“In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right that must be available to all on equal terms.”
“ We hold that the state satisfies the FAPE requirement by providing personalized instruction with sufficient support services to permit the child to benefit educationally from that instruction” (Rowley, pp. 203-204)
Focus on results — not on process : The IDEA must retain the legal and procedural safeguards necessary to guarantee a FAPE while providing opportunities and improved student outcomes
Embrace a model of prevention not a model of failure : Special education must move toward early identification and swift intervention using scientifically based instruction and teaching methods
Consider children with disabilities as general education children first : General and special education must work together to provide effective teaching because both systems share responsibilities for children with disabilities
Many professionals and parents confuse the term Mainstreaming with Inclusion.
Mainstreaming is basically including a student in a regular education class as a visitor or on a trial basis.
(e.g., The adapted physical education teacher occasionally takes the student with disabilities down to the regular physical education class to participate in games or exercises; or the child in the self contained classroom is invited down to the regular classroom for snacks or movie day.)
Full Inclusion- Full inclusion is a philosophical movement based upon the notion that all students, regardless of the level or type of disability, should be educated entirely in the same general education classrooms as their same-age peers.
Inclusion- the student is on the rolls as a member of the class and is functioning there with all needed supports under the general education curriculum.
Labels and Person First
Always speak using the person first.
I have a student with a learning disability.
I have a learning disabled student.
Other health impairments
Specific Learning disabilities
Speech or Language impairments
Traumatic Brain injury
Visual impairments, including blindness
ESL or Cultural diversity
Gifted and talented
Continuum of Services
General Education Classroom
Students spend over 1/2 their day in GE
Core content support
Students spend most (over 1/2) their day
Usually just leave for nonacademic courses ie. Art, music, PE, shop, cooking, etc.