Chapter 7: Jeffersonian America, 1800-1824
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Chapter 7: Jeffersonian America, 1800-1824

on

  • 338 views

Chapter 7: Jeffersonian America, 1800-1824

Chapter 7: Jeffersonian America, 1800-1824

Statistics

Views

Total Views
338
Views on SlideShare
333
Embed Views
5

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

1 Embed 5

http://www.slideee.com 5

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Chapter Opener: “Mad Tom in a Rage” (page 189) <br /> Text Excerpt: In 1800, Republican Thomas Jefferson won the presidential election against his Federalist opponent John Adams. After nearly a decade in opposition, Republicans celebrated their presidential triumph with toasts and songs about “Jefferson and Liberty.” Federalists, however, feared that the new president—who they had denounced as an atheist, a tool of the French, and a supporter of Thomas Paine’s radical democratic ideas—would undo all their work of the previous decade. In this Federalist political cartoon from 1800, “Mad Tom in a Rage,” Jefferson’s ally Thomas Paine and the Devil tear down the federal edifice created by Washington and Adams. <br /> Background: The election of 1800 was bitterly contested. Federalists were apprehensive about the prospect of Jefferson’s election. In this political cartoon, “Mad Tom in a Rage,” the other radical Tom, Thomas Paine, enacts the nightmare the Federalists press had predicted. Paine and the devil are shown tearing down the federal edifice created by Washington and Adams. (Some scholars believe that the devil bears a striking likeness to popular caricatures of Jefferson; others think the devil is meant to be Paine’s twin.) Although Jefferson defeated Adams in a close contest, the original constitutional design did not specify that electors cast separate ballots for president and vice president. The Founders assumed that the candidate with the most votes, the most virtuous candidate, would become president, and the person with next most votes, the second-best candidate, would be vice president. The unexpected rise of partisanship and the creation of two proto-parties, Republicans and Federalists, complicated this scheme. When Jefferson and his running mate Aaron Burr each gained the same number of electoral votes, the resulting tie meant that the House of Representatives would decide the election. Although many feared Jefferson’s radicalism, the Virginian was able to provide enough assurance to leading Federalists to pave the way for his election. Jefferson’s longtime opponent Hamilton played a crucial role in this process, convincing Federalists that he was a safer alternative than Aaron Burr. Hamilton clearly felt that Jefferson was less of a threat to the nation and would not undermine the previous decade of Federalist achievement. Hamilton’s judgment was largely vindicated by Jefferson’s actions once in office. Rather than seek confrontation, Jefferson’s agenda was far more restrained than his opponents had predicted. In his inaugural address, Jefferson struck a conciliatory note, proclaiming, “We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” Although he did not bring down the federal edifice, he did scale back the size of government. <br /> Chapter Connections: As the political cartoon “The Providential Detection” (6.16) illustrated, many Federalists predicted that Jefferson’s election would bring about a revolution modeled on France’s bloody model. One hysterical Federalist newspaper predicted: ”Murder, robbery, rape, adultery, and incest will be openly taught and practiced, the air will be rent with the cries of the distressed, the soil will be soaked with blood, and the nation black with crimes.” Other Federalists, particularly those in New England, feared that a Jefferson presidency would usher in a reign of deists and infidels. In anticipation of his election, some hid their family bibles, lest President Jefferson’s minions seize them. One irate Federalist denounced Jefferson as one who “who makes not even a profession of Christianity; who is without Sabbaths.” <br /> Discussion Questions: <br /> Why is “Mad Tom in a Rage?” <br /> What does the pillar with Washington’s and Adams’ names inscribed on it symbolize? <br /> Is this cartoon an accurate representation of the Republican agenda? <br />
  • Image 7.1: Jefferson’s Monticello <br /> Jefferson’s design for Monticello borrowed elements from English architecture, including the classical columns, and the latest Parisian styles, such as the domed roof that caps the building. <br />
  • Image 7.2: “Exhuming the First American Mastodon” (page 191) <br /> Caption: Charles Wilson Peale’s painting of the exhumation of the mammoth is a tribute to American ingenuity and the Enlightenment values esteemed by Jefferson. The centerpiece of the painting is not the fossils, but a machine to remove water from the dig, a visual tribute to American science and engineering. <br /> Text Excerpt: Four months after his [Jefferson’s] inauguration, his friend, the artist Charles Wilson Peale, set out to exhume the remains of a mastodon in upstate New York. President Jefferson, enthusiastically supporting Peale, even authorized the use of U.S. military equipment to aid in the dig. The expedition proved to be a monumental undertaking, as reflected in Peale’s painting of the event. The disinterment of the giant fossil testified to American ingenuity. To Jefferson, the expedition was a symbol of the new nation’s commitment to the values of the Enlightenment. <br />  Background: 1799, workers in upstate New York unearthed a giant fossil bone from a mastodon. The possibility that America had once, and might still be, home to this giant elephant-like mammal, captured the imagination of American intellectuals, including Thomas Jefferson and the artist Charles Wilson Peale. Jefferson had included a discussion about “mammoths” in Notes on Virginia and the subject had become something of an obsessional with him. In part, the mammoth issue became entwined in Jefferson’s running argument with the French naturalist Charles de Buffon who claimed that the animals of the New World were smaller than those in Europe. Buffon claimed that the American environment caused animals, including humans, to become degenerate. Driven by national pride and the search for scientific truth, Jefferson—who was literally a towering figure in his generation (he stood 6’ 2” tall) —set out to prove Buffon wrong. The 1799 discovery of a mastodon bone and the promise of unearthing a nearly complete skeleton of such an animal was greeted enthusiastically by Jefferson, who provided support for Peale’s expedition to exhume the mastodon in New York. Peale’s painting captures the laborious process involved in unearthing the fossil remains of the mastodon. In particular, the flooding of the excavation site created a serious obstacle that Peale overcame by creating a water wheel to drain the pit. Peale makes American ingenuity the centerpiece of the painting. Indeed, the only evidence of the fossils is Peale’s own drawing of the bones, which he holds up for view. <br /> Chapter Connections: The discovery of the mammoth caused something of a sensation in the press of the day. Jefferson’s enemies seized on this image and made it the butt of a seemingly endless stream of jokes, mocking the President at the “mammoth of Monticello” and the “mammoth of democracy”. Baptist minister John Leland sought to turn the concept around and presented Jefferson with “a mammoth cheese”. The sensational mammoth cheese attracted even more attention than Jefferson’s paleontological interests, and news stories about the cheese filled the press for months. Jefferson’s interest in mammoths even became entangled with the recently aired rumors of his affair with his slave Sally Hemings. One writer savored the irony that the “African Hebe of Monticello,”(a reference to the goddess who served ambrosia to the Greek gods) was the one “destined to avenge on her mammoth lord, the insults he had offered to her race.” The anonymous attacker took the opportunity to turn Jefferson’s own words against him—quoting one of several ugly racist passages from the author’s discussion of race in Notes on Virginia. Some scholars have noted that the painting both celebrates American labor and reinforces the hierarchical notion of a ruling natural aristocracy. The workers in the painting are faceless and toil in the pit, while the artist stands above ground directing the project and enjoying credit for the project. <br /> Discussion Questions: <br /> How does Peale represent American technology and ingenuity in the painting? <br /> How does the painting reflect the paradoxical notion that Jefferson and his ideals were simultaneously aristocratic and democratic? <br /> Why did his supporters present Jefferson with a mammoth cheese? <br />
  • Image 7.3: Jefferson and Sally Hemings <br /> Jefferson’s enemies spread rumors about his illicit sexual relationship with his slave Sally Hemings. This caricature of Jefferson as a cock and Sally Hemings as a hen presents the scandal in comic terms. <br />
  • John Marshall, Federalist Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during Jefferson’s presidency <br />
  • Image 7.4: Louisiana Purchase <br /> Jefferson acquired approximately 827,000 square miles of Western territory, doubling the size of the United States. One of the primary goals of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to map this region. <br />
  • Image 7.5: Jefferson’s Indian Hall at Monticello (page 198) <br /> Caption: Jefferson’s main entrance hall contained many Indian artifacts, including a Mandan buffalo-hide robe that hung from the balcony (far right). The images painted on these robes often depicted heroic exploits of the warriors who wore them. <br /> Text Excerpt: Many Indian artifacts were on view in Jefferson’s “Indian Hall” at Monticello, including an impressive Mandan buffalo robe which hangs above the entrance to the room. <br /> Background: “Architecture is my delight,” Jefferson wrote, “and putting up, and pulling down, one of my favorite amusements.” Between 1796 and 1809, Thomas Jefferson remodeled his home at Monticello, until it finally assumed its final shape, the architectural masterpiece that has become the iconic structure familiar to many Americans. Jefferson’s vision for Monticello set him apart from most other wealthy southerners. Typically, the entrance hall of a plantation provided an opportunity for its owner to proclaim his wealth and taste. Typically this was accomplished by including a grand stairway that allowed one to make a stylish entrance and greet one’s guest. Jefferson rejected this architecture ideal. All of the staircases at Monticello are functional and generally hidden from view. The main entrance hall was more museum-like. It functioned as both a highly public welcoming area and a highly personal testament to Jefferson’s encyclopedic interests in everything from fossils to European art. Jefferson’s entrance hall was designed to impress guests with his intellect, not his wealth. (Although only a very wealthy collector could have accumulated the treasures he had on display.) The chamber also contained an impressive collection of Indian artifacts, many of them collected by Lewis and Clark during their epic explorations of the West. Jefferson described this space as his “Indian Hall” in a letter to the artist Charles Wilson Peale in 1805. <br /> Chapter Connections: Jefferson was committed to the ideals of the Enlightenment, and his intellectual curiosity led him to become an avid collector of everything from copies of Renaissance paintings to fossils. He also had a lifelong interest in Indian culture, and the Lewis and Clark expedition provided him with an opportunity to acquire an impressive collection of artifacts. Indians occupied a unique place in Jefferson’s complex vision of America’s future. In contrast to his negative comments about Africans, Jefferson viewed Indians as a noble, but doomed, race. His policy toward Indians reflected this assumption. He believed that Indian culture would ultimately have to yield to the needs of an expanding empire peopled by yeoman farmers of European ancestry. Jefferson hoped that Indians would give up the superstitions of their ancestors and accept assimilation into American society. <br /> Discussion Questions: <br /> Why did Jefferson not include a grand stairway in his entrance hall? <br /> What types of objects were included in his entrance hall? <br /> Why did he call this room his “Indian Hall”? <br />
  • Image 7.6: Portrait of Aaron Burr <br /> Artist John Vanderlyn, a protégé of Burr, painted this striking portrait of the controversial politician during Burr’s tenure as vice president. <br />
  • Image 7.7: Intercourse or Impartial Dealings (page 202) <br /> Caption: Jefferson stands helpless, caught between King George III and Napoleon. <br /> Text Excerpt: As this cartoon lampooning Jefferson’s efforts to avoid foreign conflict suggests, the embargo did not intimidate Britain or France, but it weakened the American economy. <br /> Background: As the Napoleonic Wars engulfed much of Europe, Britain and France escalated their efforts to maintain control of the seas. Neither side was interested in honoring America’s desire to remain neutral and trade with both sides in the conflict. Both nations seized American ships bound for the other. To make matters worse, Britain also began impressing sailors serving on American ships, claiming that they were deserters from the British navy. After the Chesapeake Affair, an attack on an American ship in which several sailors were seized and a number of Americans killed, Jefferson pushed for an embargo, hoping to use economic coercion to force Britain and France to respect American rights. The failure of the embargo, and its deleterious impact on the American economy led to a milder set of economic restrictions, the non-importation act, which allowed American ships to trade with nations other than Britain and France. In this cartoon, Jefferson demonstrates his neutrality by allowing George III to intimidate him and Napoleon to empty his pockets. The cartoon accepts the British belief that Jefferson was secretly attempting to ally with France against Britain. In the cartoon, Napoleon whispers to Jefferson that his public protests are necessary to fool “John Bull” (England) and disguise the fact that America and France were secretly working together to harm Britain’s interests. <br /> Chapter Connections: The Embargo Act of 1807 was unpopular and costly. As result of economic sanctions, American exports plummeted, prices for agriculture products fell, and close to 30,000 sailors were thrown out of work. In addition to protests, smuggling was rampant, especially along the border with Canada. Pressure to abandon the embargo mounted, and in 1809 Congress replaced the failed embargo with the Non-Intercourse Act, which reopened trade with other European nations but retained economic sanctions against Britain and France. This act was soon replaced by Macon’s Bill No. 2, which stipulated that America would resume trade with both Britain and France but would reinstitute sanctions if either nation refused to respect America’s right to trade as a neutral nation. <br /> Discussion Questions: <br /> How does this cartoon portray Jefferson? <br /> Which groups were most opposed to Jefferson’s embargo? <br /> Why does Napoleon whisper to Jefferson to keep up the appearance of hostility with France? <br />
  • Image 7.8: “Columbia Teaches John Bull His New Lesson” <br /> Columbia, depicted as the goddess of liberty, stands before other symbols of the new American nation, including an eagle and a shield bearing the stars and stripes of the American flag. She warns France’s Napoleon and Britain’s John Bull to respect American rights. <br />
  • Image 7.9: Major Battles of the War of 1812 <br /> America’s effort to seize Canada failed, but some of the fiercest fighting occurred along this northern frontier. <br />
  • “A Scene on the Frontiers as Practiced by the ‘Humane’ British and Their ‘Worthy’ Allies” <br />
  • Image 7.10: Treaty of Ghent <br /> In this representation of the peace accord worked out between America and Britain at Ghent, Belgium, Columbia and Britannia hold hands. Two sailors unfurl the flags of their nations, proclaiming a new era of harmony. <br />
  • Image 7.11: The Hartford Convention (page 207) <br /> Caption: In this cartoon, George III beckons to Federalists in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island to jump off the cliff and join him, promising them “titles, nobility,” and other rewords for abandoning their fellow states. <br /> Text Excerpt: In this political cartoon ridiculing the Hartford Convention, leading New England Federalists appear ready to leap off a cliff into the welcoming arms of Britain’s king. <br /> Background: Federalist delegates from New England gathered in Hartford to coordinate their opposition to Republican policies, including the War of 1812. <br /> The cartoon represents leading Federalists associated with the Hartford Convention as secessionists. Federalist Timothy Pickering kneels and offers this prayer: “I, Strongly and most fervently pray for the success of this great leap which will change my vulgar name into that of my Lord of Essex. God save the King.” On a cliff above him are figures symbolizing the other New England states who must weigh the decision to leap into George III’s arms. Rhode Island: “Poor little I, what will become of me? This leap is of a frightful size—I sink into despondency.” Connecticut: “I cannot Brother Mass; let me pray and fast some time longer—little Rhode will jump the first.” Massachusetts: “What a dangerous leap!!! But we must jump Brother Conn.” Across the water, George III welcomes New Englanders, “O ‘tis my Yankey boys! Jump in my fine fellows; plenty molasses and Codfish; plenty of goods to Smuggle; Honours, titles and Nobility into the bargain.” <br /> Chapter Connections: The Hartford Convention was the culmination of more than a decade of Republican rule in which the minority Federalists were reduced to localized and regional power in New England. Opposition to Republican foreign policy, including the War of 1812, was intense in New England. The Hartford Convention was a last-ditch effort by Federalists to secure structural changes in the Constitution that would protect New England’s interests. The delegates adopted a number of proposals designed to protect New England’s interests. Among the measures they sought were the following: <br /> Requirements for a two-thirds congressional majority for any future embargoes, war declarations, and admission of new states <br /> A limit of one term for future presidents <br /> A repeal of the 3/5 compromise, which gave slave interests additional representation in the House; a limit of 60 days on future commercial embargoes <br /> Two provisions dealt with states’ rights: a provision allowing state governments to use federal taxes collected within their own for their own defense, and reaffirmation of the right of states to enact all measures necessary to protect their citizens from efforts by the federal government to conscript the state militias. Unfortunately, for Federalists, the Convention’s regional and states’ rights agenda was out of step with the resurgence of nationalism engendered by the War of 1812. <br /> Discussion Questions: <br /> What was the Hartford Convention? <br /> How does the cartoonist view the actions of Federalists? <br /> Why is George III welcoming New Englanders? <br />
  • Image 7.12: “A View of the President’s House in the City of Washington after the Conflagration of the 24th of August, 1814” <br /> Repairs to the damaged executive mansion included a new coat of white paint. Afterwards, the residence became known as “the White House.” <br />
  • Image 7.13: Portrait of President James Monroe <br /> This image captures Monroe’s role as a transitional figure between the eighteenth-century world of the Founders and a new era in American politics. He appears without the wigs favored by eighteenth-century gentlemen, but his silk stockings and knee breeches reflected the values of the founding generation. <br />
  • Samuel Morse, “The Old House of Representatives” <br />
  • Image 7.14: Slater Mill <br /> The earliest factories were not imposing structures belching forth smoke, but small water-powered mills. Slater’s first water-powered mill resembled the clapboard rural structures that had been used to grind grain or saw logs and that easily blended into their rural settings. <br />
  • Image 7.15: The Missouri Compromise <br /> The Missouri Compromise established a new policy for dealing with slavery in Western territories. The compromise drew an imaginary line across the map of the United States. Land south of this line acquired during the Louisiana Purchase would be open to slavery, whereas territory north of it would be free. <br />
  • Image 7.16: List of people executed as listed in published trial record <br />

Chapter 7: Jeffersonian America, 1800-1824 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States Jeffersonian America An Expanding Empire of Liberty, 1800–1824 7 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 2. 2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 3. 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States Jeffersonian America I. Politics in Jeffersonian America II. An Expanding Empire of Liberty III. Dissension at Home IV. America Confronts a World at War V. The Republic Reborn: Consequences of the War of 1812 VI. Crises and the Collapse of the National Republican Consensus AN EXPANDING EMPIRE OF LIBERTY, 1800–1824 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 4. 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States Politics in Jeffersonian America A. Liberty and Small Government B. The Jeffersonian Style C. Political Slurs and the Politics of Honor
  • 5. 5 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Jeffersonian Style What does Monticello reveal about Thomas Jefferson’s ideas and values?
  • 6. 6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 7. 7 Visions of America, A History of the United States Political Slurs and the Politics of Honor What role did slavery play in life at Monticello? What role did honor play in the political culture of Jeffersonian America?
  • 8. 8 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 9. 9 Visions of America, A History of the United States Envisioning Evidence THE WORLD OF SLAVERY AT MONTICELLO About 150 slaves allowed Jefferson to maintain his aristocratic lifestyle.
  • 10. 10 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 11. 11 Visions of America, A History of the United States An Expanding Empire of Liberty A. Dismantling the Federalist Program B. The Courts: The Last Bastion of Federalist Power C. The Louisiana Purchase D. Lewis and Clark E. Indian Responses to Jeffersonian Expansionism: Assimilation or Revivalism
  • 12. 12 Visions of America, A History of the United States Dismantling the Federalist Program Was Jefferson’s election in 1800 a real revolution?
  • 13. 13 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Courts: The Last Bastion of Federalist Power Judicial Review – The idea that courts might strike down acts of the legislature
  • 14. 14 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences • Marbury, who sought political office, was denied his commission by Madison, Jefferson’s secretary of state • Marbury sued Madison and demanded his office • The case went to the Supreme Court, with Marshall as chief justice JOHN MARSHALL’S PREDICAMENT
  • 15. 15 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Marshall’s choices in Marbury v. Madison JOHN MARSHALL’S PREDICAMENT Give Marbury his commission Deny Marbury the commission Acknowledge the legitimacy of Marbury’s claim while somehow avoiding a showdown between the court and executive branch
  • 16. 16 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Decision and consequences • Marshall used a legal technicality to avoid conflict between executive and judicial branches • Marshall’s ruling: – Strengthened the idea of judicial review; and – Gave more power to the Supreme Court How did John Marshall avoid a showdown with Jefferson in Marbury v. Madison? JOHN MARSHALL’S PREDICAMENT
  • 17. 17 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies •What role should judicial review play in a democracy? JOHN MARSHALL’S PREDICAMENT
  • 18. 18 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Louisiana Purchase Was the Louisiana Purchase consistent with Jefferson’s ideals?
  • 19. 19 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Louisiana Purchase Louisiana Purchase – The U.S. acquisition of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 –Secured control of the Mississippi River and nearly doubled the size of the nation
  • 20. 20 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 21. 21 Visions of America, A History of the United States Lewis and Clark What role did Sacagawea play in the Lewis and Clark expedition? What were the main goals of the Lewis and Clark expedition?
  • 22. 22 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 23. 23 Visions of America, A History of the United States Indian Responses to Jeffersonian Expansionism: Assimilation or Revivalism What were the central beliefs of Handsome Lake’s religious revival?
  • 24. 24 Visions of America, A History of the United States Indian Responses to Jeffersonian Expansionism: Assimilation or Revivalism Pan-Indian Resistance Movement – Shawnee leaders Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh’s plan to unite Indian tribes to repel white encroachments in Ohio and Indiana
  • 25. 25 Visions of America, A History of the United States Dissension at Home A. Jefferson’s Attack on the Federalist Judiciary B. The Controversial Mr. Burr
  • 26. 26 Visions of America, A History of the United States Jefferson’s Attack on the Federalist Judiciary Why did Jefferson target the federal judiciary and seek to limit its power?
  • 27. 27 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Controversial Mr. Burr
  • 28. 28 Visions of America, A History of the United States America Confronts a World at War A. The Failure of Peaceable Coercion B. Madison’s Travails: Diplomatic Blunders Abroad and Tensions on the Frontier C. The War of 1812 D. The Hartford Convention
  • 29. 29 Visions of America, A History of the United States America Confronts a World at War Impressment – The practice of forcing merchant seamen to serve in the British navy Chesapeake Affair – An 1807 incident when the British ship the Leopard fired at an American navy ship, the Chesapeake –Abducted four American sailors as deserters from the Royal Navy
  • 30. 30 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Failure of Peaceable Coercion What was peaceable coercion?
  • 31. 31 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Failure of Peaceable Coercion Embargo Act of 1807 – The cornerstone of peaceable coercion that attempted to block U.S. trade with England and France to force them to respect American neutrality
  • 32. 32 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 33. 33 Visions of America, A History of the United States Madison’s Travails: Diplomatic Blunders Abroad and Tensions on the Frontier How did British relations with Indians in the Northwest exacerbate political tensions with America?
  • 34. 34 Visions of America, A History of the United States The War of 1812 Who were the War Hawks? What were the main military consequences of the War of 1812?
  • 35. 35 Visions of America, A History of the United States The War of 1812 War Hawks – Young Republican congressmen from the South and the western regions who favored western expansion and war with Britain War of 1812 – The war between Britain and America over restrictions on American trade
  • 36. 36 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 37. 37 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 38. 38 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions WAR HAWKS AND THEIR CRITICS Why did Westerners believe that the British were encouraging Indian violence against Americans? War Hawks accused British of arming Native Americans and inciting them to attack American settlers. Critics argued that conflicts with Native Americans resulted from settlers’ encroachment on their lands.
  • 39. 39 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions Images like this one supported War Hawks’ claims. Critics dismissed the War Hawks’ idea of a British- Native American conspiracy. The issue pitted “Young” Republicans against “Old” Republicans. WAR HAWKS AND THEIR CRITICS
  • 40. 40 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 41. 41 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Hartford Convention What were the main goals of the Hartford Convention? How are the actions of New England states represented in the political cartoon on the Hartford Convention?
  • 42. 42 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Hartford Convention Hartford Convention – A meeting of Federalists in Hartford, Connecticut, to protest the War of 1812 –Proposed several constitutional amendments intended to weaken the powers of the slave states and protect New England interests
  • 43. 43 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 44. 44 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Republic Reborn: Consequences of the War of 1812 A. The National Republican Vision of James Monroe B. Diplomatic Triumphs C. Economic and Technological Innovation D. Judicial Nationalism
  • 45. 45 Visions of America, A History of the United States The National Republican Vision of James Monroe Why was Monroe’s presidency described as an “Era of Good Feelings”?
  • 46. 46 Visions of America, A History of the United States The National Republican Vision of James Monroe Era of Good Feelings – A term coined to describe the absence of bitter partisan conflict during the presidency of James Monroe
  • 47. 47 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 48. 48 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 49. 49 Visions of America, A History of the United States Diplomatic Triumphs What were the major ideas associated with the Monroe Doctrine?
  • 50. 50 Visions of America, A History of the United States Diplomatic Triumphs Monroe Doctrine – A foreign policy statement by President Monroe that declared that: –The Americas were no longer open to colonization –The U.S. would view any effort to control independent nations in the western hemisphere as a threat to America
  • 51. 51 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History SAMUEL MORSE’S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE NATIONAL REPUBLICAN VISION Morse highlighted the multicolored stone columns (symbolized the ideal of Federalism). Native American figure in the gallery symbolized diplomacy and subjugation of native peoples.
  • 52. 52 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History SAMUEL MORSE’S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE NATIONAL REPUBLICAN VISION Morse focused on act of lighting the House’s chandelier, a symbol of progress. Why did Morse highlight architecture and minimize the people in his painting?
  • 53. 53 Visions of America, A History of the United States Economic and Technological Innovation What was the economic significance of Whitney’s cotton gin?
  • 54. 54 Visions of America, A History of the United States Economic and Technological Innovation Cotton Gin – Machine invented by Eli Whitney that easily removed seeds from cotton
  • 55. 55 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 56. 56 Visions of America, A History of the United States Judicial Nationalism Which Marshall Court decisions best illustrate the Court’s nationalism?
  • 57. 57 Visions of America, A History of the United States Crisis and the Collapse of the National Republican Consensus A. The Panic of 1819 B. The Missouri Crisis C. Denmark Vesey’s Rebellion D. Jeffersonian America and the Politics of Compromise
  • 58. 58 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Panic of 1819 Panic of 1819 – A downturn in the American economy in 1819 that plunged the nation into depression and economic hardship
  • 59. 59 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Missouri Crisis What was the Missouri crisis? What were the main provisions of the Missouri Compromise?
  • 60. 60 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Missouri Crisis Missouri Compromise – The congressional compromise in which Missouri entered the Union as a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state –Preserved the balance of slave and free states in Congress –Drew an imaginary line at 36° 30' through the Louisiana Territory –Slavery prohibited north of this line
  • 61. 61 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 62. 62 Visions of America, A History of the United States Denmark Vesey’s Rebellion How did the Missouri crisis contribute to the climate of fear in Charleston during the Vesey trial? Why did white residents of Charlestown blame northerners for the Vesey insurrection?
  • 63. 63 Visions of America, A History of the United States Denmark Vesey’s Rebellion Denmark Vesey Uprising – An alleged plot led by a free black man, Denmark Vesey, to free slaves in Charleston and kill their masters
  • 64. 64 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  • 65. 65 Visions of America, A History of the United States Jeffersonian America and the Politics of Compromise What were some of the main political compromises of the Jeffersonian era?