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Semantics And Search

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How use of semantics can improve search

How use of semantics can improve search

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  • 1. From Google Search to Semantic Exploration Jon Atle Gulla Professor Norwegian University of Science and Technology jag@idi.ntnu.no Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 2. Agenda Traditional search applications Adding shallow linguistics to traditional search The concept of semantic search Ontologies in search applications Ontologies for semantic annotation & exploration Ontology-driven query interpretation quot;Hakia thinks that indexing has plateaued and that semantic technologies will take over quot;Hakia thinks that indexing has plateaued and that semantic technologies will take over for the next generation of searchquot;. for the next generation of searchquot;. MacManus, R. “Hakia Takes On Google With Semantic Technologies”. MacManus, R. “Hakia Takes On Google With Semantic Technologies”. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/hakia_takes_on_google_semantic_search.php http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/hakia_takes_on_google_semantic_search.php Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 3. The Language Problem in Search People use the language differently Authors ? cument do query? t of the e n e conte ent answers th th What is his docum t k n o w if How to Information user Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 4. The Google Search Experience Query Similarity Similarity Page rank Index Page rank Index Linguistics Linguistics Results Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 5. Traditional Search Principles Bag-of-words principle You see: Machine understands document as a set of word frequencies A drilling rig or oil rig is a structure housi equipment used to drill for and extract oil or Word matching principle natural gas from underground reservoirs. Drilling rigs can also be used to drill for Syntactic search: water or for exploration purposes. Relevant documents are documents that contain exactly those words that appear in the query Machine sees: Morpho-syntactic search: drill(4) purpos(1) Relevant documents are documents equip(1) reservoir(1) that contain inflectional variants of explor(1) rig(3) extract(1) structur(1) exactly those words that appear in hous(1) underground(1) the query natur(1) water(1) oil(2) One shot principle Query and result set ignored when new query is posted Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 6. Traditional Search Principles Bag-of-words principle User need: Machine understands document Christmas tree as a set of word frequencies Word matching principle Syntactic search: Relevant documents are Index documents that contain exactly those words that appear in the A Christmas tree is one of the most popular traditions query A Christmas tree is one of the most popular traditions associated with the celebration associated with the celebration of Christmas. Morpho-syntactic search: of Christmas. It is normally an evergreen coniferous tree that Relevant documents are It is normally an evergreen coniferous tree that is brought into a home or used in the open, and is is brought into a home or used in the open, and is documents that contain decorated with Christmas lights and colourful decorated with Christmas lights and colourful ornaments during the days around Christmas. inflectional variants of exactly ornaments during the days around Christmas. those words that appear in the A Christmas tree is a set of valves, pipes, and fittings A Christmas tree is a set of valves, pipes, and fittings used to control the flow of oil and gas as it leaves a well query used to control the flow of oil and gas as it leaves a well and enters a pipeline. and enters a pipeline. One shot principle Query and result set ignored when new query is posted Relevance given by document similarity Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 7. Traditional Search Principles Bag-of-words principle Search query Implementation: Machine understands document Christmas trees as a set of word frequencies Word matchingDocument relevant to query if cosine similarity principle above a certain threshold: Syntactic search: Result set Relevant documents are n ∑ documents that contain exactly (q *d ) those words that appear in the1 i i q d =( ) •( ) sim(q, d) = i= query n n q d ∑ ∑ Morpho-syntactic search: 2 2 qi * di Relevant documents are i =1 i =1 documents that contain inflectional variants of exactly those words thatvector representation of document d: appear in the query q: vector representation of vector One shot principle Query and result set ignored when new query is posted Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 8. Adding Shallow Linguistics to Search Clustering or log analysis for grouping search results for ‘oil’ Text categorizsation Entity search Teaser generation Spell checking Collocations Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 9. But “A drilling rig or oil rig is a structure housing equipment used to drill for and extract oil or natural gas from underground reservoirs. Drilling rigs can also be used to drill for water or for exploration purposes.” (Ref: Wikipedia) Semantic Search Principle: Semantic Search Principle: Text is still just a set of strings rig subclassOf sameAs drill(4) oil rig purpos(1) drilling rig equip(1) partOf reservoir(1) usedFor drill explor(1) rig(3) extract(1)gas structur(1) water natural oil hous(1) underground(1) natur(1) water(1) Use ontologies oil(2) Use ontologiesto represent domain vocabulary, to represent domain vocabulary, documents’ content and/or user’s information needs documents’ content and/or user’s information needs Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 10. Semantic Approaches to Search Search principles Syntactic search Semantic search Document view Bag-of-words Terms and concepts Search approach Word matching Concept matching Search process One shot Exploratory session Applications of ontologies in semantic search: Help user formulate semantic queries Scientific reports Reformulate/reinterpret queries IIP project Browse domain Formulate related queries Interoperability between search applications Semantic indexing of documents Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 11. 1. Ontologies in Semantic Exploration Use graphical ontologies for query formulation Semantic annotations of documents Construct queries graphically Use ontological structures to expand query Use ontology to visualize search results Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 12. Query Formulation Queries expanded from ontological structures Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 13. Query Refinement Use ontological structures to explore the domain Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 14. 2. Ontology-Driven Query Interpretation User terminology User query User query Semantic layer --- ----- --- ----- Semantic Query interpretation --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- Ontology trained --- ----- --- ----- Semantic Query interpretation --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- on person and --- ----- --- ----- User Query --- ----- User Query domain collection interpretation mapping --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- interpretation mapping --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- Domain collection Domain document Standard Standard collection search engine search engine Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 15. Training Ontology for Search Characteristic terms in these documents express user’s interpretation of christmas tree CHRISTMAS TREE for this document collection Concept Prominent document terms CHRISTMAS TREE 0.95 christmas tree 0.80 christmas trees 0.35 x-tree Documents 0.05 valves viewed by 0.02 wellhead user (and considered relevant) Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 16. The Personalized Ontology Each concept described Ontology of weightedIndex terms in terms words Words correspond to user’s assessment of which information is relevant to a concept for this document base Concept – term associations created automatically based on user’s behavior Football ontology Concept Index terms CHRISTMAS TREE 0.95 christmas tree WELL Concept-term matrix a dynamic structure 0.80 christmas trees that reflects user’s preferences and 0.35 x-tree 0.35 PIPE behavior 0.05 valves 0.50 0.02 wellhead 0.95 well 0.98 wells ... 0.95 pipe 0.10 pipes Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 17. Semantic Search Query Retrieved from ontology An artefact that is an assembly of pipes and piping parts, with User query valves and associated control equipment that is connected to the top of a wellhead and is intended for control of fluid from CHRISTMAS TREE a well Matches in document base Query mapping Christmas trees are used on both subsea and surface wellheads and both are available in a wide range of sizes and configurations, ... christmas tree:0.95, christmas trees:0.8, A Christmas tree is one of the most popular traditions associated x-tree:0.35, valves:0.05, wellhead:0.04 with the celebration of Christmas. ... The function of a christmas tree is to both prevent the release of oil or gas from an oil well into the environment and also to direct and control the flow of formation fluids from the well. ... Private Christmas trees are not usually put up until at least the middle of December and are usually taken down by the 6th of January , ... It is normally an evergreen tree that is brought into a home or used in the open, and is decorated with Christmas lights and colourful Concept Prominent document terms ornaments during the days around Christmas. Good understanding of topside equipment used, including x-trees CHRISTMAS TREE and wellhead systems 0.95 christmas tree Wellhead valves are used to isolate the flow of oil or gas at the 0.80 christmas trees takeoff from an oil or gas well. . 0.35 x-tree VENTILTRE er en ventilenhet montert på toppen av stigerør eller 0.05 brønnhode, ofte kalt juletre valves 0.04 A wellhead consists of the spools, valves, and other components wellhead which contain the pressure within the well. Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 18. Semantic Search Results Retrieved from ontology An artefact that is an assembly of pipes and piping parts, with valves and associated control equipment that is connected to the top of a wellhead and is intended for control of fluid from Query/document a well similarity Matches in document base Christmas trees are used on both subsea and surface wellheads plural form strong and both are available in a wide range of sizes and configurations, ... A Christmas tree is one of the most popular traditions associated singular form, but other words different weak with the celebration of Christmas. ... The function of a christmas tree is to both prevent the release of oil or singular form gas from an oil well into the environment and also to direct and control strong the flow of formation fluids from the well. ... plural form, but other words different 4/4 Precision: 4/4 Private Christmas trees are not usually put up until at least the middle weak Precision: of December and are usually taken down by the 6th of January , ... Recall: 5/6 Recall: 5/6 It is normally an evergreen tree that is brought into a home or used in different words, christmas related no the open, and is decorated with Christmas lights and colourful ornaments during the days around Christmas. Good understanding of topside equipment used, including x-trees synonyms and wellhead systems strong Wellhead valves are used to isolate the flow of oil or gas at the related words acceptable takeoff from an oil or gas well. . related words, ontology not trained in VENTILTRE er en ventilenhet montert på toppen av stigerør eller no brønnhode, ofte kalt juletre this language A wellhead consists of the spools, valves, and other components acceptable related words which contain the pressure within the well. Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 19. Keyword Search Query User query Retrieved from ontology An artefact that is an assembly of pipes and piping parts, with x-tree valves and associated control equipment that is connected to the top of a wellhead and is intended for control of fluid from a well User interpretation Matches in document base Christmas trees are used on both subsea and surface wellheads CHRISTMAS TREE:0.35 and both are available in a wide range of sizes and configurations, ... Query mapping The function of a christmas tree is to both prevent the release of oil or christmas tree:0.95, christmas trees:0.8, gas from an oil well into the environment and also to direct and control the flow of formation fluids from the well. ... x-tree:0.35, valves:0.05, wellhead:0.04 Concept Prominent document terms Good understanding of topside equipment used, including x-trees CHRISTMAS TREE and wellhead systems 0.95 christmas tree Wellhead valves are used to isolate the flow of oil or gas at the 0.80 christmas trees takeoff from an oil or gas well. . 0.35 x-tree 0.05 valves 0.04 A wellhead consists of the spools, valves, and other components wellhead which contain the pressure within the well. Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 20. Semantic Search - Learning No fixed set of relevant documents – depends on user preferences User query User query CHRISTMAS TREE Personalized concept- term matrix Result page Documents viewed by user (and considered relevant) Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 21. 2. IIP Ontology on Web Documents User terminology Experiment with real document collection Horizontal Horizontal tree tree Mapping to query based on document Interpretation of ‘horizontal tree’ tree content horizontal HORIZONTAL VESSEL 0.162tree 1.0 horizontal christmas HORIZONTAL CHRISTMAS TREE Score: WELLHEAD HOUSING 0.109 0.01488 HORIZONTAL BOREHOLE 0.138 1.0 horizontal christmas trees CONDUCTOR HOUSING 0.109 horizontal x-tree 1.0 CONDUCTOR HOUSING, HORIZONTAL VESSEL Score: 0.00586 HORIZONTAL CHRISTMAS TREE 0.088 WEAR BUSHING 0.101 Semantic layer horixontal x-trees 1.0 HORIZONTAL VESSEL JOINT GASKET 0.096 WELLHEAD HOUSING, RING Score: 0.00586 HORIZONTAL TUBING HANGER 0.072 PLANEWEAR BUSHING, HORIZONTAL VESSELSUBSEA PRODUCTION MANIFOLD 0.096 Score: 0.00411 0.057 CHRISTMAS sentre 0.465TREE, HORIZONTAL CHRISTMAS TREE Score: 0.00369 INTERSECTION 0.055 TESTING TOOL 0.088 --- ----- Ontology adapted --- ----- Semantic Query interpretation --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- Semantic Query interpretation HORIZONTAL CHRISTMAS TREE, HORIZONTAL VESSEL Score: 0.00344 PIPING END 0.051 0.216 BORE PROTECTOR 0.088 --- ----- deepwater --- ----- --- ----- BENDING STRESS 0.043 web documents HORIZONTAL CHRISTMAS TREE 0.085 using --- ----- TUBING0.092 HORIZONTAL VESSEL Score: 0.00323 SPOOL, --- ----- atlantic --- ----- --- ----- User Query --- ----- SHIFTING TOOL 0.040 the oil business horizontal from CONDUCTOR HOUSING, HORIZONTAL CHRISTMAS TREE Score: 0.00317 RUNNING TOOL 0.076 User Query 0.088 IIP ontology trained interpretation mapping --- ----- WELLHEAD HOUSING, HORIZONTAL CHRISTMAS TREE Score: 0.00317 AXIS 0.037 TREE 0.068 --- ----- --- ----- interpretation mapping --- ----- develop HANGER, HORIZONTAL TUBING HANGER Score: 0.00295 0.085 --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- FIXED TUBINGon web oil --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- STRUCTURE 0.037 TUBING SPOOL 0.060 --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- --- ----- FLUID investordocuments 0.085 BORE PROTECTOR, HORIZONTAL VESSEL Score: CHRISTMAS TREE 0.048 SURFACE 0.00284 SEPARATOR 0.036 ELECTRICAL0.085 water PENETRATOR 0.034 TESTING TOOL, HORIZONTAL BOREHOLE Score: 0.00243 0.046 CONTROL MODULE gulf 0.083 0.034 TEST SEPARATORHOUSING, HORIZONTAL CHRISTMAS TREE Score: 0.00238 WELLHEAD DELIVERY PRICE 0.045 Domain collection transocean 0.078 VOLUME FLOW RATE 0.033BOREHOLE Score: VALVE NORMALLY OPEN 0.045 TREE, HORIZONTAL 0.00235 CHRISTMAS field 0.072 TREE, HORIZONTAL VESSEL Score: CHRISTMAS TREE 0.043 SUBSEA 0.00227 HYDROGEN FLUORIDE 0.029 WEAR BUSHING, HORIZONTAL CHRISTMAS TREE Score: 0.00222 BASE STEEL 0.028 CHRISTMAS TREE 0.042 bluewater Web collection 0.070 TREE,0.066 HORIZONTAL VESSEL Score: 0.00220 ... ... deep Reformulated from different Reformulated query domains query Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 22. Conclusions Traditional search based on keyword matching and shallow linguistics Ontologies provide vocabulary for semantic search Graphical ontology for query formulation Semantic exploration of domain Visual queries Trained ontology for query interpretation Ontology maps between concepts and domain terms Semantic interpretation hidden to users Challenges Linking concepts to terms Scalability Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla
  • 23. Thank you! Semantic Days 2007 Jon Atle Gulla