THE LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH LIFE
     AFTER BECOMING A PARENT:
      GENDER DIFFERENTIATION

     Fulbright English Pre...
Institutional Affiliation - Ohio University

                              Names of authors




Pavlo Bohutskiy – Ukraine ...
Overview
       Introduction
       Background
       Research Question
       Methodology
       Results
       Con...
Background
Cook et al, 1982:
   – Attitudes towards marriage on the increase  The idea
     that “marriage without childr...
Transition to the parenthood
• The change of married couple to parenthood is considered a
  “critical role transition poin...
• Multicultural Health Communication Centre, June 2003:
   – Research also shows that parenthood could be a reason of
    ...
Gender roles
• Gender role attitudes shape parental attitudes differentially for
  men and women  Bernhartdt & Goldscheid...
Research Question
• Do males and females report different levels
  of life satisfaction after becoming parents?
Main Goals
 To define changes in life attitudes in female and   Research
  male after becoming a parents

 To evaluate c...
Methodology: Questionnaire
                  •   General information:
                       – gender, age, country and nu...
Family

             Sport/Health                Friends




                                                       Self-
...
Participants
             38.5%       Males            Females       65.5%


                                 Gender

Age ...
Ranking of priopities with life BEFORE parenthood
                              6


                              5


    ...
Ranking of priorities in life AFTER parenthood
                              7

                              6
The rank o...
Distinctions in rank of priorities in life by gender
       2
                                              1.5
  1.5

   ...
Amount of time (%) spent on the following priority BEFORE
                                  parenthood: gender differences...
Amount of time (%) spend on the following priority AFTER
                                  parenthood: gender differences
...
Distinctions in time spending by gender
   20
                                           15.13
                           ...
Conclusions from figures:
• there are no direct relation between the ranking of priorities
  and time spent for the specif...
Conclusions from figures:
•   For female:

•    – the level of priority in per cent for such activities as sport/health,
 ...
Level on satisfaction from life BEFORE/AFTER
              having children: gender differences

                          ...
Conclusions
•   Birth of a child makes females feel less satisfied in life in
    contrast to male who feel more satisfied...
Changing in level on satisfaction from life before and after having
                         children: gender and age diff...
Thank you for attention
       Questions?
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Ohio Project

  1. 1. THE LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AFTER BECOMING A PARENT: GENDER DIFFERENTIATION Fulbright English Pre-academic Course 2008 OPIE
  2. 2. Institutional Affiliation - Ohio University Names of authors Pavlo Bohutskiy – Ukraine Gwendoline Nyambi– Cameroon Svitlana Volkova – Ukraine
  3. 3. Overview  Introduction  Background  Research Question  Methodology  Results  Conclusions  Acknowledgments  Questions
  4. 4. Background Cook et al, 1982: – Attitudes towards marriage on the increase  The idea that “marriage without children is not fully complete'' – Attitudes towards having children on the decrease • Preference given to other priorities in life: – career, money making, fun, self denial
  5. 5. Transition to the parenthood • The change of married couple to parenthood is considered a “critical role transition point” – Aldous, 1978 • Some authors present the transition to parenthood as a usual event that can easily be predicted and managed – Charting Parenthood, 2002 • It proves the fact that both personal and marital stress increase after becoming a parent
  6. 6. • Multicultural Health Communication Centre, June 2003: – Research also shows that parenthood could be a reason of feelings like: anger, stress, guilt, confusion, and anxiety Influence on life satisfaction?
  7. 7. Gender roles • Gender role attitudes shape parental attitudes differentially for men and women  Bernhartdt & Goldscheider, 2006 • Orientation towards transitions to fatherhood : – Coltrane, 1996 – Nielsen, 1999
  8. 8. Research Question • Do males and females report different levels of life satisfaction after becoming parents?
  9. 9. Main Goals  To define changes in life attitudes in female and Research male after becoming a parents  To evaluate changes in life preferences before Survey and after parenthood  To prove or deny the hypothesis of gender Analyses influence on peoples’ life satisfaction after parenthood
  10. 10. Methodology: Questionnaire • General information: – gender, age, country and number of children. 7 main priorities • Before parenthood: – rank of life priorities 0 – 100% – scale of time spent on those activities; – level of life satisfaction. • After parenthood: – rank of life priorities – scale of time spent on those activities; Not Satisfied – level of life satisfaction. Very Satisfied
  11. 11. Family Sport/Health Friends Self- Career Improvement Main Money categories Other Making of life attitude
  12. 12. Participants 38.5% Males Females 65.5% Gender Age Females Males Amount of Females Males Response Response children Response Response Percent Percent Percent Percent <25 31.3% 50.0% 1 75.0% 70.0% 26-30 43.8% 20.0% 2 12.5% 20.0% >30 25.0% 30.0% >2 12.5% 10.0%
  13. 13. Ranking of priopities with life BEFORE parenthood 6 5 4 The rank of priority 3 2 1 0 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-improv. Other making Male 3.1 5 5.1 3.3 4.5 4.4 2.6 Female 4.56 5.63 4.88 3 3.88 4.44 1.63
  14. 14. Ranking of priorities in life AFTER parenthood 7 6 The rank of priority 5 4 3 2 1 0 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-improv. Other making Male 3.6 4.7 5.4 4.2 4.8 3.4 1.9 Female 4.13 4.81 6.38 3.06 3.38 4.25 2
  15. 15. Distinctions in rank of priorities in life by gender 2 1.5 1.5 1 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.37 0.06 0 -0.19 -0.5 -0.3 -0.43 -0.5 -0.7 -1 -0.82 -1 -1.5 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-improv. Other making Male 0.5 -0.3 0.3 0.9 0.3 -1 -0.7 Female -0.43 -0.82 1.5 0.06 -0.5 -0.19 0.37
  16. 16. Amount of time (%) spent on the following priority BEFORE parenthood: gender differences 35 30 25 Time, % 20 15 10 5 0 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-impr. Other making Male 20 20.5 18.3 11.7 16.3 7.9 5.3 Female 19.38 29.56 22.06 5.56 10.19 8.69 4.56
  17. 17. Amount of time (%) spend on the following priority AFTER parenthood: gender differences 40 35 30 25 Time, % 20 15 10 5 0 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-impr. Other making Male 23.7 12.5 34 7.7 9.8 8.1 4.2 Female 14.56 17.88 37.19 6.69 9.13 11.31 3.25
  18. 18. Distinctions in time spending by gender 20 15.13 15.7 15 10 5 3.7 2.62 1.13 0.2 0 -1.06 -1.1-1.31 -5 -4 -4.82 -6.5 -10 -8 -11.68 -15 Money Career Family Sport/health Friends Self-impr. Other making Male 3.7 -8 15.7 -4 -6.5 0.2 -1.1 Female -4.82 -11.68 15.13 1.13 -1.06 2.62 -1.31
  19. 19. Conclusions from figures: • there are no direct relation between the ranking of priorities and time spent for the specific activity • For male: • – the level of priority in per cent for such activities as sport/health, friends, career and self improvement are high then the per cent of time spent for these actions; • the level of priority in per cent for activities such as family and money making is less than the per cent of time spent.
  20. 20. Conclusions from figures: • For female: • – the level of priority in per cent for such activities as sport/health, friends and self improvement are high then the per cent of time spent for these actions; • the level of priority in per cent for activities such as family is less than the per cent of time spent. • The gap between priorities and time spent for male is 1.7 time more than for female
  21. 21. Level on satisfaction from life BEFORE/AFTER having children: gender differences 3.94 After 3.90 4.13 Before 3.20 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 Female Male
  22. 22. Conclusions • Birth of a child makes females feel less satisfied in life in contrast to male who feel more satisfied. • Before becoming a parent females have opportunities to spent more time for such activities as: – as money making and career, what make them feel more independent and self-confident; – part of females has to combine motherhood and work, or part time work.
  23. 23. Changing in level on satisfaction from life before and after having children: gender and age differences 1.2 1 1 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.2 0 0 -0.2 -0.15 -0.4 -0.4 -0.6 >25 25-30 <30 Male 0.6 0.5 1 Female -0.4 -0.15 0
  24. 24. Thank you for attention Questions?
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