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From Closets To Classrooms
 

From Closets To Classrooms

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From Closets To Classrooms From Closets To Classrooms Presentation Transcript

  • From Closets to Classrooms: A Historical View Of Special Education Ms. Sara VanAbel ED361 Winter 2008
  • Why Legislation? BEFORE & AFTER
    • 1950-1960’s
    • Not many options
    • Perceptions
    • Social Pressures
    • NOW-2008
    • Early intervention
      • 0-3 preprimary programs.
      • Hospital visits
    • FAPE
    • Not only is it available, it is the law.
  • The History of Special Education Law Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Critical Event #1 Heroic Individual and Group Efforts Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Early Development
    • Compulsory attendance laws
    • The exclusion of students with disabilities
    • Parental advocacy
      • Council for Exceptional Children, 1922
      • Cuyahoga Council for Retarded Children, 1933
      • National Association for Retarded Citizens (The ARC), 1950
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Critical Event #2 Brown v. Board of Education , 347 U.S. 483 (1954) Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Brown v. Board of Education
    • “In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right that must be available to all on equal terms.”
    • -Chief Justice Earl Warren-
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Critical Event #3 Right to Education Cases Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • The Seminal Cases Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Pennsylvania (343 F.Supp, 279, E.D. PA, 1972) Mills v. District of Columbia Board of Education (348 F.Supp, 869, D.D.C. 1972) Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Early Federal Involvement
    • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
    • The Education of the Handicapped Act of 1970
    • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
    • The Education Amendments of 1974
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Critical Event #4 The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-142) Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Six Principles of IDEA Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Collaborate with parents in the development and delivery of their child’s special education program. Parental Participation Comply with the procedural requirements of the IDEA. Procedural Safeguards Educate students with disabilities with nondisabled students to the maximum extent appropriate. Least Restrictive Environment Develop and deliver an individualized education program of special education services that confers meaningful educational benefit. Free Appropriate Public Education Conduct an assessment to determine if a student has an IDEA related disability and if he/she needs special education services Protection in Evaluation Locate, identify, & provide services to all eligible students with disabilities Zero Reject Requirement Principle of IDEA
  • Focus of EAHCA
    • To ensure access to public education for students with disabilities
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Reauthorizations of the EAHCA
    • 1986
      • The Handicapped Children’s Protection Act
      • The Infants & Toddlers with Disabilities Act
    • 1990
      • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    • 1997
      • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Critical Event #4 Board of Education v. Rowley 458, U.S. 176 (1982) Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Free Appropriate Public Education
    • “ We hold that the state satisfies the FAPE requirement by providing personalized instruction with sufficient support services to permit the child to benefit educationally from that instruction” (Rowley, pp. 203-204)
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • The Rowley Twofold Inquiry
    • Has the state complied with the procedures in the act?
    • Is the IEP reasonably calculated to enable the child to receive educational benefits?
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Critical Event #5 The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA ' 97) Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • The IDEA Amendments of 1997
    • The underlying theme of IDEA ' 97 was to improve the effectiveness of special education by requiring demonstrable improvements in the educational achievement of students with disabilities
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Goal of IDEA ' 97
    • “ To move to the next step in providing special education: To improve and increase educational achievement of students with disabilities” H.R. 105-95
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Critical Event #6 The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • NCLB Accountability
    • NCLB focuses on :
      • Increasing the academic achievement of all public school students
      • Improving the performance of low-performing schools
      • Requiring schools to adopt scientifically based instructional practices
    • NCLB accomplishes this by:
      • Requiring states to measure the progress of students and groups of students, including students with disabilities, every year
      • Reporting the results of these measures to parents
      • Requiring states to set proficiency standards that schools must attain within a set period of time
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Important Things to Understand About NCLB
    • NCLB is a reaction to low academic achievement in America’s students
    • NCLB is sweeping legislation that will exert a profound influence on education
    • NCLB recognizes and embraces science
    • NCLB will affect the ways that universities prepare teachers and teachers teach their students
    • NCLB is here to stay (although there will be modifications to the law)
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Critical Event #7 President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education: A new era: Revitalizing special education for children and their families (11/2/01) Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Major Findings
    • Process and compliance are often placed above results
    • The wait-to-fail model of special education prevents prevention
    • Lack of scientifically based approaches in general education results in inappropriate placements
    • A culture of compliance results in too much attention has been diverted from the first mission of schools: educating every child
    • Many of the current methods of identifying children with disabilities lack validity & many children are misidentified
    • The current system does not always embrace evidence-based practices,
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Major Recommendations
    • Focus on results — not on process : The IDEA must retain the legal and procedural safeguards necessary to guarantee a FAPE while providing opportunities and improved student outcomes
    • Embrace a model of prevention not a model of failure : Special education must move toward early identification and swift intervention using scientifically based instruction and teaching methods
    • Consider children with disabilities as general education children first : General and special education must work together to provide effective teaching because both systems share responsibilities for children with disabilities
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Critical Event #8 The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Focus of IDEA 2004
    • To increase the academic achievement of students in special education
      • Focus on writing measurable goals and actually measuring them
      • Focus on progress monitoring
    • To increase accountability for results
    • To streamline the special education process
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Challenges to Special Education
    • Conduct relevant assessments of students’ educational needs
    • Implement research-based instructional programming, based on these assessments, that confers meaningful educational benefit
    • Monitor students’ progress using data- based formative evaluation systems
    Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Changes in Special Education Law
    • Heroic Individual and Group Efforts
    • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1974
    • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990
    • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997
    • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004
    Issues of Access Issues of Quality Yell / The Law and Special Education , Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Mainstreaming
    • Many professionals and parents confuse the term Mainstreaming with Inclusion.
    • Mainstreaming is basically including a student in a regular education class as a visitor or on a trial basis.
      • (e.g., The adapted physical education teacher occasionally takes the student with disabilities down to the regular physical education class to participate in games or exercises; or the child in the self contained classroom is invited down to the regular classroom for snacks or movie day.)
  • Inclusion
    • Full Inclusion- Full inclusion is a philosophical movement based upon the notion that all students, regardless of the level or type of disability, should be educated entirely in the same general education classrooms as their same-age peers.
    • Inclusion- the student is on the rolls as a member of the class and is functioning there with all needed supports under the general education curriculum.
  • Labels and Person First
    • Always speak using the person first.
    • I have a student with a learning disability.
    • NOT
    • I have a learning disabled student.
  • Disability Categories
    • Autism
    • Deafness
    • Deaf-blindness
    • Emotional disturbance
    • Hearing Impairments
    • Mental Retardation
    • Multiple disabilities
    • Orthopedic impairments
    • Other health impairments
    • Specific Learning disabilities
    • Speech or Language impairments
    • Traumatic Brain injury
    • Visual impairments, including blindness
  • Other areas
    • ESL or Cultural diversity
    • At-risk students
    • Gifted and talented
  • Continuum of Services
  • General Education Classroom
    • Consultation Services
    • Co-Teaching
  • Resource Room
    • Students spend over 1/2 their day in GE
    • Reading
    • Math
    • Study Skills
    • Core content support
  • Self-Contained Classroom
    • Students spend most (over 1/2) their day
    • Usually just leave for nonacademic courses ie. Art, music, PE, shop, cooking, etc.
    • Paraprofessionals do some of the instruction
  • Special Programs
    • Goodwill, vocational training, group homes, etc.
  • Related Services
    • Speech and Language
    • Occupational Therapy
    • Physical Therapy
  • What does this mean to you?