Chapter 6: Political passions in the New Republic, 1789-1800

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Chapter 6: Political passions in the New Republic, 1789-1800

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Chapter 6: Political passions in the New Republic, 1789-1800

  1. 1. 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States The New Republic An Age of Political Passion, 1789–1800 6 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  2. 2. 2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  3. 3. 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States The New Republic I. Launching the New Government II. Hamilton’s Ambitious Program III. Partisanship without Parties IV. Conflicts at Home and Abroad V. Cultural Politics in a Passionate Age VI. The Stormy Presidency of John Adams AN AGE OF POLITICAL PASSION, 1789–1800 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  4. 4. 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States Launching the New Government A. Choosing the First President B. The First Federal Elections: Completing the Constitution C. Filling Out the Branches of Government
  5. 5. 5 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choosing the First President Electoral College – A group of electors appointed by each state who had the responsibility of picking the president
  6. 6. 6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  7. 7. 7 Visions of America, A History of the United States The First Federal Elections: Completing the Constitution Why did Madison shift his views on the need for a Bill of Rights? Why were some ardent Anti-Federalists not satisfied with Madison’s proposed amendments?
  8. 8. 8 Visions of America, A History of the United States The First Federal Elections: Completing the Constitution Bill of Rights – The first ten of the original twelve amendments to the Constitution, which included protections for basic individual liberties and protections for the states
  9. 9. 9 Visions of America, A History of the United States Hamilton’s Ambitious Program A. Hamilton’s Vision for the New Republic B. The Assumption of State Debts C. Madison’s Opposition D. The Bank, the Mint, and the Report on Manufactures E. Jefferson and Hamilton: Contrasting Visions of the Republic
  10. 10. 10 Visions of America, A History of the United States Hamilton’s Vision for the New Republic Why did Hamilton believe that America needed to create a national bank? How does Hamilton’s own life help explain his vision for America’s future?
  11. 11. 11 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  12. 12. 12 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Assumption of State Debts Assumption of State Debts – Hamilton’s scheme for the federal government to take over any outstanding state debts
  13. 13. 13 Visions of America, A History of the United States Madison’s Opposition Why did Virginians, including Madison and Jefferson, oppose Hamilton’s economic program? What did Madison and Jefferson gain by moving the location of the new capital to what is now Washington, D.C.?
  14. 14. 14 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  15. 15. 15 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Bank, the Mint, and the Report on Manufactures How did Hamilton and Jefferson differ in their interpretations of the phrase “necessary and proper”?
  16. 16. 16 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Bank, the Mint, and the Report on Manufactures Bank of the United States – A bank chartered by the federal government that served as a depository for government funds, helped bolster confidence in government securities, made loans, and provided the nation with a stable national currency
  17. 17. 17 Visions of America, A History of the United States Jefferson and Hamilton: Contrasting Visions of the Republic What were the most important points of disagreement between Hamilton and Jefferson?
  18. 18. 18 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  19. 19. 19 Visions of America, A History of the United States Partisanship without Parties A. A New Type of Politician B. The Growth of the Partisan Press C. The Democratic-Republican Societies
  20. 20. 20 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Growth of the Partisan Press What role did the partisan press play in the politics of the 1790s?
  21. 21. 21 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  22. 22. 22 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Democratic-Republican Societies Why did the Federalists oppose the Democratic-Republican Societies?
  23. 23. 23 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Democratic-Republican Societies Democratic-Republican Societies – A new type of political organization informally allied with the Republicans, the goal of which was to help collect, channel, and influence public opinion
  24. 24. 24 Visions of America, A History of the United States Conflicts at Home and Abroad A. The French Revolution in America B. Adams versus Clinton: A Contest for Vice President C. Diplomatic Controversies and Triumphs D. Violence along the Frontier
  25. 25. 25 Visions of America, A History of the United States The French Revolution in America Did the French Revolution fulfill or betray the ideals of the American Revolution? Why did Federalists become such ardent critics of the French Revolution?
  26. 26. 26 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  27. 27. 27 Visions of America, A History of the United States Diplomatic Controversies and Triumphs How did French ideas influence American political culture? Why did Republicans oppose Jay’s Treaty?
  28. 28. 28 Visions of America, A History of the United States Diplomatic Controversies and Triumphs Jay’s Treaty – Diplomatic treaty negotiated by Federalist John Jay in 1794 • Britain agreed to compensate America for cargoes seized in 1793–1794. • Britain promised to vacate forts in the Northwest Territory. • America failed to win acceptance of the right of neutral nations to trade freely with belligerents.
  29. 29. 29 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  30. 30. 30 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions JEFFERSON’S AND HAMILTON’S REACTIONS TO THE FRENCH REVOLUTION Jefferson believed that the accomplishments of the French Revolution justified the violent means by which they were achieved. Hamilton criticized the violence of the French Revolution and was revolted by its excesses. How did these reactions to the French Revolution reflect Jefferson’s and Hamilton’s different political beliefs?
  31. 31. 31 Visions of America, A History of the United States Violence along the Frontier How did American and Indian views of the Treaty of Greenville differ? Why did the Whiskey Rebellion present such a problem for Republicans? Why did Federalist enforcement of the whiskey tax fail in Kentucky?
  32. 32. 32 Visions of America, A History of the United States Violence along the Frontier Whiskey Rebellion – The armed uprising of western Pennsylvania and Kentucky farmers protesting the whiskey excise tax in 1794
  33. 33. 33 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  34. 34. 34 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  35. 35. 35 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences • Should the president negotiate with the rebels? • Should he use force to put down the rebellion? • Would the national militia be willing to use force against the rebels? WASHINGTON’S DECISION TO CRUSH THE WHISKEY REBELLION
  36. 36. 36 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Choices regarding the Whiskey Rebellion WASHINGTON’S DECISION TO CRUSH THE WHISKEY REBELLION Call up and dispatch the militia to crush the rebellion Make concessions, repeal the tax, and avoid armed conflict Give the rebels a chance to end the protest, but have the militia ready to march if they do not
  37. 37. 37 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Decision and Consequences • Rebels refused to end protest • Washington sent militia, which ended rebellion • Rebellion continued in states like Kentucky • Democratic-Republican Societies blamed for inciting rebellion WASHINGTON’S DECISION TO CRUSH THE WHISKEY REBELLION Why did Federalist enforcement of the whiskey tax fail in Kentucky?
  38. 38. 38 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies • Why were some Federalists reluctant to use force to put down the Whiskey Rebellion? WASHINGTON’S DECISION TO CRUSH THE WHISKEY REBELLION
  39. 39. 39 Visions of America, A History of the United States Cultural Politics in a Passionate Age A. Political Fashions and Fashionable Politics B. Literature, Education, and Gender C. Federalists, Republicans, and the Politics of Race
  40. 40. 40 Visions of America, A History of the United States Political Fashions and Fashionable Politics How did fashion become politicized in the 1790s?
  41. 41. 41 Visions of America, A History of the United States Literature, Education, and Gender How is virtue represented in Maria Crownshield’s allegory of female education?
  42. 42. 42 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  43. 43. 43 Visions of America, A History of the United States Federalists, Republicans, and the Politics of Race What were the differences between the views of Republicans and Federalists toward the revolution in Saint-Domingue (modern Haiti)? What political factors might account for these differences? Why did Republicans oppose normalizing relations with Saint-Domingue?
  44. 44. 44 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  45. 45. 45 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History What symbols does the artist use to represent the achievements of the arts and sciences in the new American nation? LIBERTY DISPLAYING THE ARTS AND SCIENCES
  46. 46. 46 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History LIBERTY DISPLAYING THE ARTS AND SCIENCES The goddess of liberty holds a liberty pole topped by a liberty cap. A group of African Americans bows before liberty. The broken chains symbolize the abolition of slavery. The telescope symbolizes the advancements of modern science.
  47. 47. 47 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Stormy Presidency of John Adams A. Washington’s Farewell Address B. The XYZ Affair and Quasi-War with France C. The Alien and Sedition Acts D. The Disputed Election of 1800 E. Gabriel’s Rebellion
  48. 48. 48 Visions of America, A History of the United States Washington’s Farewell Address What advice did Washington offer in his Farewell Address? How does the artist represent the future of America in this portrait of George Washington?
  49. 49. 49 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  50. 50. 50 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  51. 51. 51 Visions of America, A History of the United States The XYZ Affair and Quasi-War with France How did the XYZ Affair affect American politics?
  52. 52. 52 Visions of America, A History of the United States The XYZ Affair and Quasi-War with France XYZ Affair – The furor created when Americans learned that three French officials, identified in diplomatic correspondence as “X,” “Y,” and “Z,” demanded a bribe from America’s diplomats as the price of beginning negotiations
  53. 53. 53 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  54. 54. 54 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  55. 55. 55 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Alien and Sedition Acts Why did the Federalists believe it was vital to American security to restrict immigration? What strategies were used to challenge the Sedition Act?
  56. 56. 56 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Alien and Sedition Acts Alien and Sedition Acts – Four laws designed to protect America from the danger of foreign and domestic subversion. The first three, the Alien laws, dealt with immigration and naturalization. The Sedition Act criminalized criticism of the federal government.
  57. 57. 57 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Alien and Sedition Acts States’ rights – The theory that the Constitution was a compact among the states and that the individual states retained the right to judge when the federal government’s actions were unconstitutional
  58. 58. 58 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Disputed Election of 1800 Why did the Federalist political cartoon show Jefferson about to burn the Constitution?
  59. 59. 59 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  60. 60. 60 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  61. 61. 61 Visions of America, A History of the United States Gabriel’s Rebellion Which events of the 1790s helped inspire Gabriel’s Rebellion?
  62. 62. 62 Visions of America, A History of the United States Gabriel’s Rebellion Gabriel’s Rebellion – A slave insurrection in Richmond, Virginia, that drew together free blacks and slaves in a plot to seize the Richmond arsenal and foment a slave rebellion

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