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S Vitto Breaking Down The Walls MIBLSI State Conference 09

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This is an overview of the causes and treatment of oppositional defiant behavior (ODD), social maladjustment, and conduct disorder. The presentation included etiology, and evidence based treatment …

This is an overview of the causes and treatment of oppositional defiant behavior (ODD), social maladjustment, and conduct disorder. The presentation included etiology, and evidence based treatment recommendations, using the competing pathways approach..


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    • 1. BREAKING DOWN THE WALLS Strategies for Defiant Students Presented by: Steven Vitto, M.A., CCII., CTCI., MIBLSI Coach, Behavior Specialist, Muskegon Area ISD MIBLSI State Conference 2009
    • 2.
      • The key to controlling someone else is teaching them how to control you!!
    • 3. DEFIANCE What it looks like…
    • 4. STRATEGIES FOR DEFIANCE
    • 5. Competing Behavior Model alternative, functionally equivalent behavior Long-term desired behavior Setting Events/ Slow Triggers Antecedents/Fast Triggers Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior Reinforcing Consequence Reinforcing Consequence
    • 6. An Initial Line of Inquiry Strengths of student: What the student does well. Student’s strengths, gifts, & talents. Obtain Attention Escape or Avoid Avoid adult control Obtain Sensory Those events that occur after the behavior (e.g., peer attention, escape task) or as a result of the behavior (e.g., time out, suspension, detention, …) What usually happens after the behavior occurs? (e.g., teacher’s reaction, other students’ reactions, power struggle …) An observable and measurable description of the behavior(s) of concern. Events with a discrete onset and offset, that occur immediately before the challenging behavior (e.g., task demand, teacher direction, social interaction) Events that may occur before and/or during the targeted response that causes the student to respond to a “typical” situation in an “atypical” way. Specific conditions, events, or activities that make the problem behavior worse? (missed medication, history of academic failure, conflict at home, missed meals, lack of sleep, history of problems with peers… Perceived Function Actual Consequences Behavior Problem Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Slow Triggers (Setting Events)
    • 7. Beginning the Pathways Defining the behavior
      • Define the behaviors of concern
      • Refusing to follow directions
      • What does the behavior look like?
      • How often does it occur?
      • How long does it last?
      • How intensive is it (swearing versus saying “ no way”?
      • Prioritizing and clustering behaviors
    • 8. Identifying and Defining the Problem behavior
      • Why frequency may be skewed.
      • Why other kids may be doing the same thing and it may not be as problematic.
      • What does it mean to be out of control?
      • Can someone be out of control and still have boundaries- i.e., absence of swearing, threatening ?
    • 9. What are the triggers or antecedents of your child’s behavior?
      • Given a group or individual direction
      • Given a demand to perform a task or routine
      • Expectation to follow a rule or expectation
      • (keep hands to self, wait your turn, sit quietly)
      • The removal or reduction of direct adult supervision
      • (recess, cafeteria, alone time)
      • Limited access to a preferred item or activity
      • Expectation to terminate a desired activity
      • Being told “no” or “not now”
      • Behavior targets peers and/or adults
    • 10. Consequences What are the consequences when your child engages in the problem behavior
      • Ignoring
      • Reprimands and social disapproval
      • Looses privileges or rewards at school or at home
      • Loss of credit or bad grades
      • Time out
      • Forced compliance
      • Gets attention from adults and peers
      • Gets different reactions from different adults
      • Sent to office or suspended
      • Phone call home
      • Spanked or punished at home
      • Gets Status or Attention from other Students
      • Gets out of school work or non-preferred tasks or activities
      • Other
    • 11. A Setting Event
      • A pre-existing condition
      • The “origin” of the behavior
      • Effected by history
      • Effected by biology
      • Something we may or may not be able to change
    • 12. Setting Events
      • What are the causes of defiant behavior?
    • 13. ATTACHMENT DISORDER OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANCE DISORDER CONDUCT DISORDER ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER EMOTIONAL IMPAIRMENT ASPERGERS SYNDROME DOWN SYNDROME Conditions Manifesting in Defaince
    • 14. The Origin of Defiance
    • 15. What is Social Maladjustment
      • Many special education programs receive pressure from various sources to serve students who exhibit only social maladjustment. However, the law specifically excludes "socially maladjusted" students from special education services unless the student can also be shown to be emotionally disturbed.
      • Students who are socially maladjusted (or more precisely Oppositional Defiant or Conduct Disordered) typically display a persistent pattern of willful refusal to meet even minimum standards of conduct. Their behavior and values are often in conflict with society’s standards. They exhibit a consistent pattern of antisocial behavior without genuine signs of guilt, remorse, or concern for the feelings of others. These students often engage in simulations of these behaviors but typically display them only when there is an immediate consequence for the absence of such displays.
      • Their antisocial behavior is most frequently seen as resulting from their tendency to place their own needs above those of all other people and the immediate gratification that such behavior brings them.
      • These students are not in chronic distress (one of the criteria for emotional disturbance under the law) although they can exhibit situational anxiety, depression, or distress in response to certain isolated events - particularly facing the consequences of their own actions.
      • These students do not typically respond to the same treatment interventions that benefit emotionally disordered students.
    • 16.
      • Maladjusted/Conduct Disorder students:
      • perceive themselves as normal
      • are capable of behaving appropriately
      • choose to break rules and violate norms.
      • view rule breaking as normal and acceptable.
      • are motivated by self-gain and strong survival skills
      • lack age appropriate concern for their behavior
      • displayed behavior which may be highly valued in a small subgroup
      • display socialized or unsocialized forms of aggression
      • due not display anxiety unless they fear being caught
      • intensity and duration of behavior differs markedly
      • from peer group
    • 17. What is Oppositional Defiance Disorder?
    • 18. Definition of ODD
      • Oppositional Defiant Disorder is the persistent pattern (lasting for at least 6 months) of disobedient, hostile, negativistic, and defiant behavior in a child or teen without serious violation of the basic rights of others (mentalhealth.com).
        • If a student displays the same kinds of behavior that DOES violate the basic rights of others it is often labeled conduct disorder. Children with ODD often become adults with conduct disorder if the right steps aren’t taken to control the behavior. (Bailey and Northey and Silverman and Wells 2003)
    • 19.  
    • 20. Why Educate Ourselves About ODD?
      • Because each year we can expect to have at least 1 student with ODD, and several more that exhibit oppositional behavior at some time.
      • Because our lives will be a lot easier, and our classes will be more productive, if we know how to deal with oppositional behavior.
      • Because all students have the right to learn in our classes, even those with ODD.
      • Because good teachers know that there are no bad students, just bad behaviors. When we appropriately deal with the bad behaviors we get to see how awesome the student can truly be.
    • 21. Understanding Aggressive Behaviors
      • Reactive Aggression
        • Affective or expressive aggression
        • Loss of control and emotional flooding
        • Emotions are dominant
      • Proactive Aggression
        • Instrumental or operant aggression
        • Goal oriented
        • Cognitions are dominant
      TCI TRAINING [11]
    • 22. Scott
    • 23. The Grocery Store IS THIS CHILD IN CONTROL OF HIS BEHAVIOR???
    • 24. What Causes Oppositional Defiance Disorder?
      • The cause of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is unknown at
      • this time. The following are some of the theories being
      • investigated:
      • It may be related to the child's temperament and the family's response to that temperament.
      • A predisposition to ODD is inherited in some families.
      • There may be problems in the brain that cause ODD.
      • It may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain.
      • Children with ODD have often experienced a break in
      • attachment or bonding during the first 2 years of life
    • 25. Prognosis:
      • Eighty percent of children with Oppositional Defiance Disorder showed insecure attachment.
      • Insecurely attached children often grow up to become insecurely attached parents, and the cycle continues
    • 26. Characteristics or Symptoms of Attachment Disorder:
      • Superficially charming: uses cuteness to get her or his way.
      • Cruel to animals or people.
      • Fascinated by fire/death/blood/gore.
      • Severe need for control over adults even over minute situations.
      • Manipulative-plays adults against each other.
      • Difficulty in making eye-contact.
      • Lack of affection on parental terms yet overly affectionate to strangers.
      • Bossy.
      • Shows no remorse---seems to have no conscience.
      • Lies and steals.
      • Low impulse control.
      • Lack of cause/effect thinking.
      • Destructiveness to self, others and material things.
    • 27. Students with conduct disorder engage in deliberate acts of self-interest to gain attention or to intimidate others. They experience no distress or self-devaluation or internalized distress.
    • 28.  
    • 29. How does a student with ODD think? (Frank et al. )
      • I am the equal of those in authority- no one has the right to tell me what to do.
      • Yes, I sometimes do the wrong thing, but it is usually your fault.
      • When you punish or reward me, I feel that you are trying to control or manipulate me.
      • Because I know how much you want me to change, I will be very stubborn about changing behaviors. In spite of experiencing your intended punishments and/or rewards, if I change, it will be on my time and for me.
      • My greatest sense of control comes from how I make others feel.
    • 30. OTHER SETTING EVENTS
      • Biomedical conditions, ADHD, Autism, Down Syndrome
      • Problems with changes in routine
      • Highly oppositional
      • Moody or temperamental
      • ODD
      • Problems at home
      • Problems on the bus
      • Hunger or poverty
      • History of abuse neglect
      • Sensory Regulation Problems
      • Language Delays
      • Medication
      • Adversarial Home School Relationship
    • 31. Many Kids Have Low Self Esteem & Negative Self Concepts Due To ?
      • Rotten childhoods filled with negative experiences .
        • Abuse, neglect, and/or consistent messages of rejection.
        • Inconsistently due to multiple care-takers using very different practices, and/or giving very different messages .
        • Inconsistent caretaking from primary adults who are:
          • alcoholic/substance addicted
          • mentally ill (unmanaged)
          • manic-depressive (unmanaged)
          • negatively oriented authoritarian personalities
          • incompetent due to lack of childrearing knowledge .
    • 32. Reiterated negative labels & messages:
        • “ You rude little son of a b----. When I catch you, I’ll…”
        • “ You little criminal. You’re going to end up dead or in jail someday.”
        • “ Man, you’re strange.”
        • “ Why don’t you use your head once in a
          • while? Stupid.”
        • “ What’s wrong with you, anyway? Get outta my face before I…”
        • “ You little loser. Why can’t you be like Fran?”
        • “ You evil little beast ! I’ll beat the devil out of you ! ”
      • Client to psychologist friend of mine when the parent was asked what he does when his 10 year old son acts up :
      • “ I tell him he’s an a- -h-le . ”
    • 33. The Perceptions That Might Develop From Maltreatment, Neglect, Rejection
      • “ My parents treated me badly.” (Fact)
      • “ I can’t count on my parents to care for
      • me or treat me well.” (Fact)
      • “ I was treated badly because I am a bad person. Because I’m ‘BAD’, no one could ever like me, care for me, or treat me well . ” ( Distorted belief)
      • “ You say that you want to help me, but I know adults… When I show you why I’m not likeable, you’ll quickly reject and hurt me like my parents (and past teachers ) .
      • ( Identity and reaction pattern become further ingrained~)
      • You say you’re different… While I hope that is true,
      • you’ll have to PROVE IT! ”
      • ( over & over again as I seek reassurance that you really are different) .
    • 34. The Evolution of Adversarial Relationships and Subversion
      • As aberrant behaviors begin to surface an unhealthy communication paradigm emerges
      • A phone call home, a detention slip, a suspension
      • THE STAGE IS SET
    • 35. The Reaction Continuum
      • “ My son wouldn’t do that!!
      • “ I will punish him.”
      • “ What do you expect me to do?”
      • “ You guys are always kicking him out!!
      • At this point a shift begins and the parent and school are at risk for developing an adversarial relationship.
      • THE FIRST SIGNS
      • “ He says other kids were doing the same
      • thing and nothing happened to them”
    • 36. The Downward Spiral
      • Without evidenced based decision making the school continues to respond in the only way they know how-punishment and exclusion.
      • Without proper supports, the parent becomes trapped in a dilemma. Do I blame myself, my child, or the school?
      • And a day comes when the parent begins to blame the school, and the real damage begins…
    • 37. What Johnny Learns
      • Johnny is becoming increasingly dis-enfranchised with school
      • Johnny figures out that he if he tells his parents he was picked on, singled out, overly or repeatedly punished, then his parents will begin to focus on the school rather than his behaviors.
      • It becomes increasing probable for Johnny to misrepresent the school. He escapes punishment and takes the focus off of him.
      • By blaming the school, the parents avoid blame, and are relieved of the feeling of helplessness,
      • The end result: a parent who rescues, defends, accuses
      • a child who has a escape card-any time he wants to use it.
    • 38.
      • After considering the preceding variables, what are the setting events for your student?
    • 39. What is the Function or Motivation of Defiant Behavior?
      • Obtain …
      • Peer Attention
      • Adult Attention
      • Items/Activities (tangible)
      • Sensory (seeking)
      • Avoid…
      • Peer(s)
      • Adult
      • Task or Activity
      • Sensory (defensive)
    • 40. What is the motivation or function of defiance?
      • Most adults say it is “control.”
      • But is reality is avoidance of being controlled by others?
      • In many instances the defiant student is resisting the control of the adult, not trying to make the adult do something they don’t want to do.
      • In many instances the defiant student is resisting the agenda of the adult or authority figure
    • 41. Imagine starting your day this way!
      • Someone comes in an wakes you 30 minutes before your alarm is set to ring.
      • Someone hands you some clothes and tell you this is what you’ll be wearing today.
      • You sit down for breakfast and instead of your favorite frozen waffles you are given two scrambled eggs.
      • As you reach for your cup of coffee someone tells you it is bad for you and hand you a glass of grapefruit juice.
      • When you go to sit at the back of the room, you are told that you need to sit where your name tag is at the front of the room.
      • When you try to go to the hotel swimming pool and hot tub you are told it is only available to VIP gold card members, which does NOT include you.
      • When you get back to your room you try to turn into your favorite television show only to find out that only the educational channel is working.
      • When you go to log on your room computer you find its can only receive e-mails but not send them out.
      • When you go to check out you are charged for three movies you didn’t order.
      • HOW WOULD ALL THESE EVENTS MAKE YOU
      • FEEL??
    • 42. We all like to be in control of our lives. It’s how we meet that need that sets us apart.
    • 43. What can a Child Control
      • Items and Things-e.g., Video Games
      • Others-peers and adults
      • Choosing to follow adult expectations
      • Choosing to participate or engage
      • Appearance and Hygiene
      • Eating and toileting
      What can we control???
    • 44. Attention, Sensory or Escape Avoidance Control
    • 45. Possible Functions of Defiance
      • Escape/Avoidance
      • Attention
      • Sensory-Power Control
    • 46. HOW DO WE BEST RESPOND? WHAT IS EVIDENCED BASED PRACTICE
      • Setting Event Strategies
      • Antecedent Strategies
      • Teaching Replacement Strategies
      • Consequence Strategies
      • a. reward systems
      • b. reduction strategies
    • 47. Behavior Mantra: “ It is easier to prevent a behavior from occurring than to deal with it after it has happened.”
    • 48. If you’ve told a child a thousand times and she/he still doesn’t understand, then it is not the CHILD who is the slow learner! Anonymous
    • 49. Circa 1996
    • 50. RTI- Are classroom response cost systems contributing to defiance?
      • Response to Intervention
      • Are we using evidenced based classroom behavior management systems at the universal level? Are classroom response cost systems evidenced based? Is there a balance, better yet, an overbalance of Positive Incentives and Feedback for Desired Behavior?
      • When universal consequences (e.g., Classroom Response Cost System) are not effective, or when they trigger an escalation of behavior, do we differentiate our approach?
      • Are we over-relying on classroom response cost systems to manage student behaviors?
    • 51. The Tough Get Tougher
      • “ Getting tough ” with persistently defiant, non-compliant kids is counter productive.
      • These youngsters don’t succumb to coercion.
      • Rather, they are incited by it.
      • If our penalties are harsh and repeatedly applied, we might possibly be able to subdue the rebellion and create a non-motivated, withdrawn kid
      • Skilled, knowledgeable and caring teachers do what we’re paid to do :
        • Teach
        • Inspire
      • In order to promote positive behavior change and motivation, “ tough ” teachers must change their ways. While those ways work with 95% of the kids, it’s the 95% who don’t need to be treated in that manner in order to get them to behave. Their ways don’t work at all with the “difficult” 5%. In fact, their coercive interventions make things worse. However, it’s hard to convince negative teachers of the faults of their ways. They commonly respond with:
    • 52. What ?! Me Change?!
      • THEY’RE
      • the problem.
      • (not me) .
    • 53.
      • When teachers attempt to overpower a kid who has defeated more powerful adversaries, they fight a losing battle.
      • These teachers create the very conflict about which they complain .
    • 54. Reconnaissance 101
      • Gather information on your adversary.
      • Use this information to inform your actions.
      • Sun Tzu: ( The art of war ). The greatest victory is to win without ever having battled .
      • Tom McIntyre: The sweetest victory is one in which both sides are winners .
    • 55. SETTING EVENT STRATEGIES
    • 56. Setting Event Strategies
      • Building a connection or positive relationship
      • Designing the physical space
      • Established a predictable agenda
      • Established classroom expectations
      • Meaningful Incentive Systems
      • Meaningful Instruction
      • Opportunity for choices
      • Leadership opportunities
      • Establishing a positive home school partnership
      • Pre-arranged consequences
    • 57.
      • Students can feel a greater sense of ownership when they are invited to contribute to their behavior management plan. Students also tend to know better than anyone else what triggers will set off their problem behaviors and what strategies they find most effective in calming themselves and avoiding conflicts or other behavioral problems.
      Have the Student Participate in Creating a Behavior Plan (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995).
    • 58.
      • ANTECEDENT STRATEGIES
      • should make the target behavior irrelevant
    • 59. Contra-Indicated Behavioral Strategies for the ODD Child
      • Ultimatums
      • Strict Boundaries: Drawing the Line in the Sand
      • Counts, Warnings, Threats
      • Prolonged Eye-Contact
      • Infringing on Personal Space
      • Social Disapproval
      • Judgmental Responses
      • Response Cost and Punishment
      • Strict Boundaries or Contracts
      • Suspension and Detention, Progressive Discipline
      Marion
    • 60. Defiant Kids: How do I deliver a command without power struggles?
      • You can increase the odds that a student will follow a teacher command by:
        • Approaching the student privately, using a quiet voice.
        • establishing eye contact and calling the student by name before giving the command .
        • stating the command as a positive ( do ) statement, rather than a negative ( don’t ) statement.
        • phrasing the command clearly and simply so the student knows exactly what he/she is expected to do.
    • 61. Avoiding Triggers
      • ASD Example
      • Treating with mutual respect
      • Avoiding the three “don’ts”
    • 62. Defiant Kids: Teacher Command Sequence: Extended Version
      • Make the request. Use simple, clear language that the student understands. If possible, phrase the request as a positive ( do ) statement, rather than a negative ( don’t ) statement. (E.g., “John, please start your math assignment now.” ) Wait a reasonable time for the student to comply (e.g., 5-20 seconds)
    • 63.
      • An explanation of the diagram can be found on the slides that follow.
    • 64. SETTING LIMITS
      • Simple and concise
      • Reasonable and Pre-arranged
      • Enforceable
      • (avoid demands that make physcal
      • management to enforce)
      • WHERE IS THE LINE?
      • THE DEFIANT CHILD SHOULD HAVE VERY CLEAR BOUNDARIES !!!
    • 65. At this point, we will watch a video clip of a teacher and student engaged in an escalating war of words. The following questions would be discussed:
      • In the short term (and the long term) , who “won”?
      • Did either person convince the other that his/her way was correct?
      • Has a “show of force” prevented future conflict?
      • Did the teacher do anything of which she could be proud? Did she implement best practice?
      • (Assuming a “ No ” answer) Why not ?
    • 66. Shane
    • 67. Antecedent Interventions
      • Deal with Difficult Behaviors
      • Provide frequent non-contingent attention and interaction
      • “ Fix” difficult tasks
      • Build behavioral momentum
        • Ask for 2-3 likely behaviors before an unlikely behavior.
      • Prompt incompatible, desired behavior
    • 68.
      • What is the most important point to keep in mind when working with a defiant or noncompliant student?
    • 69. What is the most important point to keep in mind when working with a defiant or noncompliant student?
      • If you instead approach the student in a business-like, neutral manner, and impose consistent, fair consequences for misbehavior, you will model the important lesson that you cannot be pulled into a power struggle at the whim of a student.
      • Instructors who successfully stay calm in the face of student provocation often see two additional benefits:
      • a. Over time, students may become less defiant, because they no longer experience the 'reward' of watching you react in anger;
      • b. Because you now deal with student misbehavior impartially, efficiently and quickly, you will have more instructional time available that used to be consumed in epic power struggles.
    • 70. Offer the student face-saving exit strategies.
      • A teacher, for example, who says to a student, "Rashid, take out your book now and pay attention--or I will send you to the office!" backs the student into a corner.
      • The student cannot comply without appearing to have done so merely to avoid the threatened disciplinary consequence (that is, prompt compliance would probably result in Rashid's losing face with his peers).
      • The teacher might instead use this face-saving alternative: "Rashid, please take out your book now and pay attention. We need to make sure that you do well on the upcoming test so that you continue to be eligible to play on the lacrosse team. They need your talent!"
    • 71.
      • REPLACEMENT STRATEGIES
    • 72. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (WRITING) Function Behavior R
    • 73. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (WRITING) REQUEST A BREAK X Behavior Function R
    • 74. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (SPECIFICALLY WRITING) ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (SPECIFICALLY WRITING) REQUEST A BREAK SWEARING !?!? X X EXTINCTION 1 2 R R R R
    • 75. Replacement Behavior
      • Components:
      • * Identify functionally equivalent replacement
      • behavior.
      • * Replacement Behavior
      • (teaching and maintaining)
      • Consider…
          • Is the replacement behavior effective and efficient for the student to use?
          • The Response Effort : how difficult is it for the person to perform the behavior? (physically and/or cognitively)
    • 76. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIORS for Defiance
      • Taking leave appropriately
      • Refusing in a respectful manner
      • Choosing between two task or demands
      • Responding to a coded signal
      • Taking part in plan development
      • Performing three no preferred tasks per day
      • Being a class helper
    • 77.
      • CONSEQUENCE STRATEGIES
    • 78. I ASSIST
      • I - Isolate the young person
      • A - Actively listen
      • S – Speak calmly, assertively, respectfully
      • S – Statements of understanding precede requests
      • I – Invite the young people to consider positive
      • outcomes and behaviors
      • S – Space reduces pressure
      • T – Time helps young people respond to requests
      TCI TRAINING [43]
    • 79. Have a Routine for Responding to Minor Problem Behavior PRE-ARRANGED CONSEQUENCES Specific Request If, Compliance Walk Away & wait 5-10 seconds If, Non-Compliance Reinforce! “ Please _________” Request in a calm voice If, Compliance If, Noncompliance Preplanned Consequence Walk away & Wait 5-10 sec . Reinforce!
    • 80. Responding to Problem Behavior
      • Clarify across staff and administration what behaviors should be managed in the classroom v. sent to the office
      • Develop a continuum of “consequences” with a corrective/ remedial focus, rather than strictly punitive consequences or consequences that remove students from instructional time
      • Develop a data collection form that provides essential information for decision making
    • 81.
      • Extinction
      • occurs when you withhold or remove the reinforcer maintaining a behavior
      • is a procedure that gradually reduces the frequency and/or intensity of a target behavior by withholding reinforcement from previously reinforced behavior
      • extinction can be used to eliminate the connection between the behavior and the positive consequences that follow it
    • 82.
      • Extinction (cont)
      • Extinction REQUIRES complete control of the reinforcer
        • consistency is the most important factor related to the efficacy of extinction
        • in most cases, extinction is only effective in reducing behaviors that are motivated by attention from the teacher/parent/caregiver
      • Other factors affecting resistance to extinction
        • the schedule of reinforcement that previously maintained the behavior
        • the amount of strength of the previous reinforcer
        • the length of time of the previous behavior-reinforcer association
        • the frequency of use of extinction with the student: more the better
    • 83.
      • Extinction (cont)
      • Advantages
        • may be effective without the use of physical or verbal consequences
        • no use of aversive consequences/punishment
        • effects tend to be long lasting
        • when combined with DRI or DRA very effective
      • Disadvantages
        • temporary increase in behavior expected at start
        • child frustration
        • difficult to chose appropriate behavior to use extinction with
        • must have consistency between and among caregivers and peers (environment)
    • 84.
      • Potential Disadvantages of T.O.
      • T.O. may be abused - duration & frequency
      • Caregivers may use it as a "break"
      • Frequent T.O. removes the child from the educational environment
      • “ Time In” may not be reinforcing.
      • Child may exhibit other inappropriate behaviors when caregivers remove positive reinforcement.
      • Time-out is not indicated for escape/avoidance behaviors and instructional noncompliance.
    • 85.
      • Punishment
      The Pitfalls of
    • 86. WHAT CAN I DO TO GET THAT KIND OF REACTION AGAIN?
    • 87. CONSEQUENCES
      • Drawing the line and sticking to it!!
      • Setting Priorities
      • Setting Limits
      • Enforcing those Limits
      • Getting Parental and Community Support
    • 88.
      • Bigger, tougher Consequences is NOT what we mean by a Correction System
    • 89. Consequence Concerns
      • Repeated loss of anything tends to establish and discount orientation-I don’t care
      • The child may start to believe that they can’t be successful and acclimate to a life In the office
      • These kids tend to move us to an ultimate consequence philosophy- we tend to up the severity of punishment thinking that a more sever consequence will do the trick
      • Defiant behavior may have stronger issues of escape as the student gets behind
      • If the child doesn't want to do something or engage, punishing usually makes things worse
      • If we have to call the principal all the time the child gradually becomes desensitized to administration and authority
      • Repeated exclusion tends to foster a difficult or adversarial relationship with families
      • If the behavior is chronic there is a likelihood that something about the consequence may be reinforcing
    • 90. Reinforcement History
      • Has reinforcement been used as a means of acknowledging approximations of desired behavior?
      • Has reinforcement been used as a means of control, leading to resentment, and loss of motivation?
    • 91. The Evolution of Praise versus Correction in the Elementary Years
      • Why praise may be difficult
      • Why praise backfires with ODD
      • Why positive need to be quick and brief
      • Why response cost is a problem
      • Why reinforcement is discounted
      • Create a 5:1 ratio of positives to negatives
    • 92. Problems with Reward Systems
      • “What I giveth I can taketh away.”
      • The Marion Story
      • May not be reinforcing to that child
      • May have been used to control bad behavior rather than celebrate good behavior
    • 93. Setting up Reinforcement Systems
      • A. The student should have input
      • B. Delivery should be rich, random, and not tied
      • to intervals or activities at clearly defined.
      • C. Response Cost Systems should be
      • avoided
      • D. The reward system should NEVER be
      • used to control the child!!
      • E. The reinforcer menu needs to vary!!
      • F. DO NOT USE EMBARASSMENT WHEN THE STUDENT HAS NOT EARNED A PRIVILEGE OR REWARD. THIS WILL LIKELY CAUSE THE STUDENT TO DISCOUNT YOUR REWARD.
      • G. PROVIDE AGREED UPON CELEBRATIONS EVEN IN THE FACE OF INPERFECTION!!
    • 94.
      • Give Praise That is Specific and Does Not Embarrass the Student (Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, 2002) . Defiant students can respond well to adult praise but only when it is sincere and specific, and is not embarrassing. Ideally, the teacher should deliver praise as soon as possible after the positive behavior. Praise should be specific and descriptive—because vague, general praise can sound fake and does not give the student any useful information about how their behavior meets or exceeds the teacher’s expectations. For older students who tend to dislike being praised in a highly public manner, the teacher can use a more indirect or low-key approach (e.g., writing a note of praise on the student’s graded assignment, praising the student in a private conversation, calling the student’s parent to praise the student).
    • 95. Ross Greene’s Three Basket Method
      • Three goals with this method:
      • 1. To maintain adults as authority figures.
      • 2. Teach skills of flexibility and frustration
      • tolerance.
      • 3. Awareness of the child’s limitations.
    • 96. Three basket method: How it works
      • Behaviors are divided into three baskets.
        • Basket A -are non-negotiable behaviors- usually fall into the safety and rights of others category.
          • These behaviors are those that are important enough to endure a “meltdown” over.
          • Child must be capable of successfully exhibiting this behavior on a fairly consistent basis.
          • Basket B - These behaviors are important but can be worked on over time. They are not behaviors worth inducing a “meltdown” over.
          • Basket C - These behaviors are those that could be ignored without any significant repercussions.
    • 97. Remember the PURPOSES of negative consequences
      • Do not expect negative consequences to change behavior patterns.
      • Negative consequences are a way to “keep the lid on”
      • Teaching changes behavior.
      • Prevent escalation of problem behaviors
      • Prevent/minimize reward for problem behaviors
    • 98.
      • COMPETING
      • PATHWAYS
    • 99. Competing Behavior Model Setting Event Antecedent Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior Reinforcing Consequence Reinforcing Consequence Academic engagement Respect and Instructional Control Will compromise and let staff know appropriately Will respond to a coded system Will meet weekly with the teacher and process progress Defiant and disrespectful of staff Bullying others on the playground Adversarial home school partnership History of trauma and neglect Oppositional Temperament Staff demands, limits or boundaries Staff correction, social disapproval, response cost loss of privileges Staff become emotional and upset Avoids teacher demands and consequences Sent home or to the office Parent complains to principal and yells at teacher Leadership and responsibility Input into Plan Self management and reward
    • 100. Desired Alternative Acceptable Alternative Typical Consequence Told “good job” Grades Do work w/o complaints. Ask for break, ask for help. The Competing Pathways chart for our friend Eddie Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Extended structured activity (math) Do a difficult task Threatens, Uses profanity Remove from class. Function Avoid task
    • 101. INFORMATION ON YOUR BREAKING DOWN THE WALLS DISK
      • Antecedent or Prevention Strategies
      • (articles ad presentations)
      • Breaking Down the Walls Part 2
      • (full day presentation and “my son” video)
      • Classroom Management
      • (presentations, articles, and pre-referral survey)
      • Competing Pathways
      • (blank forms and examples)
      • Consequence Strategies
      • (full day presentation and articles)
      • Reinforcement Strategies
      • ( presentation, articles, and sample incentive plans))
      • Strategies for Defiance
      • (17 evidenced based articles on strategies for defiance))
      • Strength Based Approach
      • (article)
      • Attachment Disorder
      • (articles and resources)
    • 102. Are you going to finish strong?? (Building Resilience) TEACHING YOUR STUDENTS NOT TO GIVE UP..
    • 103. Resources
      • Why not read about it from the man (and his former student) who wrote it? For Long & Fescher’s description to the Conflict Cycle model, go to: http://cecp.air.org/interact/authoronline/april98/3.htm They also provide a brief introduction to the “ Life Space Crisis Interview ”, a counseling strategy for working with kids in crisis.
      • To get a better idea of how the Conflict Cycles of two individuals (perhaps a student and teacher) interact, go to: http://www.aiksaath.com/conflict.html While this cycle diagram differs from the model proposed by Dr. Long, it is conceptually similar .
    • 104. FOR MORE INFORMATION ON WORKING WITH DEFIANT STUDENTS, WRITE STEVE AT [email_address] OR GOOGLE STEVE VITTO @ SLIDESHARE.COM OR VISIT THE MAISD WEBSITE
    • 105. GO OUT AND MAKE A DIFFERENCE!! Steve Vitto at Slide Share.com