PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES ON GROWTH, YIELD AND BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF TWO OYSTER               MUSHROOM VARIET...
Dr.M.Jaya sekhar, Ph.DProfessor of Plant Pathology,Department of Plant Protection,Agricultural college and Research Instit...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                Its gives us immense pleasure to express our deep sense of gratitude to ourproject guide Dr...
CONTENTS                        TITLES        PAGE NO.INTRODUCTIONREVIEW OF LITERATUREMATERIALS AND METHODSRESULTSDISCUSSI...
LIST OF TABLESTABLE NO.                                TITLES                                 PAGE NO.    1       Effect o...
LIST OF PLATESPLATE NO.                                         TITLES    1       Cutting and drying of banana leaves    2...
INTRODUCTION       Mushrooms, also called ‘white vegetables’ or ‘boneless vegetarian meat’ contain ampleamounts of protein...
which is become costlier because of it’s several other uses. The above conditions call for asearch of certain alternative ...
REVIEW OF LITERATURE         The cultivated mushrooms mostly belong to the Agaricaceae of class Basidiomycetes.Mushrooms m...
agricultural wastes of which sugarcane bagasse proved to be the best substrate for sporophoreproduction (Khan and Ali, 198...
Newspaper, paper bulb by-product and paper waste when combined with rice bran or withsaw dust for Pleurotus cultivation. (...
MATERIALS AND METHODS     An experiment was conducted at AC&RI, Killikulam during the 2010-2011 with anobjective to access...
removed by sterilized sharp blade and cubes were kept on bamboo racks. After 2 to3 days ofremoval of polythene bags. Suffi...
RESULTS          The mycelia spread was recorded on 15 days after inoculation of spawn of the varietiesMDU 2 and CO (OM) 2...
Table 2: Effect of different substrates on mycelia spread of variety CO (OM) 2 on 15 days afterspawn inoculation at five l...
Table 3: Effect different substrates on number of days taken for complete spawn running (daysof spawn running)          Tr...
Table 4: Effect of different substrates on number of days taken for first and second harvest    Treatment          Days fo...
Table 5: Effect of different substrates on yield and biological efficiency (B.E 5%) of mushroomvarieties   Treatment      ...
DISCUSSION          The substrates used in this studies exhibited variation in spawn run, days to harvestsand yield. The q...
SUMMARY The substrate paddy straw has recorded maximum yield of fresh mushroom. Among the substrates newspaper substrate...
REFERENCESBhavani, D., and M. Nair. 1989. Observation of the biology and cultivation of         Volvariella volvacea. Mush...
on the Growth and Yield of Five Selected Oyster Mushrooms.         Banglagesh J. Mushroom. 1(2): 21-25, 2007 (December).Si...
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Performance of different substrates on growth, yield and biological efficiency of two oyster mushroom varieties

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 The substrate paddy straw has recorded maximum yield of fresh mushroom.Among the substrates newspaper substrate exhibited highest biological efficiency of more than 95 per cent. Among the varieties CO (OM) 2 has recorded early spawn run and maximum yield performance.

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Performance of different substrates on growth, yield and biological efficiency of two oyster mushroom varieties

  1. 1. PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES ON GROWTH, YIELD AND BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF TWO OYSTER MUSHROOM VARIETIES project work R.SENTHIL KUMAR BSA 07-462 S.SENTHIL NATHAN BSA 07-463 M.SIVA CHANDRAN BSA 07-465 plant pathology unit department of plant protection agricultural college and research institute tamil nadu agricultural university killikulam 2010-11
  2. 2. Dr.M.Jaya sekhar, Ph.DProfessor of Plant Pathology,Department of Plant Protection,Agricultural college and Research Institute,Killikulam -628 252. Certificate This is to certify that the project report entitled “Performance of differentsubstrates on growth, yield and biological efficiency of two oyster mushroom varieties”submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B.Sc (Ag.)., under thecourse project work TAU416 to the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-3 is a recordof Bonafide research work carried out by Mr.R.Senthil kumar, Mr. S.Senthilnathan andMr.M.Siva chandran under my supervision and guidance.
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Its gives us immense pleasure to express our deep sense of gratitude to ourproject guide Dr.M.Jayasekhar.Ph.D., Professor (Plant Pathology), Department of PlantProtection, for suggesting the problem, valuable guidance and help during the preparation of thisproject report.We are very much thankful to M.A.K.Pallai,Ph.D., Professor and Head and all thefaculty members in the Department of Plant Protection for their help in various levels.Our special thanks to our Dean Dr.K.Ganesan,Ph.D., AC&RI,Killikulam.
  4. 4. CONTENTS TITLES PAGE NO.INTRODUCTIONREVIEW OF LITERATUREMATERIALS AND METHODSRESULTSDISCUSSIONSUMMARYREFERENCES
  5. 5. LIST OF TABLESTABLE NO. TITLES PAGE NO. 1 Effect of different substrates on mycelia spread of variety MDU 2 on 15 days after spawn inoculation at five layers. 2 Effect of different substrates on mycelia spread of variety CO (OM) 2 on 15 days after spawn inoculation at five layers 3 Effect different substrates on number of days taken for complete spawn running (days of spawn running) 4 Effect of different substrates on number of days taken for first and second harvest 5 Effect of different substrates on yield and biological efficiency (B.E 5%) of mushroom varieties
  6. 6. LIST OF PLATESPLATE NO. TITLES 1 Cutting and drying of banana leaves 2 Drying of Guniea grass 3 Packing of different substrates 4 Recording observations 5 Spawn running on different substrates 6 Production of mushroom on different substrates 7 Best performing substrates
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION Mushrooms, also called ‘white vegetables’ or ‘boneless vegetarian meat’ contain ampleamounts of proteins, vitamins and fiber apart from having certain medicinal properties.Mushroom contains 20-35% protein (dry weight) which is higher than those of vegetables andfruits and is of superior quality. Mushrooms are now getting significant importance due to theirnutritional and medicinal value and today their cultivation is being done in about 100 countries.At present world production is estimated to be around 5 million tones and is ever increasing. Globally China leads in mushroom production. According to FAOSTAT Agriculturedatabase (2002), China produced 1,244,968 metric tons of various kinds of mushroomaccounting to about 42% of the world production. But, in India the quantity is negligible.Although processed mushrooms fetch good price in distant markets recent survey shows,consumers always prefer fresh mushrooms. The most well known species of Pleurotus are P.ostreatus, P.florida, P.cystidiosis,P.flabellatus, P.cornucopie, and P.sajor-caju.Sivaprakasam (1986) from Tamil NaduAgricultural University,Coimbatore released the first oyster mushroom variety in thecountry,CO1 (P.citrinopileatus) for commercial production. The large amount of agricultural wastes and congenial climatic conditions providetremendous scope for oyster mushroom cultivation. Its cultivation is a proposition forbioconvential of lingo cellulosic wastes into edible protein. Kumar et al. 2004 reported thesuccessful cultivation of Pleurotus sp on conventional substrates sufficiently available which arenot utilized properly. These wastes are neither used as fodder nor as other useful material exceptas fuel. Traditionally the oyster (Pleurtus sajor-caju) is largely grown in paddy and wheat straw
  8. 8. which is become costlier because of it’s several other uses. The above conditions call for asearch of certain alternative materials which should be available in sufficient quality throughoutthe year at a relatively cheaper price. Keeping in view the present investigation was carried outto search out non-conventional agricultural waste for the successful cultivation of oystermushroom.
  9. 9. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The cultivated mushrooms mostly belong to the Agaricaceae of class Basidiomycetes.Mushrooms may be saprophytic, parasitic and mycorrhizal in their mode of livings. Most of thecultivated mushrooms are saprophytic; they feed on organic matter which has already beenmanufactured by plants or animals. In nature they grow on fallen leaves, animal droppings andstumps of dead wood. In nature mushrooms grow wild in every country from snowy mountainsto sandy deserts on all types of soils, pastures, forests, cultivated fields of water lands. Theyappear in all seasons, chiefly during the rainy weather, whenever organic matter or itsdecomposition products are available (Poppe, 1995). Mushroom a food of high quality, flavourand nutrition value have high content of protein, low content of fat[4%], vitamins (B1,B2,C,niacin,biotin etc),minerals [P, Na ,K, Ca] and high contents of fibers and carbohydrates[Souci, et al.,1989].Varieties of oyster mushroom: Other oyster mushroom varieties like CO1 (P.citrinopileatus), APK1 (P.eous), MDU 1(P.djamor). Ooty 1 (P.ostreatus), MDU 2 (P.flabellatus) and CO (OM) 2 (Hypsizygus ulmarius)were also introduced for commercial production from TNAU,Coimbatore from time to time.Substrates for mushrooms: Mushroom can be cultivated with in a wide range of temperatures on different naturalresources and agricultural wastes. The cultivation of oyster mushrooms in simple as compared toother varieties. Five species of Pleurotus cultivated on cotton seed hulls, wheat, rice or maizestraw are different in composition of crude protein. Among the substrates, rice straw was best formushrooms growth (Ruhul Amin, et al., 2007). Oyster mushrooms can be grown on most of the
  10. 10. agricultural wastes of which sugarcane bagasse proved to be the best substrate for sporophoreproduction (Khan and Ali, 1982).Effect on cereals straw substrate:Pleurotus sajor- caju can be grown on wheat straw, paddy straw, stalks and leaves of sorghum,pearl, millet and maize for commercial cultivation. The cotton stalks and leaves induced highyield (2361 gm/10 kg substrate) followed by sorghum stalk and leaves (1463 gm/10 kg substrate)of oyster mushroom (Patil et.al., 2008). Four stains of oyster mushroom on cotton waste showedfastest spawn running in blue gray station of P.ostreatus with highest yield in first and third flushwhile P. sajor-caju gave highest yield in first and third flush while P.sajor- caju gave highestyield in second flush. The cultivation of P.sajor-caju on bagasse medium showed vigorousgrowth and highest yield of 174 Kg medium than wheat straw and wheat bran.Effect on banana leaves and pseudostems: Bhavani and Nair (1989) reported that Banana leaves, dried 1.45% N, very productive inbulk for Pleurotus or in combination for volvariella and banana pseudostems, chopped gavebetter results for Pleurtus compared to sawdust or rice strawEffect on wild grasses: Wild grasses contain lignin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose should be dried for before assubstrate Pleurotous sapidus (Kiran and Jandaik 1989).Effect on newspaper:
  11. 11. Newspaper, paper bulb by-product and paper waste when combined with rice bran or withsaw dust for Pleurotus cultivation. (Poppe, 1995)Effect on sawdust: Poppe, 1995 reported that wood shavings and wood wastes of more than 140 species wereused for Pleurotus cultivation.
  12. 12. MATERIALS AND METHODS An experiment was conducted at AC&RI, Killikulam during the 2010-2011 with anobjective to access the efficiency of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus spp). The spawn CO (OM) 2variety was obtained from TNAU, Coimbatore and MDU 2 from AC & RI Madurai. Thefollowing substrates of agricultural wastes were utilized as treatment. T1 saw dust T2 banana leaves T3 guniea grass T4- coconut leaves T5 sorghum stalks, T6 sugarcane bagasse T7 newspaper T8 maize stalks T9 paddy straw.Bed preparation and spawning: This substrate were shade dried and chopped in 5 cm size pieces and thoroughly washedand soaked in fresh water for 24 hours. Then it was pasteurized at 75±5 0 c for 1 hour. Aftercooling transparent polythene bags of 60×30 cm size was filled separately using 2-5 kg moistsubstrate as per treatments with five layer spawning @ 3% done to incubate in the dark and wellventilated room at ambient temperature of 18-200c.Spawn run: After complete spawn run the bag were transferred to cropping room. The cropping roomtemperature was maintained between 22+ - o c and humidity 80 percent. The polythene bags were
  13. 13. removed by sterilized sharp blade and cubes were kept on bamboo racks. After 2 to3 days ofremoval of polythene bags. Sufficient numbers of pin heads were observed which were allowedto mature for 2-4 days more.Harvesting: The matured mushrooms were harvested by hand picking. The base of the stipe is cleanedwith a sharp knife and packed well aerated containers. Normally, Oyster mushroom should beused at the same day harvest. After the completion of first harvest, the beds are scrapped with asharp knife to remove the remnants of the harvested mushrooms.Observations recorded: Data on period of spawn run, days of first and second harvest and yield were recorded.Biological efficiency of mushroom on fresh weight basis was calculated by formula.Biological efficiency: Total weight of the fruiting bodies harvested from all the two pickings were measured as totalyield of mushroom. The biological (yield of mushroom per kg substrate on dry wt.basis) wascalculated by the following formula Chang et al., (1981) Fresh weight of mushroom B.E. (%) = × 100 Dry weight of substrate
  14. 14. RESULTS The mycelia spread was recorded on 15 days after inoculation of spawn of the varietiesMDU 2 and CO (OM) 2 are presented in table 1and 2Table 1: Effect of different substrates on mycelia spread of variety MDU 2 on 15 days afterspawn inoculation at five layers. Treatment 1st layer 2nd layer 3rd layer 4th layer 5th layer Mean T1 1.0 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.40 T2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.20 T3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.16 T4 2.2 2.3 2.0 2.5 2.4 2.28 T5 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.26 T6 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.10 T7 4.5 4.4 4.6 4.7 5.0 4.62 T8 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.44 T9 4.4 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.7 4.48 The result revealed that the substrate newspaper was recorded maximum mycelia spread of4.62 cm followed by paddy straw (4.48 cm) and the least growth was recorded on saw dustsubstrate (1.40 cm).
  15. 15. Table 2: Effect of different substrates on mycelia spread of variety CO (OM) 2 on 15 days afterspawn inoculation at five layers Treatment 1st layer 2nd layer 3rd layer 4th layer 5th layer Mean T1 0.9 1.0 1.5 1.9 1.8 1.42 T2 3.4 3.6 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.28 T3 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.8 3.44 T4 2.6 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.44 T5 2.4 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.5 2.44 T6 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.24 T7 4.6 4.5 4.8 4.6 5.0 4.70 T8 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.6 3.0 3.38 T9 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.8 4.52 The result revealed that the substrate newspaper was recorded maximum mycelia spreadof 4.70 cm followed by paddy straw (4.48 cm) and least growth was recorded on saw dustsubstrate (1.42 cm).
  16. 16. Table 3: Effect different substrates on number of days taken for complete spawn running (daysof spawn running) Treatment Spawn running days Spawn running days MDU 2 CO (OM) 2 T1 36.5 33.0 T2 24.5 23.0 T3 25.0 23.5 T4 24.5 26.5 T5 26.5 25.5 T6 28.5 30.0 T7 18.5 18.0 T8 23.0 22.5 T9 20.5 18.0 The duration taken for complete spawn running of MDU 2 was less than CO (OM) 2variety. The lowest days taken for complete spawn running was 18.5 and 18.0 recorded innewspaper substrate followed by paddy straw (20.5 but 18.0 days) and maximum days of 36.5and 33 was taken in saw dust substrate in varieties MDU 2 and CO (OM) 2 respectively.
  17. 17. Table 4: Effect of different substrates on number of days taken for first and second harvest Treatment Days for first Days for first Days for second Days for second harvest harvest harvest harvest (MDU 2) CO (OM) 2 (MDU 2) CO (OM) 2 T1 48.0 47.5 60.0 58.0 T2 32.5 33.0 43.5 45.0 T3 36.5 34.0 44.0 46.5 T4 31.0 28.5 38.5 37.5 T5 29.5 28.0 36.5 34.0 T6 30.0 28.5 36.0 36.5 T7 20.0 19.0 27.5 25.5 T8 26.0 27.0 31.0 32.5 T9 23.5 21.0 29.0 29.5 The substrates newspaper and paddy straw were taken 20.0 and 23.5 days for MDU 2 and19.0 and 21.0 days for CO (OM) 2 respectively for first harvest however maximum days for firstharvest was 48.0 in MDU 2 and 47.5 in CO (OM) 2 for saw dust substrate. In the second harvestalso newspaper and paddy straw recorded less number of days respectively. All substratesgenerally taken an additional 3 to 12 days from first harvest to second harvest.
  18. 18. Table 5: Effect of different substrates on yield and biological efficiency (B.E 5%) of mushroomvarieties Treatment Yield(g/bed) B.E% Yield(g/bed) B.E% MDU 2 MDU 2 CO (OM) 2 CO (OM) 2 T1 110 38.60 95 48.25 T2 365 64.60 405 70.00 T3 215 59.00 190 62.04 T4 265 49.50 320 57.75 T5 425 58.80 460 63.65 T6 260 64.30 285 61.50 T7 480 95.25 530 98.40 T8 335 66.65 390 72.55 T9 590 84.40 665 85.70 The results showed that the maximum yield of 590 and 665g/bed was recorded in paddystraw substrate in both varieties followed by newspaper substrate (480 and 530g/bed). Howeverhighest biological efficiency of 95.25% and 98.40% was respectively recorded in newspapersubstrate followed by paddy straw substrate (84.40 and 85.70) treatments. In MDU 2 and CO(OM) 2 varieties respectively.
  19. 19. DISCUSSION The substrates used in this studies exhibited variation in spawn run, days to harvestsand yield. The quickest spawn run and duration of first harvest of 18.5 days and 20.0 days forMDU 2 and 18.0 days and 19.0 days for CO (OM) 2 was recorded in the newspaper substrate.The similar results were also reported by Chavan et al., 2003. But maximum yield of 590g/bedand 665g/bed was recorded in both varieties respectively in paddy straw treatment. The probablereason for the best performance of these mushroom varieties on newspaper substrate and paddystraw might be that the nutrient required for the mushroom particularly for its spawn run and pinhead development were supplied by these substrate which decomposed quicker then the othersubstrates. Pleurotus flabellatus mushroom was found to utilize paddy straw substrate and it wasobserved suitable for spawn run, yield and biological efficiency (Das et al., 2000). Highestbiological efficiency of 95.25% and 98.4% was observed in newspaper substrate for the bothvarieties respectively and this was comparable to paddy straw (84.40% and 85.70%). Superiorityof paddy straw and newspaper was also reported by Vyas et al.,2003. The variation in biologicalefficiency of different substrates might be due to low lignolytic and cellulonitic activity of thesubstrates used. (Pathak and Goel.,1988) Hence the commercial production of oyster mushroom was largely determined by theavailability and utilization of cheap materials of which agricultural lingo-cellulosic wasterepresents the ideal and most promising substrate for cultivation. The substrate used in this studycan be considered practical and economically feasible due to their availability throughout theyear at little or no cost in large quantities. Utilization of these agro-wastes for the production ofoyster mushroom could be more economically and ecologically practical.
  20. 20. SUMMARY The substrate paddy straw has recorded maximum yield of fresh mushroom. Among the substrates newspaper substrate exhibited highest biological efficiency of more than 95 per cent. Among the varieties CO (OM) 2 has recorded early spawn run and maximum yield performance.
  21. 21. REFERENCESBhavani, D., and M. Nair. 1989. Observation of the biology and cultivation of Volvariella volvacea. Mushroom Science 12(2):517-531.Chang S.T .; Lau,O.W. and Cho, K.Y 1981. The cultivation and nutritive value of Pleurotus sajor-caju. European J. Appl. Microbiol.; 12;58-62.Chavan, R.A., Dhoke P.K., Bharose, A.A., Jadhav V. T., 2003, Cropping period and yield of Oyster mushroom (pleurotus spp) on different agrosubstrates. Journal of soil and crops. 13(2):275-277.Das, N., Mahapatra S. C., Chattopadhyaya R. N., 2000 Use of wild grasses as substrate for cultivation of oyster mushroom in south west Bengal. Mushroom research. 9(2):95-99.Khan, S., and M. Ali. 1981.cultivation of Oyster mushroom Pleurotus on ball locules. Mushroom Science 11(1):691-695.Kiran, B.M., and C.L.Jandaik. 1989. Cultivation of Pleurotus sapidus in India. Mushroom Science 12(2):179-185.Kumar, M.,Singh P. N., M., Chand, G., 2004, Evaluation of different substrates for production of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajorcaju) on different agro substrates. Farm science journal.13 (2):169.Pathak, N. C., Goel r., 1988, perspectives in Mycology and Plant Pathology.PP.103-122.malhotra publishing, house, New Delhi.India.Patill S.S., Kadam R.M. Shinde S.l. and Deshmukh S.A 2008 Effect of different substrates on productivity and proximate composition of P.florida. lnt. J. Plant Sci. 3(1): 151-153.Poppe, J. and 1995. Cultivation of Edible mushrooms on tropical agricultural wastes Biennial training course, ABOS & VLIR, University Gent.Ruhul Amin S.M., M.M Rahman and Hossain. M.M., 2007 Effect of Different Substrates
  22. 22. on the Growth and Yield of Five Selected Oyster Mushrooms. Banglagesh J. Mushroom. 1(2): 21-25, 2007 (December).Sivaprakasam, K. 1986. Constituents of substrates in relation to sporophore yield of Pleurotus sajor-caju (fr.) Sing. Madras Agril. J. 73(11): 601-605.Souci S.W., W. Fachman and H. Krant (1975-1989). Food composition and Nutrition Tables. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellchaft mbh, Stuttgart.Vyas, N.L., Singh M., Joshi S. P., 2003, Evaluation of locally available plant materials for production of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) in arid region of india. Journal of Ecophysiology.6 (1/2):41-43.

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