Access to Information

   How will the other 70% get it?




Sameer Verma, Ph.D.
Associate Professor              Computer...
~ 70%




http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
Can information flow like water?




http://ltse.env.duke.edu/files/ltse/images/India%20Persian%20wheel%20irrigation%20Gan...
A water “battery”.
Can we build information batteries?
Viva La Revolución




   Can we spark a paradigm shift by providing
equitable access to information all over the world?
Somebody is finally thinking of the
             children!



                                      To create educational ...
in the beginning...
ooh! laptop!




               (July 2007)
Give 1 Get 1 – Nov 2007
Next thing I know...




De facto organizer for olpc-sf

      http://olpcsf.org
Where no one has gone [computing]
            before...
School Galadima, Abuja City, Nigeria
See http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Galadima
Samkha village located in the suburbs of northern Thailand
See http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Thailand/Ban_Samkha
Khairat school is India's pilot site.
See http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_India
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Ulaanbaatar
Ethopia
http://www.reactivated.net/weblog/archives/2008/10/olpc-ethiopia-updates/
Ghana
http://www.flickr.com/photos/olpc/2921143251/
Cameroon
http://www.flickr.com/photos/olpc/3110907018/in/set-72157611290673682/
Afghanistan refugee camp, Pakistan
http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Pakistan/Atlas_School
Colombia
http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Colombia
Peru
http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Peru
Rwanda
http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Rwanda
Iraq
http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Iraq
Haiti
http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Haiti
Solomon Islands
http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Solomon_Islands
Nepal
http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Nepal
Uruguay: Every primary school child has an XO.
       http://olpc-ceibal.blogspot.com/
postage stamps too!
Deployments worldwide




              1.6 million XO laptops and counting See Google Maps
Also see: http://wiki.laptop.o...
Multiple hats...




          Disclaimer: I do not work for OLPC.
          I am only a volunteer!
OLPC San Francisco Bay Area




          http://olpcsf.org/
OLPC-SF Deployments

●   A hub for exchange of ideas, plans, content, etc.
●   Deployments
         –   Afghanistan (Carol...
School environment




  Manage content
   Manage access
 Manage assessment
                        have
                 ...
XS: OLPC School Server
     The Internet in a Box
           (unsung hero too!)
What does the XS look like?




  Fantasy View
What does the XS look like?




  Reality View




                 http://www.flickr.com/photos/popcorncx/149706221/
What does the XS look like?
●   Any x86 box with requisite memory, crunch and storage can be the
    XS.
         –   It c...
Services that the XS runs
●   Networking
         –   DNS
         –   DHCP
         –   NAT/Masquerading
         –   Bri...
Services that the XS runs
●   Collaboration
         –    XMPP via ejabberd
●   Storage
         –    Files and attachment...
Networking
●   Provides networking infrastructure for the school.
●   Acts as an Internet gateway (if backhaul exists)
   ...
Identity management
●   Single One Time Passwords (SOTP) for maintenance.
         –   Remote ISP maintenance, etc.
●   OL...
Collaboration
●   XMPP-based collaboration via ejabberd.
         –   Ejabberd is a XMPP (jabber) server written in erlang...
Storage
●   Much of the storage lives in /library partition.
          –   Mount /library on external USB disk or other me...
Backup

●   Three processes:
         –   Traffic control
                   ●   provides basic "traffic control" to manag...
Updates
●   Pushing updates to OS image and firmware via rsync.
Layout (Access Points)
Hardware vs Load




        Benjamin Tran's Master's thesis:
jmeter to load and and nmon to record the load
Hardware recommendations
●   Schools with less than 40 laptops:
         –   use XS-on-XO: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/XS-on...
Fit PC and Fit PC2
●   Fit PC works well and is comparable to the XO-1 in performance.
         –   More configurable than...
Hardware recommendations
●   Schools with up to 100 laptops:
         –   1GHz CPU, 1GB RAM,
         –   at least 2GB dis...
Hardware recommendations
●   For up to 500 laptops:
         –   dual-core 2GHz CPU
         –   2 to 4GB RAM
         –  ...
Hardware recommendations
●   More than 500 laptops
         –   Server-class dual CPU
         –   4 to 16GB RAM
         ...
School Server
Screenshots




XS Moodle Screen Shots
Main page
Front page settings
Front page roles
List of users
Roles and permissions
Presence service
Antitheft controls
Add a course
Site files
Question bank
Moving courses
Create in San Francisco...




                                     ...deploy in Madagascar!




       A z...
XS: Internet in a box



No Internet? No power? No problem :-)

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OLPC_XS
http://wiki.laptop.o...
OLPC SF Community Summit 2010




            October 22, 23, 24, 2010

      http://olpcsf.org/CommunitySummit2010/
Garima
Garima lives in Bhagmalpur, India.
They get electricity ~ 2 hours a day. The
village has no access to the Internet ...
Made with the free stuff




Its your intellectual property. Keep it open.
            Vote with your fingers.
           ...
Access to Information: How will the other 70% get it?
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Access to Information: How will the other 70% get it?

  1. 1. Access to Information How will the other 70% get it? Sameer Verma, Ph.D. Associate Professor Computer Science Graduate Seminar Series Information Systems Computer Science Department Department San Francisco State University San Francisco State University Unless noted otherwise San Francisco, CA 94132 USA
  2. 2. ~ 70% http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
  3. 3. Can information flow like water? http://ltse.env.duke.edu/files/ltse/images/India%20Persian%20wheel%20irrigation%20Ganges%20Plain.jpg
  4. 4. A water “battery”. Can we build information batteries?
  5. 5. Viva La Revolución Can we spark a paradigm shift by providing equitable access to information all over the world?
  6. 6. Somebody is finally thinking of the children! To create educational opportunities for the world's poorest children by providing each child with a rugged, low-cost, low-power, connected laptop with content and software designed for collaborative, joyful, self-empowered learning. —OLPC Mission Statement, It's an education project, not a laptop project. —Nicholas Negroponte
  7. 7. in the beginning...
  8. 8. ooh! laptop! (July 2007)
  9. 9. Give 1 Get 1 – Nov 2007
  10. 10. Next thing I know... De facto organizer for olpc-sf http://olpcsf.org
  11. 11. Where no one has gone [computing] before...
  12. 12. School Galadima, Abuja City, Nigeria See http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Galadima
  13. 13. Samkha village located in the suburbs of northern Thailand See http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Thailand/Ban_Samkha
  14. 14. Khairat school is India's pilot site. See http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_India
  15. 15. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Ulaanbaatar
  16. 16. Ethopia http://www.reactivated.net/weblog/archives/2008/10/olpc-ethiopia-updates/
  17. 17. Ghana http://www.flickr.com/photos/olpc/2921143251/
  18. 18. Cameroon http://www.flickr.com/photos/olpc/3110907018/in/set-72157611290673682/
  19. 19. Afghanistan refugee camp, Pakistan http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Pakistan/Atlas_School
  20. 20. Colombia http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Colombia
  21. 21. Peru http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Peru
  22. 22. Rwanda http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Rwanda
  23. 23. Iraq http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Iraq
  24. 24. Haiti http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Haiti
  25. 25. Solomon Islands http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Solomon_Islands
  26. 26. Nepal http://wiki.laptop.org/go/OLPC_Nepal
  27. 27. Uruguay: Every primary school child has an XO. http://olpc-ceibal.blogspot.com/
  28. 28. postage stamps too!
  29. 29. Deployments worldwide 1.6 million XO laptops and counting See Google Maps Also see: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Property:Number_of_manufactured_laptops
  30. 30. Multiple hats... Disclaimer: I do not work for OLPC. I am only a volunteer!
  31. 31. OLPC San Francisco Bay Area http://olpcsf.org/
  32. 32. OLPC-SF Deployments ● A hub for exchange of ideas, plans, content, etc. ● Deployments – Afghanistan (Carol Ruth Silver, MTSA) – India (Humaira Mahi & Sameer Verma, SFSU) – Jamaica (Sameer Verma & Univ. of the West Indies) – Madagascar (June Kleider, XO-ology) – Senegal (Drew & Lick-Wilmerding Schools) – South Africa (EduWeavers) – San Francisco (Starr King Elementary) – Uganda (UC Berkeley)
  33. 33. School environment Manage content Manage access Manage assessment have to good
  34. 34. XS: OLPC School Server The Internet in a Box (unsung hero too!)
  35. 35. What does the XS look like? Fantasy View
  36. 36. What does the XS look like? Reality View http://www.flickr.com/photos/popcorncx/149706221/
  37. 37. What does the XS look like? ● Any x86 box with requisite memory, crunch and storage can be the XS. – It could also be a ARM machine in the near future... ● Ideally, we want a machine that – Consumes very little power – Has the necessary crunch – Portable ● Pocketable, even? – Very forgiving for power brownouts, heat, dust, etc. ● Kinda like the XO.
  38. 38. Services that the XS runs ● Networking – DNS – DHCP – NAT/Masquerading – Bridging ● Identity management – Seamless XO login – Single One Time Password (SOTP) on server ● Activation – Theft deterrence
  39. 39. Services that the XS runs ● Collaboration – XMPP via ejabberd ● Storage – Files and attachments for courses – Backup files – Other media ● Backup – Journal/Datastore backup ● XO Software updates – Push updates including firmware and OS images ● Activity server – Pushing activity bundles
  40. 40. Networking ● Provides networking infrastructure for the school. ● Acts as an Internet gateway (if backhaul exists) – Includes HTTP proxy (optional) – Content filter (optional) ● Supports Wi-Fi: – Ad-Hoc – Mesh (IEEE 802.11s draft) – Infrastructure (Access Point)
  41. 41. Identity management ● Single One Time Passwords (SOTP) for maintenance. – Remote ISP maintenance, etc. ● OLPC XO Browse – authenticates seamlessly with Moodle – Moodle talks to ejabberd for permissions, etc. ● First XO to access Moodle – This XO becomes admin. – This XO can assign other teachers, course creators, and other such roles
  42. 42. Collaboration ● XMPP-based collaboration via ejabberd. – Ejabberd is a XMPP (jabber) server written in erlang. ● Uses gabble mode under telepathy in Sugar. – Gabble allows for server-based collaboration ● XOs switch to salut mode in case no XS is found. – Salut allows for peer-to-peer collaboration ● Activities such as Chat, Write, Memorize use XMPP to collaborate. http://xmpp.org/ http://collabora.co.uk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telepathy_software
  43. 43. Storage ● Much of the storage lives in /library partition. – Mount /library on external USB disk or other media and expand storage. – Run rest of the system off a CF or SD card (solid state) ● Files can be served as – links via Moodle – links via Apache (add Apache config)
  44. 44. Backup ● Three processes: – Traffic control ● provides basic "traffic control" to manage load. – Backup-complete script ● Creates links for latest snapshot. – Daily cleanup ● enforces a per-user "soft" quota.
  45. 45. Updates ● Pushing updates to OS image and firmware via rsync.
  46. 46. Layout (Access Points)
  47. 47. Hardware vs Load Benjamin Tran's Master's thesis: jmeter to load and and nmon to record the load
  48. 48. Hardware recommendations ● Schools with less than 40 laptops: – use XS-on-XO: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/XS-on-XO – Requires a SD card (4GB, preferably class 6) – External USB hard drive (may need own power) – USB-Ethernet for backhaul.
  49. 49. Fit PC and Fit PC2 ● Fit PC works well and is comparable to the XO-1 in performance. – More configurable than the XO-1. – Replace a SSD in the FitPC to make it cooler and more power efficient. ● http://www.fit-pc.com/fit-pc1/ ● Fit PC2 has heat problems. – Intel Atom runs too hot ● Surprise, surprise. ● Maybe glue on a large heat sink? http://www.flickr.com/photos/ndevil/3535934684/
  50. 50. Hardware recommendations ● Schools with up to 100 laptops: – 1GHz CPU, 1GB RAM, – at least 2GB disk storage per laptop. – Something in the mini ITX form-factor works well. – Fanless units are better
  51. 51. Hardware recommendations ● For up to 500 laptops: – dual-core 2GHz CPU – 2 to 4GB RAM – at least 2GB disk storage per laptop. – This type of a machine usually works in environments with good power resources. http://www.flickr.com/photos/popcorncx/149706221/
  52. 52. Hardware recommendations ● More than 500 laptops – Server-class dual CPU – 4 to 16GB RAM – at least 2GB disk storage per laptop. – Data center hosting is also an option. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamisonjudd/2433102356/
  53. 53. School Server
  54. 54. Screenshots XS Moodle Screen Shots
  55. 55. Main page
  56. 56. Front page settings
  57. 57. Front page roles
  58. 58. List of users
  59. 59. Roles and permissions
  60. 60. Presence service
  61. 61. Antitheft controls
  62. 62. Add a course
  63. 63. Site files
  64. 64. Question bank
  65. 65. Moving courses Create in San Francisco... ...deploy in Madagascar! A zip file, which includes content and structure for the entire course!
  66. 66. XS: Internet in a box No Internet? No power? No problem :-) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OLPC_XS http://wiki.laptop.org/go/School_server
  67. 67. OLPC SF Community Summit 2010 October 22, 23, 24, 2010 http://olpcsf.org/CommunitySummit2010/
  68. 68. Garima Garima lives in Bhagmalpur, India. They get electricity ~ 2 hours a day. The village has no access to the Internet as yet. Their school has no computers. The classrooms are too small to accommodate the 1100 children who go to school there. So, the children sit under a tree. One tree per class. India just spent Rs. 300 billion (U$6.77billion) on the Commonwealth Games. Will a silly-looking green computer make a difference? I hope so. --Sameer
  69. 69. Made with the free stuff Its your intellectual property. Keep it open. Vote with your fingers. Use open formats! http://www.openoffice.org/

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