Breaking Down the Walls for Children at Risk: The Need for Targeted Interventions
What Places Children at Risk?
<ul><li>A risk factor approach is based on the belief that significant exposure to key risk factors is associated with neg...
<ul><li>“ Students who have a high probability of failing to acquire minimal academic skills necessary for success in the ...
Characteristics of  Students At Risk Low socioeconomic status families Minority ethnic groups Linguistic minority backgrou...
<ul><li>A child from a low-income family enters kindergarten with a listening vocabulary of 3,000 words, while a child of ...
Forty million adults in the U.S. can’t read well enough to read a simple story to a child (NCES, 2005).
There are many children who begin their lives in poverty and without a secure attachment
<ul><li>From 1983 to 2006, over 10 million Americans reached the 12th grade without having learned to read at a basic leve...
What are possible setting events for at risk children?? <ul><li>Thirty-seven percent of American fourth graders read below...
 
During the summer break, low-income students lose more than two months of reading achievement.
<ul><li>By the end of fifth grade, low-income children fall more than two years behind their middle-income peers in verbal...
 
<ul><li>Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names </li></ul>
Poverty Places Children at Risk <ul><li>Number of children in the world living in poverty  = 2.2 billion </li></ul><ul><li...
U.S. Children Living in Poverty <ul><li>The official number of poor in the US in 2008 is 39.1 million people.  More than h...
The data is in and the numbers tell a troubling story: 44 percent of American children grow up in families that face serio...
<ul><li>Two-thirds of American classrooms have fewer than 50 children’s books, and almost 60 percent of childcare centers ...
The rate of children living in poverty this year will climb to nearly 22%, the highest rate in two decades,
Up to 500,000 children may be homeless this year, living either in shelters or places not meant for habitation.
<ul><li>One out of every two children in the United States will live in a single-parent  family  at some time before they ...
<ul><li>About 20 million children live in a household with only their mother or their father. This is more than one-fourth...
For example, children in poverty often have less verbal interaction with their parents, resulting in significantly lower v...
<ul><li>A number of school-age children (5 to 17) speak a language other than English at home. These children make up near...
<ul><li>Children’s homes and families constitute one of the earliest indicators of potential academic failure. Research ha...
In addition to poverty, students at risk often come from families where academic skills such as reading are not modeled, a...
<ul><li>Each week, child protective services (CPS) agencies throughout the United States receive more than 50,000 reports ...
<ul><li>1.7 million (about 2.3 percent) of all American children have a parent in prison. </li></ul>
Early academic failures are second only to poverty in predicting school failure.
Students whose behaviors identify them as academically or behaviorally deficient are more likely to be exposed to negative...
The justice and welfare systems overwhelmingly serve individuals who have poorly developed academic skills and have experi...
Most prevention efforts begin in school because it is the place where professionals have the greatest, and typically the e...
 
Early problem behavior is highly related to successful school experiences (Gresham, Lane, & Lambros, 2000; Lyman, 2002). C...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Studies show that ODD presents in 5-15% of all school aged children. (aacap.org) ODD is reported in boys almost twice as m...
<ul><li>Early appearing aggressive behaviors are the best predictor of juvenile gang membership  </li></ul><ul><li>and vio...
<ul><li>Of the young children who show early signs of problem behavior, it has been estimated that fewer than 10% receive ...
Fatherlessness Places Children at Risk
According to 72 % of the U.S. population, fatherlessness is the most significant  family or social problem facing America,...
The impact of fatherlessness is far-reaching….
Three out of four teenage suicides  occur in households where a parent has been absent.* * Jean Beth Eshtain, “Family Matt...
Fatherless children are at a  dramatically greater risk of drug and alcohol abuse .* *U.S. Department of Health & Human Se...
75% of all adolescent patients in chemical abuse centers come from fatherless homes.* *Rainbows For All God’s Children
Children in single-parent families are 2-3 times as likely to have  emotional & behavioral problems .* *U.S. Department of...
Fatherless children are  twice as likely to drop out of school.* *U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Cen...
85% of all youths sitting in prisons grew up in a fatherless home.* *Fulton Co. Georgia Jail Populations Texas Dept. of Co...
90% of homeless and runaway children  are from fatherless homes.*  *[U.S. D.H.H.S., Bureau of the Census.]
Boys born to an unmarried teen mother are 10 times more likely to become  a chronic juvenile offender.* *Source: Conseur, ...
The “root cause” of crime, more than any other, is fatherlessness. Almost 70% of juveniles incarcerated in state reform in...
<ul><li>The correlation between preschool-age aggression and aggression at age 10 is higher than that for IQ.   (Kazdin, 2...
All children need at least one person to believe in them
Teachers Promote    Self-Determination in    At Risk Students Strategies: Present rules and instructions in an information...
 
Everyone needs love, especially when they feel they don’t deserve it
When a student struggles academically, we look for instructional solutions
<ul><li>We  have to look for solutions when a student struggles behaviorally </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ We need to start fighting crime in the high chair, </li></ul><ul><li>not the electric chair.” </li></ul><ul><li>...
For children who are at risk, the sooner we can provide support the better chance they have of succeeding.
If our American way of life fails the child, it fails us all Pearl S. Buck
Teachers Encouraging    At Risk Students <ul><li>Make the curriculum relevant to student to students’ lives and needs </li...
There are things that schools can to support children who are at risk: New Comers Club Self-monitoring Teach Organizationa...
Targeted Strategies <ul><li>Showcasing Student’s talents </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Peer Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Peer ...
The Impact of Mentoring… Can Change a Life
 
So let’s begin…
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Steve Vitto :A Case for Tarheted Imterventions and PBIS

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This presentation by Steve Vitto delivered in Grand Rapids, Muskegon, and Detroit Michigan gives some relevant statistics and outlines some of the variables that place children at risk for behavior and academic challenges. Steve can be reached at svitto@muskegonisdisd.org

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Steve Vitto :A Case for Tarheted Imterventions and PBIS

  1. 1. Breaking Down the Walls for Children at Risk: The Need for Targeted Interventions
  2. 2. What Places Children at Risk?
  3. 3. <ul><li>A risk factor approach is based on the belief that significant exposure to key risk factors is associated with negative, long-term life outcomes </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ Students who have a high probability of failing to acquire minimal academic skills necessary for success in the adult world.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of Students At Risk Low socioeconomic status families Minority ethnic groups Linguistic minority background History of academic failure Older in age than classmates Emotional and behavior problems Lack of psychological attachment to school List your most at-risk students---these are the ones we want YOU to focus on—the ones who need YOUR help the most! (Ormrod, 2006)
  6. 6. <ul><li>A child from a low-income family enters kindergarten with a listening vocabulary of 3,000 words, while a child of a middle-income family enters with a listening vocabulary of 20,000 words (Hart & Risley, 2005). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Forty million adults in the U.S. can’t read well enough to read a simple story to a child (NCES, 2005).
  8. 8. There are many children who begin their lives in poverty and without a secure attachment
  9. 9. <ul><li>From 1983 to 2006, over 10 million Americans reached the 12th grade without having learned to read at a basic level. In the same period, over 6 million Americans dropped out of high school (U.S. Department of Education, 2007) </li></ul>
  10. 10. What are possible setting events for at risk children?? <ul><li>Thirty-seven percent of American fourth graders read below the “Basic” level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading test (NCES, 2006). </li></ul>
  11. 12. During the summer break, low-income students lose more than two months of reading achievement.
  12. 13. <ul><li>By the end of fifth grade, low-income children fall more than two years behind their middle-income peers in verbal achievement as a result of summer learning differences </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names </li></ul>
  14. 16. Poverty Places Children at Risk <ul><li>Number of children in the world living in poverty = 2.2 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Every second a child is born into poverty </li></ul>
  15. 17. U.S. Children Living in Poverty <ul><li>The official number of poor in the US in 2008 is 39.1 million people. More than half are children. </li></ul>
  16. 18. The data is in and the numbers tell a troubling story: 44 percent of American children grow up in families that face serious struggles to make ends meet
  17. 19. <ul><li>Two-thirds of American classrooms have fewer than 50 children’s books, and almost 60 percent of childcare centers buy fewer than one book per child a year (Neuman et. al, 2001).  </li></ul>
  18. 20. The rate of children living in poverty this year will climb to nearly 22%, the highest rate in two decades,
  19. 21. Up to 500,000 children may be homeless this year, living either in shelters or places not meant for habitation.
  20. 22. <ul><li>One out of every two children in the United States will live in a single-parent family at some time before they reach age 18. According the United States Census Bureau, in 2007 </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>About 20 million children live in a household with only their mother or their father. This is more than one-fourth of all children in the United States. </li></ul>27% of custodial single mothers and their children live in poverty
  22. 24. For example, children in poverty often have less verbal interaction with their parents, resulting in significantly lower vocabularies at the time they enter school
  23. 25. <ul><li>A number of school-age children (5 to 17) speak a language other than English at home. These children make up nearly 1-in-5 in this age group. Most of them (7.1 million) speak Spanish at home. </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>Children’s homes and families constitute one of the earliest indicators of potential academic failure. Research has demonstrated a connection between poverty and school dropout for both regular and special education students. </li></ul>
  25. 27. In addition to poverty, students at risk often come from families where academic skills such as reading are not modeled, and where multiple family stressors are present (e.g., alcohol and other drug abuse, divorce, child maltreatment).
  26. 28. <ul><li>Each week, child protective services (CPS) agencies throughout the United States receive more than 50,000 reports of suspected child abuse or neglect. </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>1.7 million (about 2.3 percent) of all American children have a parent in prison. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Early academic failures are second only to poverty in predicting school failure.
  29. 31. Students whose behaviors identify them as academically or behaviorally deficient are more likely to be exposed to negative interaction and punishment in the classroom and are less likely to be engaged in instructional time with their teachers.
  30. 32. The justice and welfare systems overwhelmingly serve individuals who have poorly developed academic skills and have experienced school failure. Lower levels of literacy are strongly associated with higher rates of delinquency and incarceration.
  31. 33. Most prevention efforts begin in school because it is the place where professionals have the greatest, and typically the earliest, access to children. School-wide efforts to prevent student failure can be organized under a system of positive behavioral interventions and support that involves the entire school. (Sugai et al., 2005 )
  32. 35. Early problem behavior is highly related to successful school experiences (Gresham, Lane, & Lambros, 2000; Lyman, 2002). Children who evidence problem behavior at school are likely to struggle early, often, and throughout their school careers (Patterson, 1992; Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 2005).
  33. 45. Studies show that ODD presents in 5-15% of all school aged children. (aacap.org) ODD is reported in boys almost twice as much as it is reported in girls. (Carlson and Gaub and Tamm 2001). This involves over 5 million students in the US .
  34. 46. <ul><li>Early appearing aggressive behaviors are the best predictor of juvenile gang membership </li></ul><ul><li>and violence. </li></ul><ul><li>(Reid, 2003) </li></ul>
  35. 47. <ul><li>Of the young children who show early signs of problem behavior, it has been estimated that fewer than 10% receive services for these difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kazdin & Kendall, 2002) </li></ul>
  36. 48. Fatherlessness Places Children at Risk
  37. 49. According to 72 % of the U.S. population, fatherlessness is the most significant family or social problem facing America, and in most nations of the world . *Fathering In America Poll January 2000
  38. 50. The impact of fatherlessness is far-reaching….
  39. 51. Three out of four teenage suicides occur in households where a parent has been absent.* * Jean Beth Eshtain, “Family Matters: The Plight of America’s Children.” The Christian Century July 2003
  40. 52. Fatherless children are at a dramatically greater risk of drug and alcohol abuse .* *U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Center For Health Statistics Survey On Child Health Washington DC, 2002
  41. 53. 75% of all adolescent patients in chemical abuse centers come from fatherless homes.* *Rainbows For All God’s Children
  42. 54. Children in single-parent families are 2-3 times as likely to have emotional & behavioral problems .* *U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Center For Health Statistics National Health Interview Survey Hyattsville, MD, 2003
  43. 55. Fatherless children are twice as likely to drop out of school.* *U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Center For Health Statistics Survey On Child Health Washington, DC GPO 2003
  44. 56. 85% of all youths sitting in prisons grew up in a fatherless home.* *Fulton Co. Georgia Jail Populations Texas Dept. of Corrections 2002
  45. 57. 90% of homeless and runaway children are from fatherless homes.* *[U.S. D.H.H.S., Bureau of the Census.]
  46. 58. Boys born to an unmarried teen mother are 10 times more likely to become a chronic juvenile offender.* *Source: Conseur, Amy et al. &quot;Maternal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Later Delinquency.&quot; Pediatrics 99(2004): 785-790.
  47. 59. The “root cause” of crime, more than any other, is fatherlessness. Almost 70% of juveniles incarcerated in state reform institutions, 75% of teenage homicide perpetrators, and most gang members come from homes with no father present. Fatherlessness & Crime 2001 by Dave Kopel
  48. 60. <ul><li>The correlation between preschool-age aggression and aggression at age 10 is higher than that for IQ. (Kazdin, 2000) </li></ul>
  49. 61. All children need at least one person to believe in them
  50. 62. Teachers Promote Self-Determination in At Risk Students Strategies: Present rules and instructions in an informational rather than controlling manner Give students opportunities to make choices (individually or as a group) Evaluate students’ performance in a non-controlling manner Use extrinsic reinforcers selectively (Ormrod, 2006)
  51. 64. Everyone needs love, especially when they feel they don’t deserve it
  52. 65. When a student struggles academically, we look for instructional solutions
  53. 66. <ul><li>We have to look for solutions when a student struggles behaviorally </li></ul>
  54. 67. <ul><li>“ We need to start fighting crime in the high chair, </li></ul><ul><li>not the electric chair.” </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>George Sweat, Former Chief of Police </li></ul><ul><li>Winston-Salem, North Carolina </li></ul>
  55. 68. For children who are at risk, the sooner we can provide support the better chance they have of succeeding.
  56. 69. If our American way of life fails the child, it fails us all Pearl S. Buck
  57. 70. Teachers Encouraging At Risk Students <ul><li>Make the curriculum relevant to student to students’ lives and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Use students’ strengths to promote high self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate high expectations for students’ performance </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage and facilitate school involvement and extracurricular activities </li></ul><ul><li>How can you do this with the students you listed??? </li></ul><ul><li>(Ormrod, 2006) </li></ul>
  58. 71. There are things that schools can to support children who are at risk: New Comers Club Self-monitoring Teach Organizational skills Mentoring Social skills training Positive Behavior Supports Check-in, Checkout
  59. 72. Targeted Strategies <ul><li>Showcasing Student’s talents </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Peer Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Tutoring </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-teach Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Homework Club </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap Around </li></ul>
  60. 73. The Impact of Mentoring… Can Change a Life
  61. 75. So let’s begin…

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