It is a theory that has an insight-focused therapy that emphasizes recognising and changing negative thought and maladaptive beliefs and based on the theoretical rationale that the way people feel and behave is determined by how they perceive and structure or take their experience.
According to this theory, the change can comes by bringing about changes to the client’s thinking about the situation and then once the client has converted his/her point of view or perception, the problem-perception switchers to a cleared context. Thus, this is how counselors work with clients in changing distorted thinking to enable the client to interpret the experience more realistically
Arbitrary Inferences: refers to making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence. This includes catastrophising”, or thinking of the absolute worst scenario and outcomes for most situations.
Selective Abstraction: consists of forming conclusions based on isolated details of an event (and ignoring other information).
Overgeneralisation : is a process of holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events or settings.
Personalisation : is a tendency for individuals to relate external events to themselves, even when there is no basis for making this connection.
Labeling or Mislabeling : Involving portraying one’s identity on the basis of imperfections and mistakes made in the past and allowing them to define one’s true identity.
Some strategies are applied to help client to cope more effectively with identified internal and external stressors such as relaxation training, affirmations and creative visualizations.
For clients having intellectual impairment some strategies can be used to assist them to understand the process, goals and guidelines of counseling and also to learn and retain stress management skills:
Visual language systems: such as using sign language or other symbols or pictures/images to convey shared meaning. It may be useful for diverging clients’ attention from stressful situations.
Audio taping: for learning and repetition of concepts and skills.
Rehearsal and role play: to allow for practice within the safety of The counseling environment.
Modeling: to show how a specific skill or technique may be utilized.