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Open data and reuse of public information

Open data and reuse of public information



A presentation of open data and its potential, especially seen in light of the linked open data development. ...

A presentation of open data and its potential, especially seen in light of the linked open data development.

Presentation held for Institute of Information and Media Science at the University of Bergen, 14.04.2011



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    Open data and reuse of public information Open data and reuse of public information Presentation Transcript

    • Open Data and its Potential- reuse of public sector information- Svein Ølnes, Vestlandsforsking, 13.04.2011
    • Outline About Vestforsk and myself Semantic technologies Linked (Open) Data Open Data Open Data -> LOD -> Sem. Techn. Relevant projects and resources Literature www.vestforsk.no
    • Vestlandsforsking ICT themes  Semantic technologies, information structures ++  Regional development, organizational changes with ICT ICT application areas  Public sector (eGovernment, eHealth)  Tourism sector (local, regional, national, int’national level) Vestforsk also does research in  Climate change  Transport and environment  Sustainable tourism  Renewable energy www.vestforsk.no
    • About me Vestforsk since 1996 eGovernment  Municipalities  Government Semantic technologies Projects  Norge.no (establishing in 1999/2000)  MiSide (development of demonstrator in 2004)  LivsIT/Los (2003 – to date)  Evaluation of public websites (2001 – to date) www.vestforsk.no
    • Naming things!  [the famous cartoon by Gary Larson showing a man painting ’the cat’, ’the dog’, ’the house’ on his cat, dog, and house and explaining ”Now, this should clear up a few things around here!”] www.vestforsk.no
    • Technology waves Model driven Focus: Semantic Data: Ontologi & Data Component based Focus: Services Data: XML Object oriented Focus: Structure Data: Relational Procedure oriented Focus: Syntacs Data: Hierarchical 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015Stian Danenbarger, Bouvet.no www.vestforsk.no
    • The ontology spectrumThe ontology spectrum: From weak to strong semantics 1. Vocabulary • plain text documents/HTML pages – almost no semantic structure 2. Controlled vocabularies (weak semantic structure) • adding metadata to the information 3. Taxonomies • metadata and hierarchy 4. Thesauri • metadata, hierarchy and a limited set of relations (BT, NT, related to ...) 5. Stronger semantic structures/ontologies • metadata, [hierarchy], any relations(Daconta et al.: “The Semantic Web”) www.vestforsk.no
    • Semantic technologies AI tradition/Logics: Semantic web  W3C as the standardization body Humanities/Library science: Topic Maps  ISO-standard Light-weight, bottom-up: Microformats  Not a standard yet, but might be as part of HTML5 www.vestforsk.no
    • Semantic Web ”Web of data” ”Web 3.0” ”Semantic web” coined by Tim Berners-Lee in mid 1990s The (in-)famous article ”The Semantic Web” in Scientific American 2001 (TBL, Jim Hendler, Ora Lassila) Wikipedia: However, the Semantic Web as originally envisioned, a system that enables machines to understand and respond to complex human requests based on their meaning, has remained largely unrealized and its critics have questioned its feasibility. www.vestforsk.no
    • Semantic Web stack www.vestforsk.no
    • Lessons learned from the HTML history? xhtml 1: HTML as XML xhtml 2: Get rid of html altogether ... it was a disaster! WHATWG TF – a rebellion inside W3C  Web Apps 1.0 .. eventually led to HTML5 pragmatism won over idealismJeremy Keith: ”HTML5 for Web Designers” www.vestforsk.no
    • Semantic Web light Is the Semantic Web too complex?  difficult to scale to the WWW  more suitable for use within smaller domains Introducing ”Light-weight” SW:  RDFa: RDF expressed as (x)HTML – part of HTML  GRDDL: RDF data from XML/xHTML documents  SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization System – representation of ”classical” structures as taxonomies, thesauri in RDF • organizing concepts with standard relations Linked (Open) Data www.vestforsk.no
    • Topic Maps ISO standard from 2001 (present standard from 2003)  ISO 13250:2003 Strong Norwegian community  small world wide community compared to SW Large uptake in portals, especially public portals ”Fight” between TM and SW  Largely over, ”SW has won”  Linked Data as a common ground for further development  Focus has shifted from technology to utilizing data www.vestforsk.no
    • Simple Topic Maps model 3 Topic types: person, project and publication 2 Association types: Project manager of, Author of, and Result of www.vestforsk.no
    • Topic Maps in use Some Topic Maps driven portals:  uib.no  vestforsk.no  nofima.no  regjeringen.no  stortinget.no  bergen.kommune.no www.vestforsk.no
    • The Linking Open Data (LOD) Project www.vestforsk.no
    • Ultimate goal: My metadata is Europe ana your data (and vice versa) Yr.no SERES Volve nSSB LOS KSSmiln Kart- o verket Lov data SKD www.vestforsk.no
    • Linked (Open) Data using the Web to lower the barriers to linking data use of RDF to make typed statements Linked Data = Use the Web to make typed links between data from different sources  Alex Wright: The Web That Wasn’t (Topic Maps 2008 Conf.)  David Weinberger: Thank God! (Topic Maps 2008 Conf.) ”small pieces loosely joined” www.vestforsk.no
    • Linked Data vs. Linked Open Data www.vestforsk.no
    • Linked Data Principles1. Use URIs as names for things2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL)4. Include linkes to other URIs, so that they can discover more things Linked Data can be serialized as  RDF/XML  N3 (Turtle)  RDFa www.vestforsk.no
    • Linked Open Data Star SchemeTim Berners-Lee/DERI – University of Galway www.vestforsk.no
    • Linked Data example ”Populated place” is a concept defined in the DBpedia ontology Use established ontologies whereever possible  FOAF (friend-of-a-friend)  Dublin Core  hCard, hCalendar, hAtom www.vestforsk.no
    • Linked Data vs. Semantic Web The Semantic Web, or the Web of Data, is the ultimate goal Linked Data provides the means to reach that goal Linked Data helps build the Web of Data that later can be exploited by more advanced techn. such as intelligent agents (it has to be added that this is the proponents of the semantic web/intelligent agents claim) Tom Heath: ”Without Linked Data, no Semantic Web!  Talis Nodalities no. 11 www.vestforsk.no
    • Open data In principle all data, but mostly public data because that is the easiest to start with PSI directive from EU an important enabler (also included in Offentleg-lova) data.norge.no data.norge.no from FAD to Difi  and from blog to data repository (?) www.vestforsk.no
    • Why open data?1. Increase democratic control and political participation  Empower citizens to exercise their democratic rights2. Foster service and product innovation  New opportunities for innovation generated by open government data3. Strengthen law enforcement  Especially the US and the UK strategies emphasize this Study published in the European Journal of ePractice, 2011 www.vestforsk.no
    • “Open data and its enemies” Some pressure from FAD (recently expressed in ”Tildelings- brevet”), but slow movement in general  cultural issues  budget issues  fear of loosing control  transparency is seen as a threat Map data is some of the most important – Map Authorities are not willing to publish raw data www.vestforsk.no
    • Closed map data a problem Bente Kalsnes, Origo www.vestforsk.no
    • Open data strategiesStudy published in the European Journal of ePractice, 2011 www.vestforsk.no
    • Open Data InstrumentsStudy published in the European Journal of ePractice, 2011 www.vestforsk.no
    • Top 10 drivers of open data1. Strategies and experiences2. Political leadership3. Regional initiatives4. Citizen initiatives5. Market initiatives6. Emerging technologies7. European legislation8. Thought leaders9. Possibility of monitoring government European Journal of ePractice, 201110. Budget cuts www.vestforsk.no
    • Top 10 barriers to open data1. Closed government culture2. Privacy legislation3. Limited quality of data4. Limited user-friendliness/Info overload5. Lack of standardisation of open data6. Security threats7. Existing charging methods8. Uncertain economic impact9. Digital divide European Journal of ePractice, 201110. Network overload www.vestforsk.no
    • data.norge.no Initiative from FAD started in 2010 (I will take credit for the name! :) Mostly a blog Gradually building up a data repository From 01.05.2011 Difi will have the responsibility for data.norge.no www.vestforsk.no
    • data.norge.no as of April 20111. Byantikvarens gule liste (xls) 8. N5000 (div. grafiske format + sosi/shape)2. Einingsregisteret (rdf/xml) 9. Statlege styre, råd og utval3. Gardsmatrikkelen 1886 (xls) (html)4. Idrettsanlegg (csv) 10. Statsbudsjettet og nasjonal- budsjettet 2011 (xls, csv)5. Kraftprisar (Tab-sep. tekst) 11. Tenestemannsregisteret (csv)6. Ladestasjonar (csv, ov2..) • no.ckan.net lists 2127. Los (ods) different data sources www.vestforsk.no
    • 7 tips for publishing linked open data1. Use standard Internet protocols for access (http)2. All objects need a unique identifier (URI)3. Avoid aggregation of data4. Structure metadata in a machine readable format (xml or xml/rdf/xtm)5. Use international character set (UTF-8)6. Use minimum Dublin Core as a standard way of describing metadata7. Think about linking to other data sources by preparing for Linked Data www.vestforsk.no
    • Relevant projects from Vestforsk Sesam4 – Semantic technologies for SMEs Los – a navigator for public services Tourism concepts – a common vocabulary for the tourism industry Seminars on semantic technologies The WIMS’11 Conference www.vestforsk.no
    • Sesam4 VERDIKT project 2008 – 2011 (ended 31st of March this year) Use of semantic technologies in SMEs Provided a set of tools for SMEs (and others) to use for ”semantisizing” their data Demonstrated semantic technologies in two pilots:  Tourism  Business information NR, Vestlandsforsking, Esis, Computas, UNI Digital, Cyberwatcher, TextUrgy, Ovitas, IKT-Norge www.vestforsk.no
    • Sesam4 – lessons learned Project planned in 2007 A lot of things have happened since 2007 Emerging of Linked Data Sesam4 gradually tuned in to LOD Too much focus, resources, and discussion (!) spent on ontologies! Light-weight approach saves time & money Valuable tools for semantic lifting and best practices remains available for anybody to use (most of the project in open source) www.vestforsk.no
    • LOS – a navigator to public services LivsIT (1996 – 2004)  Life situations Los (2005 - ??)  Shared vocabulary for public services More than 1/3 of the municipalities in Norway use Los as a foundation of their web portal Difi is the responsible agency  Los a success despite Difi’s lack of support and development  Problem with uptake in Governmental bodies By using Los municipalities can share information with www.vestforsk.no
    • What a difference a little semantics can doNote: Bergen recently changed their internal search to Google search and lost the semantic support (Los) for search www.vestforsk.no
    • What a difference a little semantics can do www.vestforsk.no
    • Los – structureTema = ThemeEmneord = KeywordNettressurs = Net resources www.vestforsk.no
    • Help wordHow does Los work? Net resource Keyword www.vestforsk.no
    • Tourism concepts Pre-project for the Norwegian tourism industry (VisitNorway, NCE Tourism) Advice on constructing a common vocabulary for tourism concepts Initiated by Anders Waage Nilsen in NCE Tourism/Fjord Norway (Anders now in MediArena) www.vestforsk.no
    • Tourism concepts - advice1. Simplification (today’s categorizing scheme is too complicated)2. Develop a controlled vocabulary with emphasis on keywords (the Los method)3. Not everything can be solved with categorizing  A controlled vocabulary is necessary but not enough4. Publish the vocabulary in the cloud5. Publish the vocabulary in many formats (html, xml, xml/rdf, xtm)6. Publish also the information resources in the cloud, as linked open data www.vestforsk.no
    • Seminars on semantic technologies Vestforsk initiated a series of seminars on semantic technologies as part of its 25th anniversary in 2010 A total of 7-8 seminars will be held, 4 already arranged Streaming of all seminars, and archived for video on demand  We also have project ”Kunnskap kryssar grenser”/”Access to Knowledge” where we focus on streaming and use of video www.vestforsk.no
    • WIMS’11 International Conference on Web Intelligence, Mining, and Semantics Sogndal, May 25 – 27 Keynote speakers:  Jim Hendler: The Semantic Web 10th Year Update (25.05)  Peter Mika: Making Things Findable (26.05)  Sören Auer: Creating Knowledge Out of Interlinked Data (26.05)  Ashwin Ram: Open Social Learning Communities (27.05)  Marko Grobelnik: Scalable Reasoning on Intensive Streams of Data (27.05) wims.vestforsk.no www.vestforsk.no
    • Some resources Vestforsk series of seminars on semantic technologies  http://www.vestforsk.no/aktuelt/seminarserie-om-semantiske-teknologiar Linked Data – The Story So Far (Bizer, Heath, Berners-Lee)  http://tomheath.com/papers/bizer-heath-berners-lee-ijswis-linked-data.pdf Linked Data vs. Linked Open Data  http://datavisualization.ch/opinions/introduction-to-linked-data Linked Data – Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space (Heath, Bizer)  http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/ Introduction to Linked Open Data for Visualization Creators: http://datavisualization.ch/opinions/introduction-to-linked-data CKAN: The Data Hub  http://ckan.net www.vestforsk.no
    • More resources Talis Nodalities: http://www.talis.com/nodalities Publishing Open Government Data (working draft)  http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/WD-gov-data-20090908/ Åpne data og journalistikk (Bente Kalsnes, Origo)  http://www.slideshare.net/benteka/pne-data-og-journalistikk European Journal of ePractice  http://www.epractice.eu/en/journal/issues Figshare: Sharing scientific data (http://figshare.com) http://blog.okfn.org/2011/03/02/introducing-figshare-a-new-way-to-share-open- scientific-data/ www.vestforsk.no
    • Thank you for your attention! Contact information:  Svein Ølnes – sol@vestforsk.no www.vestforsk.no