kids: How do I deliver aHow do I deliver acommand without power struggles?command without power struggles?You can increase the odds that a student willfollow a teacher command by:• Approaching the student privately, using a quietvoice.• establishing eye contact and calling the student byname be fo re giving the command.• stating the command as a positive (do ) statement,rather than a negative (do n’t) statement.• phrasing the command clearly and simply so thestudent knows exactly what he/she is expected todo.
    90. 90. Defiant Kids:Defiant Kids: Teacher CommandTeacher CommandSequence: Extended VersionSequence: Extended Version1. Make the request. Use simple, clear language thatthe student understands.If possible, phrase the request as a positive (do)statement, rather than a negative (don’t) statement.(E.g., “John, please start your math assignment now.”)Wait a reasonable time for the student to comply (e.g.,5-20 seconds)
    91. 91. Defiant Kids:Defiant Kids: Teacher CommandTeacher CommandSequence: Extended VersionSequence: Extended Version (Co nt.)(Co nt.)2. [If the student fails to comply] Repeat the request asa 2-part choice. Give the student two clear choiceswith clear consequences. Order the choices so thatthe student hears the good thing that will happen if hecomplies. AVOID ULTIMATUMS“John you need to be respectful so you cankeep using the calculator.” instead of “Johnif you do that again Im taking the calculatoraway.”
    92. 92. Defiant Kids:Defiant Kids: Teacher CommandTeacher CommandSequence: Extended VersionSequence: Extended Version (Co nt.)(Co nt.) 3. Give the student space and time to3. Give the student space and time tomake a good choice. Deal with themake a good choice. Deal with thebehavior as privately as possible.behavior as privately as possible. 4. Give the student a reasonable time4. Give the student a reasonable timeperiod to comply and a agreed uponperiod to comply and a agreed uponconsequenceconsequence 5. Be consistent!5. Be consistent!
    93. 93. Defiant Kids:Defiant Kids: Teacher CommandTeacher CommandSequence: Extended VersionSequence: Extended Version (Co nt.)(Co nt.)4. [If the student fails to comply] Impose the pre-selected negative consequence , ignore, process,meet later, etc.As you impose the consequence, ignore studentquestions or complaints that appear intended toentangle you in a power struggle.WHY IS A PRE-ARRANGEDWHY IS A PRE-ARRANGEDCONSEQUENCE IMPORTANT??CONSEQUENCE IMPORTANT??
    94. 94. Antecedents to AvoidAntecedents to Avoid Antecedents to AvoidAntecedents to Avoid A number of situations will spark noncompliant behaviorA number of situations will spark noncompliant behaviorin children with ODD. Some common examples includein children with ODD. Some common examples includethe following:the following: sharply worded verbal directives (e.g., "Tony, stopsharply worded verbal directives (e.g., "Tony, stopplaying with your crayons!");playing with your crayons!"); unexpected and unannounced deviations in the routine;unexpected and unannounced deviations in the routine; tasks that are beyond the childs ability;tasks that are beyond the childs ability; gestures, facial grimaces, or body language that suggestgestures, facial grimaces, or body language that suggestdisapproval; anddisapproval; and poorly planned transitions.poorly planned transitions. CALLING OUT FROM ACROSS THE ROOM!!!CALLING OUT FROM ACROSS THE ROOM!!!
    95. 95. An explanation of the diagram can be found on the slides that follow.An explanation of the diagram can be found on the slides that follow.
    96. 96. TCI TRAINING [5]Stress Model of CrisisStress Model of CrisisPre-CrisisStateEscalationPhaseRecoveryPhaseTriggeringPhaseOutburstPhaseAgitationAggressionViolence
    97. 97. The Art of Setting LimitThe Art of Setting LimitAlways remember your goalAlways remember your goalProviding ChoicesProviding Choices““ You need do this or else”You need do this or else”““You can do this own your own or I can help you.”You can do this own your own or I can help you.” Transition Jingles and RhymesTransition Jingles and Rhymes What noncompliance can be ignored or dealt with laterWhat noncompliance can be ignored or dealt with later(the poke man incident)(the poke man incident) Use visual aidsUse visual aidsIF YOU ASK SOMETHING AS A QUESTION BE PREPARED TOIF YOU ASK SOMETHING AS A QUESTION BE PREPARED TOHONORHONORTHEIR RESPONSE- DO YOU WANT TO? WILL YOU?THEIR RESPONSE- DO YOU WANT TO? WILL YOU?INVITATION, ITS TIME TO---INVITATION, ITS TIME TO---I STATEMENTS VERSUS YOU STATEMENTSI STATEMENTS VERSUS YOU STATEMENTSTHINK ABOUT YOU AND A FRIEND – MUTUAL RESPECTTHINK ABOUT YOU AND A FRIEND – MUTUAL RESPECT
    98. 98. At this point, we wIll watch a video clip of a teacher andAt this point, we wIll watch a video clip of a teacher andstudent engaged in an escalating war of words. Thestudent engaged in an escalating war of words. Thefollowing questions would be discussed:following questions would be discussed: In the short termIn the short term (and the long term)(and the long term), who, who“won”?“won”? Did either person convince the other thatDid either person convince the other thathis/her way was correct?his/her way was correct? Has a “show of force” prevented futureHas a “show of force” prevented futureconflict?conflict? Did the teacher do anything of which heDid the teacher do anything of which hecould be proud? Did he implement bestcould be proud? Did he implement bestpractice?practice? (Assuming a “(Assuming a “NoNo” answer)” answer) Why notWhy not??
    99. 99. ShaneShane
    100. 100. Known TriggersKnown Triggers Singling OutSingling Out Invading Personal SpaceInvading Personal Space TouchingTouching JudgingJudging Emotional ResponsesEmotional Responses UltimatumsUltimatums
    101. 101. Your Turn To Talk BackYour Turn To Talk Back Which points made the most impact on you?Which points made the most impact on you? In what ways do you see yourself changingIn what ways do you see yourself changingyour interaction/intervention patterns?your interaction/intervention patterns? With which points do you disagree?With which points do you disagree?(and why?)(and why?)
    102. 102. BE AWARE OF NONVERBALSBE AWARE OF NONVERBALSAND TONEAND TONE Codes and subtle nonverbalCodes and subtle nonverbal Avoiding embarrassmentAvoiding embarrassment PrivacyPrivacy Self ManagementSelf Management Momentum and TransitionsMomentum and Transitions RoutineRoutine Pre-established consequencesPre-established consequences
    103. 103. Antecedent StrategiesAntecedent Strategies Statements of Understanding proceedStatements of Understanding proceedrequestsrequests Behavior MomentumBehavior Momentum Pre-correctionPre-correction ProximityProximity
    104. 104. Pre-correction Steps for treatingPre-correction Steps for treatingChronic Problems BehaviorsChronic Problems Behaviors1. Identify the context and the predictable1. Identify the context and the predictableproblem behavior.problem behavior.2. Specifying expected behaviors2. Specifying expected behaviors3. Systematically modifying the context3. Systematically modifying the context4. Rehearsing4. Rehearsing5. Strong reinforcement for replacement5. Strong reinforcement for replacementbehaviorbehavior6. Prompting expected behavior6. Prompting expected behavior7. Monitoring the plan7. Monitoring the plan
    105. 105. What is the most important point to keepWhat is the most important point to keepin mind when working with a defiant orin mind when working with a defiant ornoncompliant student?noncompliant student? If you instead approach the student in a business-like, neutralIf you instead approach the student in a business-like, neutralmanner, and impose consistent, fair consequences formanner, and impose consistent, fair consequences formisbehavior, you will model the important lesson that youmisbehavior, you will model the important lesson that youcannot be pulled into a power struggle at the whim of acannot be pulled into a power struggle at the whim of astudent.student. Instructors who successfully stay calm in the face of studentInstructors who successfully stay calm in the face of studentprovocation often see two additional benefits:provocation often see two additional benefits:a. Over time, students may become less defiant, because they noa. Over time, students may become less defiant, because they nolonger experience the reward of watching you react in anger;longer experience the reward of watching you react in anger;b. Because you now deal with student misbehavior impartially,b. Because you now deal with student misbehavior impartially,efficiently and quickly, you will have more instructional time availableefficiently and quickly, you will have more instructional time availablethat used to be consumed in epic power struggles.that used to be consumed in epic power struggles.
    106. 106. Avoid a mismatch between yourAvoid a mismatch between yourwords and nonverbal signalswords and nonverbal signals Take time to plan your response before reacting toTake time to plan your response before reacting toprovocative student behavior or remarksprovocative student behavior or remarks Do not become entangled in a discussion orDo not become entangled in a discussion orargument with a confrontational student (Walker &argument with a confrontational student (Walker &Walker, 1991)Walker, 1991) Do not try to coerce or force the student to comply.Do not try to coerce or force the student to comply.It is a mistake to use social pressure (e.g.,It is a mistake to use social pressure (e.g.,reprimands, attempting to stare down students,reprimands, attempting to stare down students,standing watch over them) or physical force to makestanding watch over them) or physical force to makea confrontational student comply with a requesta confrontational student comply with a request(Walker & Walker, 1991).(Walker & Walker, 1991).
    107. 107. The Child Who is triggered byThe Child Who is triggered byPraisePraise For some children with ODD, even praiseFor some children with ODD, even praisecan be an antecedent for noncompliance.can be an antecedent for noncompliance.Teachers are understandably confusedTeachers are understandably confusedwhen they praise a child and the studentwhen they praise a child and the studentexplodes. Nonetheless, it is important toexplodes. Nonetheless, it is important torecognize when praise predictably bringsrecognize when praise predictably bringsout the worst in a child and to avoid thatout the worst in a child and to avoid thatantecedent.antecedent.
    108. 108. REPLACEMENT STRATEGIESREPLACEMENT STRATEGIES
    109. 109. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIORSWEARINGESCAPE TASKDEMANDS(WRITING)FunctionBehavior
    110. 110. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIORSWEARINGESCAPE TASKDEMANDS(WRITING)REQUESTA BREAKBehaviorFunction
    111. 111. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIORSWEARING ESCAPE TASKDEMANDS(SPECIFICALLYWRITING)ESCAPE TASKDEMANDS(SPECIFICALLYWRITING)REQUESTA BREAKSWEARING!?!?EXTINCTION12
    112. 112. Replacement BehaviorReplacement BehaviorComponents:*Identify functionally equivalent replacementbehavior.*Replacement Behavior(teaching and maintaining)Consider…•Is the replacement behavior effective andefficient for the student to use?•The Response Effort: how difficult is it forthe person to perform the behavior? (physicallyand/or cognitively)
    113. 113. Replacement BehaviorReplacement BehaviorReplacement BehaviorIdentify a plan for instruction in thereplacement behaviorIdentify plan for systematically adjustingthe use of the replacement behaviorrequirements over time (based on data andreliant upon instruction)
    114. 114. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIORSREPLACEMENT BEHAVIORSfor Defiancefor Defiance Taking leave appropriatelyTaking leave appropriately Refusing in a respectful mannerRefusing in a respectful manner Choosing between two tasks orChoosing between two tasks ordemandsdemands Responding to a coded signalResponding to a coded signal Taking part in plan developmentTaking part in plan development Performing three no preferred tasks perPerforming three no preferred tasks perdayday Being a class helperBeing a class helper
    115. 115. How do we promote self controlHow do we promote self control?? Social skills instructionSocial skills instruction.. Teach reflective thinkingTeach reflective thinking..““Stop-think-choose”Stop-think-choose” (see the link on this site’s(see the link on this site’shome page titled “Problem solving”home page titled “Problem solving”)) ..Problem solvingProblem solving ..Self monitoringSelf monitoring ..Anger management/replacement trainingAnger management/replacement training..Differential reinforcement proceduresDifferential reinforcement procedures Personalized check-ins with supportivePersonalized check-ins with supportiveadultadult(s)(s)..
    116. 116. How we want defiant students toHow we want defiant students torespond…respond… DefiantDefiant :: Challenging; non-compliant; confrontational; openly and boldlyChallenging; non-compliant; confrontational; openly and boldlychallenging and resisting authoritychallenging and resisting authorityWe have 5 available choices when we dont want to follow a direction:We have 5 available choices when we dont want to follow a direction: 1. Deny or swallow our feelings & comply passively.1. Deny or swallow our feelings & comply passively. 2. Refuse in a rude manner. (This is the common choice for our defiant2. Refuse in a rude manner. (This is the common choice for our defiantkids.)kids.) 3. Withdraw or run away.3. Withdraw or run away. 4. Avoid complying by use of trickery and manipulation.4. Avoid complying by use of trickery and manipulation. 5. Make our feelings and decisions known in an respectful manner.5. Make our feelings and decisions known in an respectful manner.*We want to help our kids adopt patterns #5.*We want to help our kids adopt patterns #5.(Sometimes #1 is an appropriate choice, given certain(Sometimes #1 is an appropriate choice, given certaincircumstances)circumstances)
    117. 117. Teaching the child better ways toTeaching the child better ways tomeet his needsmeet his needs Leadership opportunitiesLeadership opportunities Self managementSelf management Making compromisesMaking compromises Accept positivesAccept positives Acts of kindness or restorationActs of kindness or restoration Teaching child tolerance for non-preferred taskTeaching child tolerance for non-preferred task Teaching child to respond appropriately to authorityTeaching child to respond appropriately to authorityfiguresfigures Teaching child appropriate ways to challenge adultTeaching child appropriate ways to challenge adult Teaching child how to make choicesTeaching child how to make choices Teaching child social skillsTeaching child social skills
    118. 118. Life Space Interview (LSI)Life Space Interview (LSI)Is a therapeutic, verbal strategyIs a therapeutic, verbal strategyfor intervening with a young personfor intervening with a young person““the clinical exploitation of life eventsthe clinical exploitation of life events””——Fritz RedlFritz RedlTCI TRAINING [44]
    119. 119. Goals of the LSIGoals of the LSI1. Return young person to normal1. Return young person to normalfunctioningfunctioning2. Clarify events2. Clarify events3. Repair and restore the relationship3. Repair and restore the relationship4. Teach new coping skills4. Teach new coping skills5.5.Reintegrate young person back intoReintegrate young person back intoroutineroutineTCI TRAINING [45]
    120. 120. Steps to the LSISteps to the LSIII –– Isolate the conversationIsolate the conversationEE –– Explore young personExplore young person ’’s point of views point of viewSS –– Summarize the feelings and contentSummarize the feelings and contentCC –– Connect behavior to feelingsConnect behavior to feelingsAA –– Alternative behaviors discussedAlternative behaviors discussedPP –– Plan developed/Practice new behaviorPlan developed/Practice new behaviorEE –– Enter young person back into theEnter young person back into theroutineroutine
    121. 121. CONSEQUENCECONSEQUENCESTRATEGIESSTRATEGIES
    122. 122. Common Individual and SystemCommon Individual and SystemResponses to Problem BehaviorResponses to Problem Behavior Clamp down on rule violatorsClamp down on rule violators Extend continuum of aversiveExtend continuum of aversiveconsequencesconsequences Improve consistency of use of punishmentImprove consistency of use of punishment Establish “bottom line”Establish “bottom line” In-school suspensionIn-school suspension Zero tolerance policiesZero tolerance policies Security guards, student uniforms, metalSecurity guards, student uniforms, metaldetectors, surveillance camerasdetectors, surveillance cameras Suspension/ExpulsionSuspension/Expulsion Exclusionary options (e.g. AlternativeExclusionary options (e.g. Alternativeprograms)programs)
    123. 123. According to Research,According to Research,the LEAST EFFECTIVE responses tothe LEAST EFFECTIVE responses toproblem behavior are:problem behavior are:•CounselingCounseling•PsychotherapyPsychotherapy•PunishmentPunishment (Gottfredson,1997; Lipsey, 1991; Lipsey & Wilson,(Gottfredson,1997; Lipsey, 1991; Lipsey & Wilson,1993; Tolan & Guerra, 1994)1993; Tolan & Guerra, 1994)Exclusion is the most common responseExclusion is the most common responsefor conduct-disordered, juvenilefor conduct-disordered, juveniledelinquent, and behaviorally disordereddelinquent, and behaviorally disorderedyouthyouth (Lane & Murakami, 1987)(Lane & Murakami, 1987) but it is largely ineffective.but it is largely ineffective.
    124. 124. Why Then, Do We Educators,Why Then, Do We Educators,Resource Officers, and CounselorsResource Officers, and CounselorsEmploy These Procedures?Employ These Procedures?When WE experience aversive situations, weWhen WE experience aversive situations, weselect interventions that produce immediateselect interventions that produce immediate(rather than sustained) relief. We tend to(rather than sustained) relief. We tend tofocus on our concerns, not the student’s.focus on our concerns, not the student’s.Remove the student.Remove the student.Remove ourselves.Remove ourselves.Modify the physical environment.Modify the physical environment.Assign responsibility for change to studentAssign responsibility for change to studentand/or others.and/or others.
    125. 125. What results from these responses?What results from these responses? Punishing problem behaviors without aPunishing problem behaviors without aschool-wide system of support is associatedschool-wide system of support is associatedwith increased:with increased:–aggressionaggression–vandalismvandalism–truancytruancy–tardinesstardiness–dropping out (Mayer, 1995; Mayer & Sulzer-dropping out (Mayer, 1995; Mayer & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1991)Azaroff, 1991)Fosters environments of controlFosters environments of controlOccasions and reinforces antisocialOccasions and reinforces antisocialbehaviorbehaviorShifts ownership away from schoolShifts ownership away from schoolWeakens child-adult relationshipWeakens child-adult relationshipWeakens relationship between academic &Weakens relationship between academic &social behavior programmingsocial behavior programming
    126. 126. The Evolution of AdversarialThe Evolution of AdversarialRelationships and SubversionRelationships and Subversion As aberrant behaviors begin to surface anAs aberrant behaviors begin to surface anunhealthy communication paradigmunhealthy communication paradigmemergesemerges A phone call home, a detention slip, aA phone call home, a detention slip, asuspensionsuspensionTHE STAGE IS SETTHE STAGE IS SET
    127. 127. The Reaction ContinuumThe Reaction Continuum ““My son wouldn’t do that!!My son wouldn’t do that!! ““I will punish him.”I will punish him.” ““ What do you expect me to do?”What do you expect me to do?” ““You guys are always kicking him out!!You guys are always kicking him out!!At this point a shift begins and the parent andAt this point a shift begins and the parent andschool are at risk for developing anschool are at risk for developing anadversarial relationship.adversarial relationship.THE FIRST SIGNSTHE FIRST SIGNS ““ He says other kids were doing the sameHe says other kids were doing the samething and nothing happened to them”thing and nothing happened to them”
    128. 128. The Downward SpiralThe Downward Spiral Without evidenced based decision makingWithout evidenced based decision makingthe school continues to respond in thethe school continues to respond in theonly way they know how-punishment andonly way they know how-punishment andexclusion.exclusion. Without proper supports, the parentWithout proper supports, the parentbecomes trapped in a dilemma. Do Ibecomes trapped in a dilemma. Do Iblame myself, my child, or the school?blame myself, my child, or the school? And a day comes when the parent beginsAnd a day comes when the parent beginsto blame the school, and the real damageto blame the school, and the real damagebegins…begins…
    129. 129. What Johnny LearnsWhat Johnny Learns Johnny is becoming increasingly dis-enfranchised withJohnny is becoming increasingly dis-enfranchised withschoolschool Johnny figures out that he if he tells his parents he wasJohnny figures out that he if he tells his parents he waspicked on, singled out, overly or repeatedly punished,picked on, singled out, overly or repeatedly punished,then his parents will begin to focus on the school ratherthen his parents will begin to focus on the school ratherthan his behaviors.than his behaviors. It becomes increasing probable for Johnny toIt becomes increasing probable for Johnny tomisrepresent the school. He escapes punishment andmisrepresent the school. He escapes punishment andtakes the focus off of him.takes the focus off of him. By blaming the school, the parents avoid blame, and areBy blaming the school, the parents avoid blame, and arerelieved of the feeling of helplessness,relieved of the feeling of helplessness, The end result: a parent who rescues, defends, accusesThe end result: a parent who rescues, defends, accusesa child who has a escape card-any time he wants to usea child who has a escape card-any time he wants to useit.it.
    130. 130. Problems with traditionalProblems with traditionalconsequencesconsequences They often reinforced the child’s behaviorThey often reinforced the child’s behavior The often place the adult in an adversarialThe often place the adult in an adversarialrolerole They desensitize the child to authorityThey desensitize the child to authorityfigures (administrators, police, parents)figures (administrators, police, parents) They distant the child from schoolThey distant the child from school They don’t teach problem solvingThey don’t teach problem solving
    131. 131. Consequence ConcernsConsequence Concerns Repeated loss of anything tends to establish and discount orientation-Repeated loss of anything tends to establish and discount orientation-I don’t careI don’t care The child may start to believe that they can’t be successful andThe child may start to believe that they can’t be successful andacclimate to a life In the officeacclimate to a life In the office These kids tend to move us to an ultimate consequence philosophy-These kids tend to move us to an ultimate consequence philosophy-we tend to up the severity of punishment thinking that a more severwe tend to up the severity of punishment thinking that a more severconsequence will do the trickconsequence will do the trick Defiant behavior may have stronger issues of escape as the studentDefiant behavior may have stronger issues of escape as the studentkids behindkids behind If the child doesnt want to do something or engage punishing usuallyIf the child doesnt want to do something or engage punishing usuallymakes things worsemakes things worse If we have to call the principal all the time the child gradually becomesIf we have to call the principal all the time the child gradually becomesdesensitized to administration and authoritydesensitized to administration and authority Repeated exclusion tends to foster a difficult or adversarialRepeated exclusion tends to foster a difficult or adversarialrelationship with familiesrelationship with families If the behavior is chronic there is a likelihood that something about theIf the behavior is chronic there is a likelihood that something about theconsequence may be reinforcingconsequence may be reinforcing
    132. 132. CONSEQUENCES SHOULD:CONSEQUENCES SHOULD: Reduce the effectiveness and efficiency of theReduce the effectiveness and efficiency of theproblem behavior!!!problem behavior!!! Set the stage for teaching alternative strategiesSet the stage for teaching alternative strategiesfor meeting needs!!for meeting needs!! Never degrade or humiliateNever degrade or humiliate Be implemented consistently and calmlyBe implemented consistently and calmly Not create more of a problem than the behaviorNot create more of a problem than the behavioritselfitself Reduce frequency, intensity, and duration of theReduce frequency, intensity, and duration of theproblem behaviorproblem behavior
    133. 133. A consequence may work at theA consequence may work at themoment but may be reinforcing themoment but may be reinforcing thebehavior in the long run!!!behavior in the long run!!!
    134. 134. The F.A.S.T. programThe F.A.S.T. programDeveloped by IRIS Media Inc. and Martin Sheehan, Ph.D.
    135. 135. FAST Goal and ResponseFAST Goal and Response
    136. 136. The use of Physical Restraint andThe use of Physical Restraint andSeclusionSeclusion IndicationsIndications The Michigan State DepartmentThe Michigan State DepartmentGuidelinesGuidelines Physical ManagementPhysical Management Mechanical RestraintsMechanical Restraints The Dangers of Physical RestraintThe Dangers of Physical Restraint Restraint and Seclusion as aRestraint and Seclusion as aConsequenceConsequence
    137. 137.  Remember that the ultimate goal of anyRemember that the ultimate goal of anydisciplinary measure is to teach thedisciplinary measure is to teach thestudent more positive ways of behaving.student more positive ways of behaving.Punishment generally does not improvePunishment generally does not improvestudent behaviors over the long term andstudent behaviors over the long term andcan have significant and lasting negativecan have significant and lasting negativeeffects on school performance andeffects on school performance andmotivationmotivation
    138. 138. Emergency Planning & CrisisEmergency Planning & CrisisResponseResponse Has your school addressed responding toHas your school addressed responding tocrises in the building & emergenciescrises in the building & emergencies Is there a systematic plan that all staffIs there a systematic plan that all staffknowknow
    139. 139. Reinforcement HistoryReinforcement History Has reinforcement been used as aHas reinforcement been used as ameans of acknowledgingmeans of acknowledgingapproximations of desired behavior?approximations of desired behavior? Has reinforcement been used as aHas reinforcement been used as ameans of control, leading tomeans of control, leading toresentment, and loss of motivation?resentment, and loss of motivation?
    140. 140. The Evolution of Praise versusThe Evolution of Praise versusCorrection in the Elementary YearsCorrection in the Elementary Years Why praise may be difficultWhy praise may be difficult Why praise backfires with ODDWhy praise backfires with ODD Why positive need to be quick and briefWhy positive need to be quick and brief WhyWhy responseresponse cost is a problemcost is a problem Why reinforcement is discountedWhy reinforcement is discounted Create a 5:1 ratio of positives to negativesCreate a 5:1 ratio of positives to negatives
    141. 141. Problems with Reward SystemsProblems with Reward Systems ““What I giveth I can taketh away.”What I giveth I can taketh away.” The Marion StoryThe Marion Story May not be reinforcing to that childMay not be reinforcing to that child May have been used to control badMay have been used to control badbehavior rather than celebrate goodbehavior rather than celebrate goodbehaviorbehavior May quickly be discounted with aMay quickly be discounted with aresponse cost approach (example ofresponse cost approach (example ofRichard and plying football)Richard and plying football)
    142. 142. SBISBI DESCRIBE THE SITUATIONDESCRIBE THE SITUATION DESCRIBE THE BEHAVIORDESCRIBE THE BEHAVIOR DESCRIBE THE IMPACTDESCRIBE THE IMPACT
    143. 143. CONTROLCONTROL Clinical experience suggests that there isClinical experience suggests that there isa subset of children with ODD who area subset of children with ODD who areobsessed with control. These childrenobsessed with control. These childrenview all relationships in terms of who isview all relationships in terms of who isgoing to control whom. An adult whogoing to control whom. An adult whosystematically uses reward andsystematically uses reward andpunishment to control behavior confirmspunishment to control behavior confirmsthe childs belief-"This adult is trying tothe childs belief-"This adult is trying tomanipulate me." These children go tomanipulate me." These children go togreat lengths to win the power struggle.great lengths to win the power struggle.
    144. 144. Setting up Reinforcement SystemsSetting up Reinforcement Systems A. The student should have inputA. The student should have input B. Delivery should be rich, random, and not tiedB. Delivery should be rich, random, and not tiedto intervals or activities at clearly defined.to intervals or activities at clearly defined. C. Response Cost Systems should beC. Response Cost Systems should beavoidedavoided D. The reward system should NEVER beD. The reward system should NEVER be used to control the child!!used to control the child!! E. The reinforcer menu needs to vary!!E. The reinforcer menu needs to vary!! F. DO NOT USE EMBARASSMENT WHEN THE STUDENT HASF. DO NOT USE EMBARASSMENT WHEN THE STUDENT HASNOT EARNED A PRIVILEGE OR REWARD. THIS WILL LIKELYNOT EARNED A PRIVILEGE OR REWARD. THIS WILL LIKELYCAUSE THE STUDENT TO DISCOUNT YOUR REWARD.CAUSE THE STUDENT TO DISCOUNT YOUR REWARD. G. PROVIDE AGREED UPON CELEBRATIONS EVEN IN THEG. PROVIDE AGREED UPON CELEBRATIONS EVEN IN THEFACE OF INPERFECTION!!FACE OF INPERFECTION!!
    145. 145. ““Once you give circle a try, we willOnce you give circle a try, we willuse the new markers.”use the new markers.”
    146. 146. Prepare the student for yourPrepare the student for yourpositive feedbackpositive feedback Prepare the student for your positive feedback (In order toPrepare the student for your positive feedback (In order toprevents the automatic negative reactions found above)prevents the automatic negative reactions found above)"I have something nice Id like to tell you. Wanna hear it?""I have something nice Id like to tell you. Wanna hear it?"Kid: "NOPE." (but s/he is wondering what you were going toKid: "NOPE." (but s/he is wondering what you were going tosay)say) "Id like give you compliment. Howre you gonna react if I"Id like give you compliment. Howre you gonna react if Ido?"do?"Kid: "Not well."Kid: "Not well."Teacher: "Thats OK... Ill take my chances."Teacher: "Thats OK... Ill take my chances." Make a quick retreat Provide praise in written form (or makeMake a quick retreat Provide praise in written form (or makea very quick verbal commentary) and walk away. In this way,a very quick verbal commentary) and walk away. In this way,there is no chance for the student to give you an automaticthere is no chance for the student to give you an automaticnasty retort.nasty retort.
    147. 147. Defiant Kids:Defiant Kids: What are some conflictWhat are some conflict‘pitfalls’ that I should watch out for?‘pitfalls’ that I should watch out for?• Avoid a mismatch between your words and nonverbalsignals.• Take time to plan your response before reacting toprovocative student behavior or remarks.• Do not become entangled in a discussion or argumentwith a confrontational student• Do not try to coerce or force the student to comply.
    148. 148. Defiant Kids:Defiant Kids: What are proactive steps toWhat are proactive steps tominimize conflict with students?minimize conflict with students?• Offer the student face-saving exit strategies.• Act in positive ways that are inconsistent with thestudent’s expectations.• Select fair behavioral consequences in advance.• Avoid making task demands of studentswhen they are upset.• Avoid touching or taking property from a defiantstudent
    149. 149. How to get someone to leaveHow to get someone to leave Consider focus of angerConsider focus of anger Problem or solutionProblem or solution Remember your goalRemember your goal
    150. 150. How to avoid physical contactHow to avoid physical contact Remove triggering stimulusRemove triggering stimulus Calmly explain limitsCalmly explain limits Select a staff (or peer) who has a calmingSelect a staff (or peer) who has a calminginfluenceinfluence Select a novel or neutral partySelect a novel or neutral party Bait to open areaBait to open area Remove other studentsRemove other students Call home or policeCall home or police
    151. 151. When Young People Will NotWhen Young People Will NotComplyComply Actively listen and problem-solveActively listen and problem-solve Remove the others from the areaRemove the others from the area Give choices and time to decideGive choices and time to decide Let program consequences standLet program consequences stand Redirect young person to a moreRedirect young person to a moreattractive activityattractive activity Appeal to the young person’s self-Appeal to the young person’s self-interestinterest Use your relationship with the youngUse your relationship with the youngTCI TRAINING [33]
    152. 152. Students with Recurring ProblemStudents with Recurring ProblemBehaviorBehavior Too often we continue to do the sameToo often we continue to do the samething (often punitive) and expect differentthing (often punitive) and expect differentresultsresults Often student problem behavior is helpingOften student problem behavior is helpingstudents to get exactly what they wantstudents to get exactly what they wantAvoid difficult tasksAvoid difficult tasksObtain attention from peers or adultObtain attention from peers or adult
    153. 153. Have a Routine for Responding toHave a Routine for Responding toMinor Problem BehaviorMinor Problem BehaviorSpecific RequestIf, Compliance Walk Away & wait5-10 secondsIf, Non-ComplianceReinforce!“Please _________”Request in a calm voiceIf, ComplianceIf, NoncompliancePreplanned ConsequenceWalk away & Wait 5-10 sec.Reinforce!
    154. 154. ExtinctionExtinctionoccurs when you withhold or remove theoccurs when you withhold or remove thereinforcer maintaining a behaviorreinforcer maintaining a behavioris a procedure that gradually reduces theis a procedure that gradually reduces thefrequency and/or intensity of a target behaviorfrequency and/or intensity of a target behaviorby withholding reinforcement from previouslyby withholding reinforcement from previouslyreinforced behaviorreinforced behaviorextinction can be used to eliminate theextinction can be used to eliminate theconnection between the behavior and theconnection between the behavior and thepositive consequences that follow itpositive consequences that follow it
    155. 155. Extinction (cont)Extinction (cont)Extinction REQUIRES complete control of the reinforcerExtinction REQUIRES complete control of the reinforcer– consistency is the most important factor related to theconsistency is the most important factor related to theefficacy of extinctionefficacy of extinction– in most cases, extinction is only effective in reducingin most cases, extinction is only effective in reducingbehaviors that are motivated by attention from thebehaviors that are motivated by attention from theteacher/parent/caregiverteacher/parent/caregiverOther factors affecting resistance to extinctionOther factors affecting resistance to extinction– the schedule of reinforcement that previously maintained thethe schedule of reinforcement that previously maintained thebehaviorbehavior– the amount of strength of the previous reinforcerthe amount of strength of the previous reinforcer– the length of time of the previous behavior-reinforcerthe length of time of the previous behavior-reinforcerassociationassociation– the frequency of use of extinction with the student: more thethe frequency of use of extinction with the student: more thebetterbetter
    156. 156. Extinction (cont)Extinction (cont)AdvantagesAdvantages– may be effective without the use of physical or verbalmay be effective without the use of physical or verbalconsequencesconsequences– no use of aversive consequences/punishmentno use of aversive consequences/punishment– effects tend to be long lastingeffects tend to be long lasting– when combined with DRI or DRA very effectivewhen combined with DRI or DRA very effectiveDisadvantagesDisadvantages– temporary increase in behavior expected at starttemporary increase in behavior expected at start– child frustrationchild frustration– difficult to chose appropriate behavior to use extinctiondifficult to chose appropriate behavior to use extinctionwithwith– must have consistency between and among caregiversmust have consistency between and among caregiversand peers (environment)and peers (environment)
    157. 157. Time-Out from PositiveTime-Out from PositiveReinforcementReinforcementThe Naughty Chair, The Thinking Chair, The Stop andThe Naughty Chair, The Thinking Chair, The Stop andThink Chair, The Time-Out Chair…Think Chair, The Time-Out Chair…
    158. 158. Time-OutTime-Outthe removal of a child from an apparently reinforcingthe removal of a child from an apparently reinforcingsetting to a presumable nonreinforcing setting for asetting to a presumable nonreinforcing setting for aspecified and limited period of timespecified and limited period of timeTypes of time-out:Types of time-out:– nonexclusionnonexclusiontime-out ribbontime-out ribbonplanned ignoringplanned ignoringremoval of specific reinforcersremoval of specific reinforcersobservationalobservational– exclusionexclusionseclusionseclusionisolationisolation
    159. 159. Potential Disadvantages of T.O.Potential Disadvantages of T.O.T.O. may be abused - duration & frequencyCaregivers may use it as a "break"Frequent T.O. removes the child from the educationalenvironment“Time In” may not be reinforcing.Child may exhibit other inappropriate behaviors whencaregivers remove positive reinforcement.Time-out is not indicated for escape/avoidance behaviorsand instructional noncompliance.
    160. 160. PunishmentPunishment
    161. 161. WHAT CAN I DO TO GET THAT KINDOFREACTION AGAIN?
    162. 162. PunishmentPunishmentReasons for avoiding the use of punishment:Reasons for avoiding the use of punishment:– It does not eliminate but merely suppresses the behaviorIt does not eliminate but merely suppresses the behavior– It does not provide a model for the desired acceptableIt does not provide a model for the desired acceptablebehaviorbehavior– Aggression on the part of the practitioner presents anAggression on the part of the practitioner presents anundesirable modelundesirable model– The emotional results of punishment may be fear, tension,The emotional results of punishment may be fear, tension,stress, or withdrawalstress, or withdrawal– The childs resulting frustration may result in furtherThe childs resulting frustration may result in furtherdeviationdeviationPunishment is associated with the punisher rather than with thePunishment is associated with the punisher rather than with theunacceptable behaviorunacceptable behavior
    163. 163. PunishmentPunishmentLoss of Privileges - response costLoss of Privileges - response costGuidelinesGuidelines– Be sure the child understands the relationship between the targetBe sure the child understands the relationship between the targetbehavior and the privilege to be lostbehavior and the privilege to be lost– Be sure the child knows the punishable behavior and the consequence ofBe sure the child knows the punishable behavior and the consequence ofexhibiting itexhibiting it– When possible use natural or logical consequencesWhen possible use natural or logical consequences– Apply the loss of privilege interventions fairlyApply the loss of privilege interventions fairly– Avoid warning, nagging, or threateningAvoid warning, nagging, or threatening– Do not debate the punishable behaviors, the rules, or the punishmentDo not debate the punishable behaviors, the rules, or the punishmentonce these have been establishedonce these have been established– Do not become emotionally involved, Dont feel guilty when the childDo not become emotionally involved, Dont feel guilty when the childloses a privilegeloses a privilege– Be consistentBe consistent– Reinforce appropriate behavior; do not emphasize inappropriateReinforce appropriate behavior; do not emphasize inappropriatebehaviors onlybehaviors only
    164. 164. Bigger, tougherBigger, tougherConsequences isConsequences isNOTNOT what wewhat wemean by amean by aCorrectionCorrectionSystemSystem
    165. 165. Interventions based on Function ofInterventions based on Function ofBehaviorBehavior Once the function for the problemOnce the function for the problembehavior is identified, we can then:behavior is identified, we can then:Teach and encourage an alternativeTeach and encourage an alternativebehavior that serves the samebehavior that serves the samepurpose (function)purpose (function)Eliminate or reduce the “pay-off” forEliminate or reduce the “pay-off” forthe problem behaviorthe problem behavior

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