1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
CHAPTER
1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Democrat...
2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Democrats and Whigs
I. Democracy in America
II. Andrew Jackson and Hi...
4 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Democracy in America
A. Democratic Culture
B. Davy Crockett and the F...
5 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Democratic Culture
Democracy in America – Count Alexis de
Tocqueville...
6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
7 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Davy Crockett and the Frontier Myth
How did the frontier nurture the ...
8 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Davy Crockett and the Frontier Myth
Crockett’s Almanac – A cheap maga...
9 Visions of America, A History of the United States
10 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Competing Visions
SHOULD WHITE MEN WITHOUT PROPERTY HAVE THE VOTE?
•...
11 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Competing Visions
Why did James Kent
oppose eliminating
property req...
12 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Andrew Jackson and His Age
A. The Election of 1824 and the “Corrupt
...
13 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Election of 1824 and the
“Corrupt Bargain”
What were the strengt...
14 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Election of 1824 and the
“Corrupt Bargain”
American System – Hen...
15 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Election of 1824 and the
“Corrupt Bargain”
“Corrupt Bargain” – T...
16 Visions of America, A History of the United States
17 Visions of America, A History of the United States
18 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Election of 1828:
“Old Hickory’s” Triumph
How did the “Coffin Ha...
19 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Election of 1828:
“Old Hickory’s” Triumph
“Old Hickory” – The ni...
20 Visions of America, A History of the United States
21 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Reign of “King Mob”
How did the spoils system promote
Jackson’s ...
22 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Reign of “King Mob”
Spoils System – The name applied to
Jackson’...
23 Visions of America, A History of the United States
24 Visions of America, A History of the United States
25 Visions of America, A History of the United States
States’ Rights and the Nullification Crisis
What was the theory of s...
26 Visions of America, A History of the United States
States’ Rights and the Nullification Crisis
Nullification – A consti...
27 Visions of America, A History of the United States
28 Visions of America, A History of the United States
29 Visions of America, A History of the United States
White Man’s Democracy
A. Race and Politics in the Jacksonian Era
B. ...
30 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Race and Politics in the Jacksonian Era
What types of legal disabili...
31 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Race and Politics in the Jacksonian Era
Indian Removal Act of 1830 –...
32 Visions of America, A History of the United States
33 Visions of America, A History of the United States
34 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Cherokee Cases
What do the Cherokee cases reveal about
the limit...
35 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Cherokee Cases
Cherokee Cases – Cherokee Nation v.
Georgia (1830...
36 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Resistance and Removal
What was the “Trail of Tears”?
37 Visions of America, A History of the United States
38 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA
•...
39 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA
•...
40 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
Choices regarding forced relocation
ACQUIES...
41 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
Decision and consequences
• Ross lobbied Co...
42 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
Continuing Controversies
•Was it realistic ...
43 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Democrats, Whigs, and the
Second Party System
A. Third Party Challen...
44 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Democrats, Whigs, and the
Second Party System
Whigs – Anti-Jackson p...
45 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Third Party Challenges:
Anti-Masonry and Workingmen’s Parties
Why wa...
46 Visions of America, A History of the United States
47 Visions of America, A History of the United States
48 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Bank War and the
Rise of the Whigs
How did Jackson use democrati...
49 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Bank War and the
Rise of the Whigs
Bank Veto Speech – Jackson’s ...
50 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Andrew Jackson, the Whigs, and the
Bank War
How did Whigs interpret ...
51 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Economic Crisis and the
Presidency of Martin Van Buren
What are some...
52 Visions of America, A History of the United States
53 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images as History
“King Andrew the First” shows
the Whig view of Jac...
54 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images as History
KING ANDREW AND THE DOWNFALL OF MOTHER BANK
Lightn...
55 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images as History
• Why is Jackson portrayed as a monarch in
“King A...
56 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Playing the Democrat’s Game:
Whigs in the Election of 1840
A. The Lo...
57 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Log Cabin Campaign
What political innovations helped the Whigs
o...
58 Visions of America, A History of the United States
59 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Gender and Social Class:
The Whig Appeal
Why were women drawn to the...
60 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Democrats and Whigs:
Two Visions of Government and Society
What were...
61 Visions of America, A History of the United States
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Chapter 8: The Democratization of American Culture, 1824-1840

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  • Chapter Opener: “Stump Speaking or the County Canvass” (page 221)
    Text Excerpt: George Caleb Bingham’s painting, “Stump Speaking or the County Canvass” (1853), captures the drama of a new democratic style of politics that transformed American life starting in the 1820s. The term “stump speech” referred to politicians’ practice in some remote parts of the nation of addressing the electorate by using the nearest tree stump as a rough-hewn platform from which to speak. Bingham, a Whig opponent of the Democratic Party, used the painting to express his reservations about what he considered the dangers posed by too much democracy. Bingham wrote that the politician on the platform in the painting was a “wiry” fellow who had “grown grey in the pursuit of office and the service of his party” and literally bends to the popular will. Across from the speaker, seated amid the crowd, a man in a top hat and light-colored suit listens thoughtfully, refusing to be swayed by the politician’s words. Bingham described this figure as an “outstanding citizen” whose noble features not only set him apart from the crowd but also contrast noticeably with the shifty look of the Democratic politician standing at the rostrum. The painting suggests that the “outstanding citizen,” a true Whig leader, refuses to pander to the mob.
    Background: The Missouri politician and artist George Caleb Bingham created a series of three paintings of electoral politics in his home state. The paintings are often invoked as illustrations of Jacksonian democracy. Bingham was actually an opponent of Jackson, and a strong Whig. He echoed that American politics had become too partisan and that popularity, not virtue, too often defined electoral success. In 1853, he lamented the current state of politics and longed for a return to “the good old times, when honesty and capacity, rather than party servility, will be the qualifications for office.” Rather than celebrate Jacksonian democracy, Bingham’s paintings of politics gently parody the excesses of democracy and admonish viewers to acknowledge the necessity of a virtuous elite. In “Stump Speaking,” he presents a clear contrast between the servile politician courting favor with the electorate and the upright and independent-minded Whig citizen who listens thoughtfully and refuses to be swayed by flawed ideas, even if those ideas enjoy broad mass support.
    Chapter Connections: The rise of the Whigs and their critique of the excesses of Jacksonian democracy defined electoral politics and American culture during the period after Jackson’s War on the Bank (1832). Bingham’s cycle of election paintings are filled with images that suggest a healthy skepticism of democracy and a wry sense of humor. In another painting in this cycle, “The County Election,” Bingham includes voters who appear to be engaged in thoughtful conversation, but the scene also includes a large number of voters who are distracted and, in some cases, intoxicated. The scene in that painting is almost carnival-like, hardly a model of a well-ordered republic in which an enlightened citizenry exercise a sacred right: voting. Indeed, at the center of the political activity depicted in the painting, Bingham suggestively included a man tossing a coin, a symbolic act that suggested that democratic politics is almost as likely to select a virtuous leader as a coin toss. Although the crowd in both “Stump Speaking” and “The County Election” are composed of men of different social classes, the political community is defined by racial exclusion. Whites participate fully in politics and enjoy the festive atmosphere, while the African-Americans in the paintings are clearly not part of the body politic and toil as whites revel.
    Discussion Questions:
    Why does the politician appear to bend toward the crowd?
    What does the man in the brightly colored outfit with the top hat across from the politician symbolize?
    Is the vision of democracy presented here truly inclusive?
  • Image 8.1: Changes in Suffrage Requirements between 1800 and 1828
    Many of the Western states that entered the Union after 1800 did not impose property requirements for voting. By 1828, most states had eliminated such requirements.
  • Image 8.2: Crockett as Politician
    Crockett the frontiersman-politician addresses a crowd outside a rural tavern. Crockett reflected and helped shape the myth of frontier democracy in the new Republic.
  • “Fourth of July in Center Square” by John Lewis Krimmel, 1819.
  • Image 8.3: John Quincy Adams Broadside, “Our Country . . . . Home Industry” (page 226)
    Caption: This election broadside links John Quincy Adams with Clay’s American System. The images at the top—the loom, ship, and plough—symbolize the way the American System would help manufacturing, commerce, and agriculture.
    Text Excerpt: This election broadside reflects Adams’ support for Clay’s economic policies. The central image of a ship symbolizes commerce, while the two smaller figures depict a farmer at the plow and a worker at the loom. The name of the ship, John Quincy Adams, symbolizes Adams’ claim to be a proven leader who could pilot the nation to a prosperous future.
    Background: This broadside from the 1824 election praises John Quincy Adams and attacks Andrew Jackson. The broadside links Adams with Henry Clay’s American system. The illustrations accompanying the text symbolize the different segments of the American economy: industry, commerce, and agriculture. A man at a loom symbolizes industry. Below him is the motto “National Industry is National Wealth”. The ship in the central vignette has the words “John Quincy Adams of Washington” written across its stern, and carries a series of flags, one proclaiming “Free Trade & Sailors [sic] Rights.” On the right, a farmer plows a field. Below this agrarian scene is the motto, “Agriculture is the Source of Prosperity”.
    Chapter Connections: John Quincy Adams embraced Henry Clay’s American System fervently. The notion that the federal government had a positive role to play in economic development had been a core Federalist value since Hamilton’s tenure as Secretary of the Treasury (see Chapter 6). This broadside accuses Jackson of opposing government policies, including tariffs, designed to help American manufacturers. The text talks about the “Jackson Party,” a description that underscores the lack of clear party identifications in this moment. The election of 1824 was a transitional phase in the evolution from proto-parties to the modern two-party system. At this moment, supporters of Jackson were simply “Jackson men”. By the end of the decade, they would become members of the newly formed Democratic Party.
    Discussion Questions:
    What was Clay’s “American System”?
    What does the ship in this image represent?
    How does the text of this broadside provide evidence that the modern notion of party had not yet crystalized?
  • Image 8.4: Electoral Votes and Popular Votes 1824
    Although Jackson won the most votes, no candidate gained a majority in the Electoral College. After the House of Representatives decided the outcome, Jackson claimed that Adams and Clay had struck a “corrupt bargain” to deprive him of the presidency.
  • Image 8.5: “Some Account of the Bloody Deeds of General Jackson”
    This pro-Adams broadside dubbed the “Coffin Handbill” features the image of coffins prominently. It casts Jackson as a brutal despot whose military record demonstrated that he was unfit to be president. The coffins symbolized militiamen Jackson executed for desertion during the Creek Wars (1813–1814).
  • Image 8.6: “President’s Levee, or all Creation going to the White House”
    This image of the boisterous crowd in front of the White House during Jackson’s inaugural reception, or levee, captures the fear that his presidency would usher in the “reign of King Mob.”
  • Image 8.7: Office Seekers
    In this attack on the spoils system, a demonic Andrew Jackson dangles the spoils of victory before eager office seekers.
  • Image 8.8: Webster’s Reply to Hayne (page 231)
    Caption: George Healy’s painting of Webster’s famous speech is reminiscent of Bingham’s “Stump Speaking”. Calhoun is presented as a wiry character, while Webster stands tall, a model of virtue.
    Text Excerpt: Webster’s speech was widely reprinted and became an instant classic; schoolchildren would recite it throughout the Northeast for generations. This meticulous historical painting by George Healy immortalized the debate. Webster, pausing for a moment’s reflection, stands in a hushed Senate chamber. Onlookers crowd the galleries, transfixed by his oratory. Although senators had given up their seats in the chamber to accommodate the many women who attended to hear the speech, Healey placed all women in the Senate gallery, a decision likely motivated by his belief that viewers would have been shocked to see women on the floor of the Senate.
    Background: The debate between the New Englander Daniel Webster and the South Carolinian Robert Hayne emerged out of a controversy over public land policy. Hayne used the occasion afforded by this issue to launch into an extended attack on the powers of the federal government and a vigorous defense of states’ rights. Webster challenged Hayne in his first response, which prompted a blistering rebuttal by the South Carolinian. In response to Hayne’s second speech, Webster gave his memorable speech, widely regarded as one of the most dramatic moments in Senate history. Webster’s oration, the subject of this history painting by George Healy, was celebrated by contemporaries and venerated by later generations. The argument of the speech in favor of union provided one of the most impassioned defenses of the necessity of an energetic federal government.
    Chapter Connections: The rise of a militant theory of states’ rights, most closely associated with John C. Calhoun, complicated the politics of the Jacksonian era. Although a moderate champion of states’ rights, particularly when the issue was judicial power or the rights of Native Americans, Jackson bristled at South Carolina’s defiant stance against federal tariff policy. In Healy’s painting, the representation of the two men communicates the painter’s view of their moral character and political ideas. Webster’s posture, a striking counterpoint to Calhoun, shows an individual who embodies the strength of the Union and its moral authority. The contrast between Webster and Calhoun, who is shown sitting across from him in the Senate chamber in this painting, is reminiscent of the difference between the wiry politician and the upright citizen depicted by George Caleb Bingham in the chapter opener, “Stump Speaking”. In this case, Calhoun is seated, while Webster stands tall, a model of political rectitude. Interestingly, the Senate gallery is filled with woman, who flocked to see Webster’s oration. In reality, a number of senators had gallantly given up their own seats on the floor of the Senate to female visitors. Rather than portray this, Healy consigned the woman to the gallery to make the painting fit with his audience’s expectations and prevailing ideas about gender roles. Healy also placed several figures in the Senate gallery who were not in the chamber to hear the speech, including John Quincy Adams and the French observer of American politics, Alexis de Tocqueville. Healy’s decision to include such figures seems to have reflected his view that a historical event of such magnitude justified including figures who should have been in the chamber to witness this event even if they were not able to attend.
    Discussion Questions:
    How does the artist represent Webster in this painting?
    What does the presence of so many women in the gallery signify?
    Why might the artist have included figures who were not actually present at the speech such as Alexis de Tocqueville?
  • Image 8.9: “Despotism”
    In this anti-nullification cartoon, Calhoun ascends a platform that leads from nullification to despotism.
  • Image 8.10: “A Black Charge”
    From a series of racist caricatures of black life in Philadelphia, this image lampoons African-American aspirations to respectability. A church official disciplines a church member for alleged misconduct. [Source: The Library Company of Philadelphia]
  • 8.11 The Grand National Caravan Moving East (page 235)
    Caption: In this attack on Jackson’s Indian policy, the president leads a parade that includes the devil playing a fiddle and caged Indians.
    Text Excerpt: [Some] attacked the president’s proposal as a sham that offered Indians no legal protection if they stayed and allocated few resources to allow them to make a safe journey west. In this cartoon critical of Jackson’s Indian policy, the president leads a parade that includes a devil and caged Indians.
    Background:
    This political cartoon mocks President Andrew Jackson and highlights the immorality of his Indian policy. In this parody, Jackson leads a caravan that includes the devil and a wagon of caged Native Americans. The artist who created this cartoon had a mordant sense of humor. The Native Americans in the cage, clearly forlorn, sing “Home Sweet Home”. A pole with a liberty cap and a banner proclaiming “Rights of Man” flies above the caged Indians, perhaps the clearest example of the image’s biting sense of irony. Critics of Native American removal stressed that Jackson and his allies showed no regard for treaty obligations toward Native Americans and treated them as if they were savages who had no rights worth respecting.
    Chapter Connections: Jackson refused to honor treaty obligations with Indians or enforce the ruling of the U.S. Supreme Court in Worcester v. Georgia, a case that affirmed that Indians retained some measure of sovereignty and were therefore legally entitled to exercise control over their own lands. Jackson’s actions not only offended those who believed Americans had a moral and legal obligation to honor their word; they also seemed to provide additional evidence that he would not be abide by any constitutional limits. Opposition to removal of Native Americans would provide a core around which an anti-Jackson coalition would coalesce. This diverse coalition included religious groups, moral reformers, and Jackson’s political opponents. Tragically, Jackson’s removal policy eventually succeeded and eastern Indian populations were relocated westward. The forced migration of the Cherokee was particularly harrowing and resulted in an exceedingly high mortality for those forced to embark on the arduous journey westward. Cherokee came to describe the experience as the “Trail of Tears”.
    Discussion Questions:
    How is Andrew Jackson portrayed in this political cartoon?
    Why are the Native Americans caged?
    What was the “Trail of Tears”?
  • Image 8.12: Indian Removal
    This map shows the path taken by Indian tribes who were relocated under Jackson’s Indian Removal plan. Thousands died during the forced migration.
  • Image 8.13: Parody of an Anti-Masonic Apron
    This parody of the Anti-Masons contrasts their values, “Persecution, Intolerance, Hypocrisy,” with the Masons’ Enlightenment ideals: universal benevolence, equal rights, tolerance,
    and scientific inquiry.
  • Image 8.14: “No More Grinding the Poor—But Liberty and the Rights of Man”
    The devil hands money to buy a rich man’s vote, telling him to “grind the Workies.” A virtuous workingman invokes Liberty and the Rights of Man and casts his vote independently, while the goddess of Liberty holds out the ballot box.
  • Image 8.15: Panic of 1837
    This political cartoon highlights the economic hardships caused by the Panic of 1837. The spirit of Andrew Jackson, symbolized by his hat, glasses, and clay pipe, hovers over the scene of suffering and despair.
  • Image 8.16: Harrison Log Cabin and Hard Cider Sheet Music (page 247)
    Caption: This piece of sheet music includes the two most common symbols of Harrison’s campaign, a log cabin and a barrel of hard cider. To highlight Harrison’s military accomplishments, the artist shows him greeting a disabled veteran.
    Text Excerpt: With parades and campaign music such as “General Harrison’s Log Cabin March & Quick Step,” one of several popular campaign songs, the Whigs orchestrated a brilliant campaign and trounced their opponents. One Democratic paper complained: “We could meet the Whigs on the field of argument and beat them.” But how were Democrats to respond when the Whigs “lay down the weapons of argument and attack us with musical notes”?
    Background: In the electoral campaign of 1840, Democrats made one of the biggest blunders in American political history. A Democratic newspaper attacked the Whig candidate William Henry Harrison as a tired old politician. In a memorable phrase, one editor ridiculed Harrison, advising that if given: “a barrel of hard (alcoholic) cider and settle a pension of two thousand a year on him,” he would be content to “sit the remainder of his days in his log cabin.” Whigs seized this memorable image of log cabins and hard cider and made it their theme for the campaign. Accelerating a trend that had started during Jackson’s earlier campaigns, they aggressively marketed their candidate and made use of powerful images such as the log cabin. It was plastered on everything from banners to tea pots. Whig also refined other popular modes of political engagement, staging parades that became an effective form of street theater that often included miniature log cabins carried by supporters. This title page from this piece of sheet music from a popular campaign song shows how the Whigs made use of the “log cabin and hard cider” imagery in their music.
    Chapter Connections: The “Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign” illustrated the increasingly democratic character of American politics. The Whigs outdid the Democrats in using popular mobilization methods to energize voters. Whigs also made a concerted effort to reach out to women. Although women did not vote, Whigs hoped to use this tactic to motivate men to rally to the Whig cause. The use of campaign slogans and songs were taken to a new level by the Whigs. The Whig slogan “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” became one of the most famous in American political history
    Discussion Questions:
    Why was the 1840 Presidential election known as the “Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign”?
    What did the log cabin and cider barrels symbolize?
    Why does this image include a soldier?
  • Image 8.17: Democrats and Whigs: Major Beliefs
  • Chapter 8: The Democratization of American Culture, 1824-1840

    1. 1. 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democrats and Whigs Democracy and American Culture, 1820–1840 8 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    2. 2. 2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    3. 3. 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democrats and Whigs I. Democracy in America II. Andrew Jackson and His Age III. White Man’s Democracy IV. Democrats, Whigs, and the Second Party System V. Playing the Democrats’ Game: Whigs in the Election of 1840 DEMOCRACY AND AMERICAN CULTURE, 1820–1840 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    4. 4. 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democracy in America A. Democratic Culture B. Davy Crockett and the Frontier Myth
    5. 5. 5 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democratic Culture Democracy in America – Count Alexis de Tocqueville’s analysis of the influence of democracy on American life –First published in America in 1838 –Remains one of the most important commentaries on American society ever written
    6. 6. 6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    7. 7. 7 Visions of America, A History of the United States Davy Crockett and the Frontier Myth How did the frontier nurture the growth of democracy? What aspects of Davy Crockett’s life made him a symbol of frontier democracy?
    8. 8. 8 Visions of America, A History of the United States Davy Crockett and the Frontier Myth Crockett’s Almanac – A cheap magazine- like publication that vividly described the frontier politician Davy Crockett –Included his legendary adventures wrestling alligators, hunting bears, and fighting Indians
    9. 9. 9 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    10. 10. 10 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions SHOULD WHITE MEN WITHOUT PROPERTY HAVE THE VOTE? • In 1821, New Yorkers met to revise their state’s constitution and argued about property requirements for voting. • Kent and Sanford argued for and against property requirements. Kent: If citizens without property vote, unchecked democracy would threaten private property and political stability. Sanford: Anyone who bears the burdens of government has earned the right to have a say in it.
    11. 11. 11 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions Why did James Kent oppose eliminating property requirements? SHOULD WHITE MEN WITHOUT PROPERTY HAVE THE VOTE?
    12. 12. 12 Visions of America, A History of the United States Andrew Jackson and His Age A. The Election of 1824 and the “Corrupt Bargain” B. The Election of 1828: “Old Hickory’s” Triumph C. The Reign of “King Mob” D. States’ Rights and the Nullification Crisis
    13. 13. 13 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1824 and the “Corrupt Bargain” What were the strengths of John Quincy Adams as a presidential candidate? What role did Clay’s American System play in the election of John Quincy Adams? Why did Jackson view the election of 1824 as a “corrupt bargain”?
    14. 14. 14 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1824 and the “Corrupt Bargain” American System – Henry Clay’s comprehensive national plan for economic growth – Included protective tariffs for American industry and government investment in roads and other internal improvements
    15. 15. 15 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1824 and the “Corrupt Bargain” “Corrupt Bargain” – Term presidential candidate Jackson’s supporters used to attack the alliance between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay that deprived Jackson of the presidency
    16. 16. 16 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    17. 17. 17 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    18. 18. 18 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1828: “Old Hickory’s” Triumph How did the “Coffin Handbill” attempt to discredit Andrew Jackson?
    19. 19. 19 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1828: “Old Hickory’s” Triumph “Old Hickory” – The nickname that General Andrew Jackson earned for seeming as stout as an “Old Hickory tree” in fighting against the British in the War of 1812
    20. 20. 20 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    21. 21. 21 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Reign of “King Mob” How did the spoils system promote Jackson’s democratic agenda?
    22. 22. 22 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Reign of “King Mob” Spoils System – The name applied to Jackson’s system of replacing government officeholders with those loyal to him
    23. 23. 23 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    24. 24. 24 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    25. 25. 25 Visions of America, A History of the United States States’ Rights and the Nullification Crisis What was the theory of states’ rights? How does the political cartoonist represent nullification theory in the cartoon Despotism?
    26. 26. 26 Visions of America, A History of the United States States’ Rights and the Nullification Crisis Nullification – A constitutional doctrine advanced by supporters of states’ rights that held that individual states could nullify unconstitutional acts of Congress Force Bill – A bill enacted by Congress that gave President Jackson the power to use military force to collect revenue, including tariffs
    27. 27. 27 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    28. 28. 28 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    29. 29. 29 Visions of America, A History of the United States White Man’s Democracy A. Race and Politics in the Jacksonian Era B. The Cherokee Cases C. Resistance and Removal
    30. 30. 30 Visions of America, A History of the United States Race and Politics in the Jacksonian Era What types of legal disabilities did blacks face outside of the slave South? What does Indian policy reveal about the limits of Jacksonian democracy? How does the Grand Caravan represent Jackson’s Indian policy?
    31. 31. 31 Visions of America, A History of the United States Race and Politics in the Jacksonian Era Indian Removal Act of 1830 – Legislation that gave President Jackson the authority to remove Native American tribes to lands west of the Mississippi
    32. 32. 32 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    33. 33. 33 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    34. 34. 34 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Cherokee Cases What do the Cherokee cases reveal about the limits of judicial power?
    35. 35. 35 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Cherokee Cases Cherokee Cases – Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1830) and Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the two cases in which the Supreme Court of the United States determined that Indian nations retained certain rights of sovereign nations but did not enjoy the full powers of a sovereign nation
    36. 36. 36 Visions of America, A History of the United States Resistance and Removal What was the “Trail of Tears”?
    37. 37. 37 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    38. 38. 38 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA • John Ross argued that the Cherokee should resist relocation. • The majority of the Cherokee supported him.
    39. 39. 39 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA • Elias Boudinot believed that relocation was inevitable and that the Cherokee should comply. • His view was less popular than Ross’s.
    40. 40. 40 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Choices regarding forced relocation ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA Agree to the treaty, relocate, and seek best possible terms Reject the treaty and resist removal, by force if necessary Boycott the vote on the treaty, lobby Congress, and rally support for protection of Native American rights
    41. 41. 41 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Decision and consequences • Ross lobbied Congress and nearly defeated the treaty. • Treaty was signed; the Cherokee were given two years to relocate. Was resistance to removal a viable strategy for the Cherokee? ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA
    42. 42. 42 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies •Was it realistic for the Cherokees to think that they might win support for their cause? ACQUIESCE OR RESIST? THE CHEROKEE DILEMMA
    43. 43. 43 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democrats, Whigs, and the Second Party System A. Third Party Challenges: Anti-Masonry and Workingmen’s Parties B. The Bank War and the Rise of the Whigs C. Andrew Jackson, the Whigs, and the Bank War D. Economic Crisis and the Presidency of Martin Van Buren
    44. 44. 44 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democrats, Whigs, and the Second Party System Whigs – Anti-Jackson political party –Name evoked the seventeenth-century English opponents of absolute monarchy and the Patriot leaders who had opposed the tyranny of George III during the American Revolution –Whigs supported Clay’s American System and a stronger central government
    45. 45. 45 Visions of America, A History of the United States Third Party Challenges: Anti-Masonry and Workingmen’s Parties Why was Masonry a cause for concern among some Americans? What lasting contributions did the Anti- Masons make to American politics?
    46. 46. 46 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    47. 47. 47 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    48. 48. 48 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Bank War and the Rise of the Whigs How did Jackson use democratic rhetoric to rally support for his Bank Veto?
    49. 49. 49 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Bank War and the Rise of the Whigs Bank Veto Speech – Jackson’s veto of a bill to re-charter the Bank of the United States, in which he explained why he opposed the bank and laid out his own vision of American democracy and constitutional government
    50. 50. 50 Visions of America, A History of the United States Andrew Jackson, the Whigs, and the Bank War How did Whigs interpret the Bank Veto?
    51. 51. 51 Visions of America, A History of the United States Economic Crisis and the Presidency of Martin Van Buren What are some of the signs of economic distress in the political cartoon on the Panic of 1837?
    52. 52. 52 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    53. 53. 53 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History “King Andrew the First” shows the Whig view of Jackson: Has royal crown and scepter Holds a copy of the Bank Veto Tramples the Constitution KING ANDREW AND THE DOWNFALL OF MOTHER BANK
    54. 54. 54 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History KING ANDREW AND THE DOWNFALL OF MOTHER BANK Lightning bolts emanate from Jackson’s order. Bank’s president is portrayed as a demon. Henry Clay lies helpless and calls for rescue.
    55. 55. 55 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History • Why is Jackson portrayed as a monarch in “King Andrew the First”? • How does this pro-Jackson cartoon portray the Whigs? KING ANDREW AND THE DOWNFALL OF MOTHER BANK
    56. 56. 56 Visions of America, A History of the United States Playing the Democrat’s Game: Whigs in the Election of 1840 A. The Log Cabin Campaign B. Gender and Social Class: The Whig Appeal C. Democrats and Whigs: Two Visions of Government and Society
    57. 57. 57 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Log Cabin Campaign What political innovations helped the Whigs out-democrat the Democrats?
    58. 58. 58 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    59. 59. 59 Visions of America, A History of the United States Gender and Social Class: The Whig Appeal Why were women drawn to the Whig message?
    60. 60. 60 Visions of America, A History of the United States Democrats and Whigs: Two Visions of Government and Society What were the most important differences between Whigs and Democrats on economic issues? What role did ethnic politics play in the contest between Whigs and Democrats?
    61. 61. 61 Visions of America, A History of the United States
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