College 8 Ontwikkelingspsychologie

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  • College 8 Ontwikkelingspsychologie

    1. 1. Ontwikkelingspsycholgie College 8
    2. 2. Doel <ul><li>Kennismaking met onderzoeksveld </li></ul><ul><li>Methodologische problemen en oplossingen </li></ul>
    3. 3. Wat te onthouden? <ul><li>Uses and gratification versus effecten </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of mind </li></ul><ul><li>Gebruik van schematheorie </li></ul><ul><li>Fases van Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Rol van Just World </li></ul>
    4. 4. Opzet <ul><li>Wat media met opgroeiende kinderen doen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fantasie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wat opgroeiende kinderen met media doen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morele ontwikkeling (Kohlberg/Piaget) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Overzicht thema’s 1 <ul><li>Agressie </li></ul><ul><li>Lezen </li></ul><ul><li>Fantasie en spel </li></ul><ul><li>Dromen </li></ul>
    6. 6. Overzicht thema’s 2 <ul><li>Begrip van doel van reclame </li></ul><ul><li>Begrip van ironie </li></ul><ul><li>Aandacht </li></ul><ul><li>Kijkstijl </li></ul><ul><li>Conventies </li></ul>
    7. 7. Horror
    8. 8. Horror en angst <ul><li>Slaapstoornissen </li></ul><ul><li>Angst in gerelateerde situaties </li></ul><ul><li>Lange-termijnseffecten </li></ul>
    9. 9. Horror en angst <ul><li>As far as lasting effects, to this very day, when floating in a body of deep water, I still occasionally have that feeling that something could come and grab me. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Horror en angst <ul><li>I was very frightened by the film and didn’t ever want to go into the woods again. I still am scared to drive in a car through wooded areas at night. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Horror en angst <ul><ul><li>I now check under the bed, inside the closet and shower when I get home to make sure no one is there. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Horror en angst <ul><li>Kinderen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onderscheid feit/fictie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gevoelig voor beelden </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulatieprocessen (fight & flight) </li></ul><ul><li>Geheugen </li></ul><ul><li>Kritiek? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zelfrapportage (taalvermogens!) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Laatste woord? <ul><li>Verisimilitude als basis voor beleidsadvies </li></ul>
    14. 14. Horror en angst
    15. 15. Horror en angst
    16. 16. Fantasie en spel <ul><li>Jeugdhelden, voor en na de komst van televisie: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verschillen vooral op jonge leeftijd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veel meer spelletjes over helden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beperkt aantal eigenschappen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media als bron </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Wie zijn de jeugdhelden? Voor en na de komst van televisie
    18. 18. Waar komen ze vandaan?
    19. 19. Fantasievriendje <ul><li>Voor en na invoer van televisie in pioniersstadje </li></ul><ul><li>Afname aantal fantasievriendjes </li></ul>
    20. 20. Creativiteit in fantasie <ul><li>Groepen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smurf speelgoed – Cartoon – Smurf speelgoed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smurf speelgoed – Spelletje – Smurf speelgoed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trol speelgoed – Cartoon – Smurf speelgoed </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. 2. Wat doen kinderen met media? <ul><li>Kohlberg’s model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uitleg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kritiek </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Onderzoek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just world: twee voorbeelden </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Morele ontwikkeling <ul><li>Moral development (Kohlberg) </li></ul><ul><li>Reacties op verhalen (Just world) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Moral development Lawrence Kohlberg
    24. 24. Dilemma <ul><li>A woman is near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium discovered by a chemist living in the same town, who is selling the drug at ten times what it cost him to manufacture it. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, tried to borrow the money but could raise only half the price. He told the chemist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell the drug more cheaply or, at least, let him pay later, but the chemist refused. The desperate husband broke into the chemist’s shop to steal the drug for his wife. Should he have done that? </li></ul>
    25. 25. Kohlberg <ul><li>Cognitieve ontwikkeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complexiteit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inleving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meting (dilemma’s) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Kohlberg <ul><li>Three levels of moral development </li></ul><ul><li>(Amoral orientation) </li></ul><ul><li>Preconventional level </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional level </li></ul><ul><li>Postconventional level </li></ul>
    27. 27. 1. Preconventional <ul><li>Stage 1. Morality of punishment and obedience </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2. Morality of naïve instrumental hedonism </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentric perspective; weighing of potential risks and benefits </li></ul>
    28. 28. Voorbeelden <ul><li>He shouldn’t have done that. (Why?) Because they will catch him and put him in jail. (stage 1) </li></ul><ul><li>He should steal the drug for his freind. (Why?) Because he may need his friend’s help someday. (stage 2) </li></ul>
    29. 29. 2. Conventional <ul><li>Stage 3. Morality of maintaining good relations </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4. Morality of maintaining social order </li></ul><ul><li>Morality based on approval from others </li></ul><ul><li>Rules and laws define morality </li></ul>
    30. 30. Voorbeelden <ul><li>The rich man should help the poor person. …If the (rich person) helped the poor person, the poor person would be glad and grateful and the rich person would have a good feeling inside because he had done a good thing. (stage 3) </li></ul>
    31. 31. Voorbeelden <ul><li>The (chemist) should report Heinz. (why?) It’s the dut of a citizen to report a lawbreaker to the authorities. Heinz did break the law and should pay his debt to society. (stage 4). </li></ul>
    32. 32. 3. Postconventional <ul><li>Stage 5. Morality of social contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 6. Morality of universal ethical principles </li></ul><ul><li>Obey societal rules for the common good, although individual rights sometimes outweigh laws </li></ul><ul><li>Societal laws and rules based on ethical values </li></ul>
    33. 33. Voorbeelden <ul><li>Yes, Heinz should steal the drug. (Why?) Because there right to live is a basic human right and even though he must break the law in this case the right to life takes precendence over property rights. (stage 5) </li></ul>
    34. 34. Voorbeelden <ul><li>Heinz should steal to save the life. (Why?) It was legally wrong, but morally right. All persons have a moral duty to save a life when they are in a position to do so. (stage 6). </li></ul>
    35. 35. Kritiek <ul><li>Sekse verschillen? (Gilligan) </li></ul><ul><li>Eurocentristisch? (Shweder) </li></ul><ul><li>Hiërarchie is niet waardevrij </li></ul><ul><li>Fases komen simultaan voor </li></ul>
    36. 36. Just World
    37. 37. Just World <ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Age similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Gender similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Character valence </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent </li></ul>
    38. 38. Just World <ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Age similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Gender similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Character valence </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just World </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Like character </li></ul><ul><li>Become character </li></ul><ul><li>Suspense </li></ul><ul><li>Like outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Like story </li></ul>
    39. 39. Just World
    40. 40. Just World
    41. 41. Just World
    42. 42. Just World 2 <ul><li>Waardering voor drama </li></ul>
    43. 43. Just World 2 <ul><li>Piaget (1948): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voor 7 jaar: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Straf niet ter discussie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consequenties bepalen de stafmaat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geen aandacht voor intenties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Algemeen: hoe strenger hoe beter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Na 7 jaar: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aandacht motivatie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Straf niet te mild niet te zwaar </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Just World 2 <ul><li>2 x 3 factorial design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontwikkelingsfase (boete doen vs. rechtvaardigheid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strafmaat (te laag, eerlijk, te hoog). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>30 vierjarigen, 30 zeven/achtjarigen </li></ul>
    45. 45. Just World 2 <ul><li>Een sprookje, drie ontknopingen </li></ul><ul><li>Candid camera: gezichten </li></ul>
    46. 46. Just World 2
    47. 47. Just World 2
    48. 48. Vragen?
    49. 49. Dilemma 1 <ul><li>Joey wanted to go sled riding, but he could not go until he apologized to his sister for calling her a liar. He reluctantly and resentfully apologized, took out his sled and began his fun. He turned the sled runners too far and broke one of the runners. Soon his sister returned from the store, and disguising the snap in the runner, Joey allowed his sister to take a running flop on the sled. Even though she was hurt, she apologized over and over for breaking the sled. Joey felt sorry, but he didn’t confess that the sled was already broken. His sister went into the house and Joey wished he had not gone sled riding. </li></ul>
    50. 50. Verder lezen <ul><li>Harris, M. en P.M. Pexman. (2003). Children’s perception of the social functions of verbal irony. Discourse Processes , 36 , 147-165. </li></ul><ul><li>Shweder, R.A., Mahapatra, M., Miller, J.G.(1990). Cultural and moral development. J.W. Stigler et al. (Eds.).. Cultural psychology; Essays on comparative human development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (1975). Viewer’s moral sanction of retribution in the appreciation of dramatic presentations. Journal of experimental social psychology , 11 , 572-582. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Tweede voorbeeld dilemma <ul><li>Joey wanted to go sled riding, but he could not go until he apologized to his sister for calling her a liar. He reluctantly and resentfully apologized, took out his sled and began his fun. He turned the sled runners too far and broke one of the runners. Soon his sister returned from the store, and disguising the snap in the runner, Joey allowed his sister to take a running flop on the sled. Even though she was hurt, she apologized over and over for breaking the sled. Joey felt sorry, but he didn’t confess that the sled was already broken. His sister went into the house and Joey wished he had not gone sled riding. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Wat moet je onthouden? <ul><li>Methodologie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent en independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double blind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factorial design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject variabele </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ontwikkelingsperspectief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kohlberg en de kritiek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Just world” concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget </li></ul></ul>

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