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Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
Question 2b: Language
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Question 2b: Language

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  • 1. READ G FOR IN IN TER R P ETATIONLanguage
  • 2. READI NG FOR I NTERPRETATI ON W i t er s dev el op t hei r t ext r i n di f f er ent ways . To f ol l ow how t he t ext i s const r uc t ed, y ou need t o r ecogni s e s om of t he m e e or com onl y us ed t ec hni ques and m how a wr i t er uses t hem t o bui l d t hei r t ext dependi ng on t hei r pur pose.
  • 3. READI NG FOR I NTERPRETATI ON Par t of r eadi ng f or i nt er pr et at i on i s l ooki ng at t he use of f act s and opi ni ons i n a t ext – whi ch we have been l ooki ng at i n pr evi ous l essons. I t can al so m ean l ooki ng at ot her l anguage choi ces a wr i t er m akes and t hei r ef f ect on t he t ext / r eader . Over t hi s ser i es of l essons, we ar e goi ng t o: Be abl e t o i dent i f y di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n a t ext Devel op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW wr i t er s use di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n t hei r wr i t i ng Devel op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW r eader s ar e af f ect ed by di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques
  • 4. LANGUAGE M any wr i t er s choos e t o wr i t e i n s t andar d Engl i sh, whi ch i s t he f or m t aught i n sc hool s. W t hi n t hat i f or m or as an al t er nat i ve t o i t , t hey use a , r ange of l i ngui st i c devi ces whi ch you need t o be abl e t o r ecogni se and di scuss.Li st as m any l i ngui st i c devi ces and l anguage t ool s as you can. SubjectTabloid Newspaper Language: Bias, Emotive, Slang, SpecificNicknames, Puns vocab Descriptive language: imagery, senses, adjectives Rhetoric: rhetorical questions, Colloquialisms Emotive Language direct address, use of anecdote Adjectives and Adverbs Irony and sarcasm Simple/complex Imperatives Literary and poetic devices vocabulary – really - rhyme, alliteration, metaphor, scary vs utterly terrifying Superlatives – simile, personification, hyperbole, worst, best, biggest … onomatopoeia Formal/informal vocabulary – Technical Language Loaded language mother vs mum
  • 5. LANGUAGE TECH IQUE 1: TH W ITER S N E R ’FEELIN AB G OUT TH SUB E JECT - BIAS You need t o l ook cl osel y at t he wr i t er ’ s f eel i ng and at t i t ude t owar ds t he subj ect t hey ar e wr i t i ng about . Do t hey have a bi as?
  • 6. M ch t he annot at i ons t o t he appr opr i at e atI DENTI FYI NG BI AS wor ds and phr ases i n t he ext r act . As i t happens, t he a) A phr ase whi ch i m i es exam nat i ons pl i r esul t s do r ef l ec t have been m ade t o seem l ess i m por t ant t he i m pact of b) A wor d whi ch suggest s cl assr oom wool l y educ at i onal per f or m ance i s over r at ed t hi nk i ng, whi c h has c ) A phr ase whi ch i m i es an over - pl pl ayed down ac t ual wi l l i ngness t o pl ease and obey ex am nat i ons and i d) A wor d whi ch suggest s t he t hi nki ng i s el evat ed cl ass r oom uncl ear and l ack subst ance per f or m ance t hr ough e) A phr ase whi ch suggest s a sense of cour s ewor k. Thi s st r engt h, t oughness and advent ur e gi ves gi r l s an Com et e t hi s sent ence cor r ect l y. pl advant age, si nce B us i ng l anguage i n t hi s w y ay t he t hei r gr eat er w t er rei nf orc es hi s opi ni on t hat : ri keenness and  Gi r l s wor k har der t han boys. bi ddabi l i t y t end t o  Cl assr oom per f or m ance and cour sewor k ear n t hem hi gher ar e m e i m or por t ant t han exam s. m ks t han m e ar or  School s ar e f ai l i ng boys and t hey nat ur al l y deser ve bet t er . r ebel l i ous and i ndi v i dual i st i c
  • 7. LANGUAGE TECH IQUE 1: TH N EW ITER S FEELIN AB R ’ G OUT THESUBJECT - BIAS Thi nk back t o t he Cheese Rol l i ng and Ol ym cs Edi pi t or i al ar t i cl es. What i s each wr i t er ’ s f eel i ng/ at t i t ude t owar ds t he subj ect of t hei r ar t i cl e? How di d you i dent i f y t he f eel i ngs/ at t i t udes? I s t he wr i t er bi ased?
  • 8. READI NG FOR I NTERPRETATI ON Par t of r eadi ng f or i nt er pr et at i on i s l ooki ng at t he use of f act s and opi ni ons i n a t ext – whi ch we have been l ooki ng at i n pr evi ous l essons. I t can al so m ean l ooki ng at ot her l anguage choi ces a wr i t er m akes and t hei r ef f ect on t he t ext / r eader . Over t hi s ser i es of l essons, we ar e goi ng t o: Be abl e t o i dent i f y di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n a t ext Devel op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW wr i t er s use di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n t hei r wr i t i ng Devel op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW r eader s
  • 9. LANGUAGE TECHNI QUE 2: LANGUAGETO CONVI NCE – RHETORI CALDEVI CES W i t i ng t o ar gue and per suade shar e a r set of Rhet or i cal Devi ces t hat wr i t er s can use t o m ake t hei r poi nt m e or per suasi ve. W hen r eadi ng t o i nt er pr et you shoul d be l ooki ng out f or t hese and HOW t hey ar e used i n t he t ext t o suppor t t he t ext ’ s pur pose or get a r eact i on f r om t he r eader .
  • 10. Conventions of Writing to Argue/PersuadeTechnique Meaning ExampleRhetorical Question When the writer asks a question- not to get Can you light a fire? (Challenge) an answer but to challenge you, entice you, Can you watch this poor child suffer? make you think, feel guilty, or examine your (Guilt inducing) conscience. Why turn down 0% finance? (Enticing)3-Point List Persuaders often use lists of three. They Tired, hungry and homeless, John is typical of the seem to have a special rhythm that sticks in people who seek our help. the mind and gets the message across. You’ll find it intellectually stimulating, creative and endlessly varied.2 Part Contrast Before……..After Last Christmas John was living rough on the streets. This is the way it is…. This year, he has clean clothes and a warm bed. You This is how it could be. see, the money you give really does make it a Stark contrasts are powerful persuaders. difference.Repetition Repeating the same word or phrase is bound Come to life. to have an effect! Come to Butlins. You’ll learn how to present, support……You’ll learn how to make a difference to people’s lives.Make it Personal Getting the reader involved by using ‘you’ Designed to fit the way you live your life. or making them feel part of something by saying ‘we.’ Together, we can make a difference.Emotive Language Words which play on the readers emotions. Starved and beaten, this poor puppy would have died a miserable death without your help.Exaggerated Claims Language which makes things seem better, Teaching is the ultimate profession. more exciting than they really are. Carlsberg- probably the best lager in the world.
  • 11. Technique Meaning ExampleLong Descriptive Longer, complex and compound sentences, allow the writer to paint an attractive word This desert of ice is so unique and uncommon to man’s experience, that even the best of photographsSentences picture. are mere attempts at describing the sheer magnitude, the awe, the beauty of it. (Travel brochure- Antarctica)Short Powerful Short sentences have real impact. Such wonder can only be felt not defined.SentencesSelective Use of Facts Not exactly lying, but being economical You can earn up to £40, 000 as a classroom teacher . with the truth. Only using facts that support (Notice words up to) your case, leaving out the facts that don’t.Imperative Sentences Don’t give your audience a choice – Imagine you are homeless… command them to do something. Call this number…(Commands) Send money now…Anecdotes Incorporating stories/experiences from I have seen the devastation that drought can cause. your own past will make your speech When I visited Africa, I witnessed… interesting and you will show your audience that you know what you are talking about.Counter-argument Recognise that there are counter- I understand that fox-hunting can seem evil, however, arguments or an alternative viewpoint to had you thought about the helpless chickens that they what you are saying; mention them and kill… then go on to say why they are wrong/you are right.Herd Mentality No-one likes to be the ‘odd one out’ so tell Everybody knows that…Obviously…You must be on a the reader that they will be if they don’t different planet if you haven’t noticed… agree with you. Good persuaders sign off on a strong note. Teaching is the ultimate profession. Because, ofPowerful Ending course, without teaching there are no other professions.
  • 12. LANGUAGE TECHNI QUE 2: LANGUAGE TOCONVI NCE – RHETORI CAL DEVI CES 1. Read t he ar gum ent i n f avour of usi ng Buf f y t he Vam r e Sl ayer pi i n t he cl assr oom . 2. Choose one f act and one opi ni on f r om t he ar gum ent . How does each suppor t t he wr i t er ’ s ar gum ent ? 3. Usi ng t he Co n v e n t i o n s o f W i t i n g r t o Pe r s u a d e wor ksheet , f i nd and l abel f eat ur es of wr i t i ng t o per suade t hat t he wr i t er has
  • 13. LANGUAGE TECHNI QUE 2: LANGUAGE TOCONVI NCE – RHETORI CAL DEVI CES For eac h ques t i on number t he f eat ure on your s heet w t h t he i s am num e ber as t he ques t i on t hen ans wer t he ques t i on i n your exerc i s e book. 1. The wr i t er asks quest i ons l i ke, “ sur el y we want chi l dr en t o enj oy l i t er at ur e and be exc i t ed by s t or i es ?” What i s t he ef f ect of t hi s quest i oni ng on t he r eader ? 2. The wr i t er uses shor t power f ul sent ences i n t hi s ar gument . Choose one and expl ai n how i t af f ect s t he r eader . 3. The wr i t er uses t he em i ve phr as e: “ I t woul d be easy t o j um ot p t o t he t hought l ess concl usi on. . . ” How i s t hi s meant t o make t he r eader f eel ? 4. What i s t he ef f ect of begi nni ng t he ar gument wi t h t he count er ar gument ? 5. How does t he wr i t er use t he f act about “ . . . 2. 6 m l l i on i peopl e. . . ” ? 6. The wr i t er uses sever al l i s t s of 3. Choos e one t o expl or e how t he wr i t er uses t hi s t echni que t o hel p ac hi eve t he t ext ’ s pur pos e. 7. The wr i t er s ays : “ . . . we ar e t r yi ng t o t each our chi l dr en. . . ” How i s t he wr i t er us i ng per sonal addr ess t o per suade t he r eader ?
  • 14. LANGUAGE TECHNI QUE 2: LANGUAGE TOCONVI NCE – RHETORI CAL DEVI CES Ever y ar gum ent shoul d be wel l st r uct ur ed. Fi nd and l abel :a) t he wr i t er ’ s t hr ee m n poi nt ai s ( cl ue: l ook f or t he t opi c sent ences)b) t he evi dence used t o suppor t each m n poi nt aic) t he connect i ves used t o m ake t he ar gum ent cohesi ved) How does t he wr i t er l i nk t he i nt r oduct i on and concl usi on? What im age i s r epeat ed?
  • 15. LANGUAGE TECHNI QUE 2: LANGUAGETO CONVI NCE – RHETORI CALDEVI CESNow f or t he exam st yl e answer – r em ber em t o PEARL!How does t he wr i t er encour age t he r eader t o si de wi t h her ar gum ent t hr ough t he l anguage she uses? Consi der : t he l anguage f eat ur es ( convent i ons of wr i t i ng t o per suade) and how t he wr i t er engages t he r eader ( em i ve; ot per sonal ; r het or i c al quest i on) .
  • 16. W B FFY THE VA PIRE SHOULD BE HY U M STUDI ED AT KEY STAGE 3.B f f y t he Va mp i r e Sl a y e r m u ay j ust appear t obe a popul ar Am i can t el evi si on ser i es t o erbe enj oyed at hom of an eveni ng. But ebeneat h t he sur f ace of t hi s i nnocent seem ng isci - f i ext r avaganza l i es a wel l - cr af t ed,exper t l y wr i t t en pr ogr am e abl e t o r each mt oday’ s yout h wi t h har d- hi t t i ng m essages oncul t ur al l y r el evant i ssues. Thi s i s t hesor t of t eachi ng ai d t hat we as t eacher shave been l ongi ng f or – t he per f ect t ool i nt eachi ng Key St age 3 st udent s about t hepower of t he m edi a i n t he t went y f i r stcent ur y.
  • 17. I t i s a f act t hat t oday’ s yout h wat chf ar m e t el evi si on t han any gener at i on orbef or e t hem . A r ecent sur vey by t heTel evi si on Br oadcast i ng Associ at i onf ound t hat , ‘ a TV set i s swi t ched on f orsi x hour s 47 m nut es on aver age ever y iday’ . I t woul d be ver y easy t o j um t o pt he t hought l ess concl usi on t hat al l t hi si s t i m ‘ wast ed’ on wat chi ng poi nt l ess epr ogr am es but i f you have any munder st andi ng of t oday’ s soci et y youwi l l know t hat t he m edi um of t el evi si oni s one of t he gr eat est and m ost val uabl esour ces of i nf or m i on avai l abl e t o our atchi l dr en. B f f y t he Va mp i r e Sl a y e r ur epr esent s par t of t hi s m edi um .
  • 18. Of cour se, t her e wi l l al ways be a pl ace f or t hecl assi c novel s of such gr eat s as Shakespear e andDi ckens but t i m es ar e m ovi ng on and i n or der t ot each st udent s about i m por t ant i ssues, such ascul t ur al di ver si t y, gr owi ng- up and our m al orobl i gat i ons, we need t o f i nd a m e r el evant orsour ce. B f f y t he Va mp i r e Sl a y e r i s t hat sour ce. uB f f y t ackl es a m t i t ude of soci al l y r el evant u uli ssues and each one i s handl ed wi t h a bal anced andr esponsi bl e appr oach. The pr ogr am e m m ay usem onst er s and ot her f i ct i onal cr eat ur es t o put t hesei ssues acr oss but t hi s al l egor y i s not l ost onst udent s. On t he cont r ar y, when i ssues ar e l at erdi scussed wi t h st udent s t hey show a cl earawar eness of t he pr ogr am e’ s r el evance t o r eal ml i f e. B f f y i s par t of t oday’ s cont em u por ar ycul t ur e and as such st udent s ar e abl e t o em pat hi sewi t h i t , t o enj oy i t and see t he r el evance of i ton t hei r own l i ves and sur r oundi ngs. I n shor t t heycan LEARN f r om i t .
  • 19. Twent y- f i r st cent ur y st udent s l i ve i n t i m ewher e t echnol ogy can do f ant ast i c t hi ngs,wher e m ovi es can be com et el y com pl put ergener at ed and t he I nt er net i s f act r epl aci ngst at i c l i br ar i es. Can we expect out chi l dr ent o be t ot al l y engaged by a m ust y ol d book whenat hom t hey ar e pr esent ed wi t h wonder f ul eoppor t uni t i es t o exper i ence st or i es br ought t ol i f e wi t h st ar t l i ng r eal i sm on scr een? Sur el ywe want chi l dr en t o enj oy l i t er at ur e and beexci t ed by st or i es? B f f y ut i l i ses ugr oundbr eaki ng speci al ef f ect s and t he m ost -up- t o- dat e pr oduct i on t echni ques i n t ur ni ngi t ’ s awar d- wi nni ng scr i pt s i nt o st i m at i ng ult el evi si on. I t i s one of t he m ost hi ghl yr at ed t el evi si on shows i n Am i ca, wi t h a err ecent pol l f i ndi ng t hat 2. 6 m l l i on peopl e it une i n t o wat ch i t each and ever y week. Iti s j ust t he sor t of t hi ng t hat we shoul d beusi ng i n our cl assr oom t o engage st udent s and s
  • 20. At Key St age 3 Engl i sh we ar e t r yi ngt o t each our chi l dr en, not onl yEngl i sh but , about l i f e. W need eal l t he t ool s t hat we can gat her t odo t hi s and B f f y t he Va mp i r e Sl a y e r ucoul d be t he power - t ool i n ourt eachi ng boxes. W e el se coul d a herZom e show us t he di f f er ence bibet ween r i ght and wr ong? Or a huge,gr een sea m onst er t each us aboutaccept i ng cul t ur al di f f er ence? TheSl ayer m ay onl y be a gi r l but shecoul d put som bi t e i nt o l essons. e
  • 21. READI NG FOR I NTERPRETATI ON Par t of r eadi ng f or i nt er pr et at i on i s l ooki ng at t he use of f act s and opi ni ons i n a t ext – whi ch we have been l ooki ng at i n pr evi ous l essons. I t can al so m ean l ooki ng at ot her l anguage choi ces a wr i t er m akes and t hei r ef f ect on t he t ext / r eader . Over t hi s ser i es of l essons, we ar e goi ng t o: Be abl e t o i dent i f y di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n a t ext Devel op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW wr i t er s use di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n t hei r wr i t i ng Devel op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW r eader s
  • 22. LANGUAGE TECHNI QUE 3: SPECI ALI STTEXTS - SUBJECT SPECI FI C VOCABULARY A wr i t er m ght choose t o use a r ange of wor ds dr awn f r om t he i sam ‘ subj ect ar ea’ . e For exam e, i f t hey ar e wr i t i ng about pl m edi cal condi t i ons, t hen many of t he wor ds may com f r om e t hat f i el d. You m ght expect t o f i nd wor ds l i ke: syr i nge, i sym om pr escr i pt i on and di agnosi s. pt , The ef f ect of usi ng subj ect speci f i c vocab i s t o i m bue t he t ext wi t h aut hor i t y. When t he wr i t er uses t hem t hey dem onst r at e knowl edge of t hei r t opi c ar ea t hat i s bot h i nf or med and ext ensi ve. W t i ng about Subj ec t Spec i f i c Voc ab. riWhen wr i t i ng about t hi s i n an exam answer you m ght useiphr ases l i ke:•The wr i t er dr aws on l anguage f r om t he sem ant i c f i el d of . . .•The wr i t er exem i f i es t hei r knowl edge of t he t opi c by plusi ng l anguage f r om . . .•Vocabul ar y f r om t he subj ect speci f i c f i el d of . . . i sef f ect i ve i n conveyi ng t he wr i t er ’ s knowl edge andunder st andi ng about . . . , t hi s i s ef f ect i ve because i test abl i shes t hei r aut hor i t y over t he r eader .
  • 23. LANGUAGE TECHNI QUE 4: TECHNI CAL AND EMOTI VE LANGUAGE  For each l anguage f eat ur e l i st ed bel ow, copy and wr i t e whet her i t i s TECHNI CAL or EM OTI VE. St at i st i cs St r ong opi ni ons Exagger at i on Jar gon Bi as Rhet or i cal•Fi nd t Questf ieat ur es of em i ve l anguage i n t he t ext bel ow. hr ee ons otFor each f eat ur e, gi ve an exam e and descr i be what ef f ect pli t cr eat es.W hat ki nd of f ut ur e do we want t o gi ve our chi l dr en? Do wewant t hem t o have f r esh ai r t o br eat he? Do we want a cl ean,saf e envi r onm ent t hey can enj oy and shar e wi t h t hei r ownchi l dr en?Or do we want a f i l t hy, bar r en, concr et e pl anet wi t h not hi ngl ef t of our once gr een and pl easant l and, wher e t r ees ar ej ust som hi ng f ondl y r ecal l ed by t hei r ol d, eccent r i c etgr andpar ent s?The answer i s sur el y obvi ous. Yet i f we al l ow t he si t uat i ont o car r y on as i t i s now, wi t h m ass def or est at i on andover devel opm ent i n t he wor l d’ s m ost f r agi l e envi r onment s,
  • 24. TECHNI CAL AND EMOTI VE LANGUAGE How does t he t echni cal l anguage i n t hi s ext r act f r om an ar t i cl e about cl i m e at hel p t he wr i t er get i nf or m i on acr oss at ef f ect i vel y t o t he r eader ? The Uni t ed Ki ngdom has a t em per at e m i t i m cl i m e, wi t h m ar e at ost l owl and ar eas r ecei vi ng bet ween 500 and 1000m m of annual pr eci pi t at i on. Annual t em per at ur es ar e gener al l y bet ween 5 and 15C, wi t h ur ban ar eas up t o 5C war m er t han r ur al ar eas, due t o t he ur ban heat i sl and ef f ect . The sout h i sInsolation is radiation al so war m er t han t he nor t h, due t o from the sun that heats hi gher l evel s of i nsol at i on. the planet
  • 25. READI NG FOR I NTERPRETATI ON Par t of r eadi ng f or i nt er pr et at i on i s l ook i ng at t he us e of f act s and opi ni ons i n a t ext – whi ch we hav e been l ooki ng at i n pr evi ous l es sons. I t can al so m ean l ooki ng at ot her l anguage choi ces a wr i t er m akes and t hei r ef f ect on t he t ext / r eader . Over t hi s ser i es of l ess ons , we ar e goi ng t o: Be abl e t o i dent i f y di f f er ent l anguage t ec hni ques i n a t ext Dev el op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW wr i t er s us e di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n t hei r wr i t i ng Dev el op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW r eader s ar e af f ect ed by di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n wr i t i ng
  • 26. LANGUAGE TECHNI QUE 5: W TI NG RITO DESCRI BEHow many descr i pt i ve t ec hni ques c an you t hi nk of ?
  • 27. DESCRI PTI VE LANGUAGE Read t he t ext bel ow, t hen answer t he quest i ons i n t he l ovel y col our ed box. From M ori es of Al dport , by Geof f B kl ey em uc I vi s i t ed t he ol d, ghos t l y r ai l way st at i on down t he r oad f r om wher e I gr ew up. The gr ey, r us t y br i dge seem ed t o har bour count l es s m or i es of days gone by – em t he t hunder ous r oar of an appr oachi ng t r ai n echoi ng down t he t r ack l i ke a pr em oni t i on of an al i en i nvas i on. The f act t hat not hi ng pass es under i t any m e adds t oor t he eer i e at m ospher e i t has now, and t he st r ange s ens e of so m any l i v es hav i ng been l i v ed under i t i n t he past . I woul d l i ke t o t ak e a st r ol l al ong i t s f or bi ddi ng, ov er gr own l i nes – but t he com nat i on of bi an unnec ess ar y bar bed wi r e f ence and t he dense,A) st ow does at he w bus hes sur r oundi he rai l ws i dit ngson he y H r angul t i ng ri t er f eel about t ng t he ay s at i sadl m c ri hi s? i m des t bes ake possi bl e.B W ) hat w t i ng t ec hni ques are us ed t o des c ri be t he s t at i on and ri
  • 28. METAPHOR AND SI M LE IWhat i m essi on i s cr eat ed by pr t he f ol l owi ng si m l e? How does i i t cr eat e t hi s i m essi on? pr Jane’ s ef f or t s t o cheer Tom up wer e as f r ui t l ess as t he Sahar a Deser t . How ef f ect i ve i s t he f ol l owi ng m aphor ? Expl ai n your answer . et Hi s f ace was a snowf i el d of f ear .
  • 29. PERSONI FI CATI ON, ALLI TERATI ON AND ONOM ATOPOEI A For each ext r ac t , wr i t e down t he t ec hni que bei ng us ed and say what ef f ect i t cr eat es. • The com put er squawk ed i nt o l i f e bef or e cheer i l y i nf or m ng m I i e had per f or m ed an i l l egal oper at i on. • The t hum ng beat s on of f er at pi t he venue now ar e a di f f er ent wor l d f r om t he Oom pa t unes of ol d.
  • 30. I RONY AND SARCASM Br i ef l y expl ai n each of t he t er ms: a) I r ony b) Sar casm c) Sat i r e W hat i s t he ef f ect of t he wr i t er ’ s sar cas t i c t one i n t hi s ar t i cl e about ext endi ng pub l i censi ng hour s? Of cour se, t he sol ut i on t o bi nge- dr i nki ngI RONY: per f ec t l y cl ear : t we convey d keep i n g t hat i s i s t he use of wor ds o s houl a me a n pubst heopen al tl e day i l s l i t er Thi s a n i n g : ever yone y of her opposi of t ong. al me way, t he i r o nr epl y, l “ How ni ce! ” when he sai d I of beer wor k al l wi l get bor ed of t I i dea had t o andweekend. upA k ni tm i ngwii tnsthat i s m c an pi ctt he e t ak eSARCASM t ead. I ur i t now: tf he young l out s who arer r or i s e our of : or of t t ked by usel anguage tshat li ls sur endedalt lo mur n i tt o eachi m t he but t st r eet wi i nt el y t ake s vi ctof ot her pt or say, cul e you k now what , Jer em cont emand r i di ‘ Do y? Thi s dr i nki ng of ar k our , i r ony,t exagger at i on, orSATI RE: The use l hum j ust i sn’ t he wheez e i t used t o be when we got c l ear ed out byr i di cul e –t o ’ expose i and l cr i consi der i ng e s sti upi di t y or 11pm I m s er ous y t i ci ze peopl m l f e yvi ces. i ons’ . opt
  • 31. READI NG FOR I NTERPRETATI ON Par t of r eadi ng f or i nt er pr et at i on i s l ook i ng at t he us e of f act s and opi ni ons i n a t ext – whi ch we hav e been l ooki ng at i n pr evi ous l es sons. I t can al so m ean l ooki ng at ot her l anguage choi ces a wr i t er m akes and t hei r ef f ect on t he t ext / r eader . Over t hi s ser i es of l ess ons , we ar e goi ng t o: Be abl e t o i dent i f y di f f er ent l anguage t ec hni ques i n a t ext Dev el op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW wr i t er s us e di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n t hei r wr i t i ng Dev el op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW r eader s ar e af f ect ed by di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n wr i t i ng
  • 32. TASK: DESCRI PTI VE W TI NG RI Read Ri char d Br anson’ s account of a hot ai r bal l oon acci dent . Thi s t ext i s a descr i pt i ve account f r om Br anson’ s aut obi ogr aphy. Annot at e t he f eat ur es of descr i pt i ve l anguage used i n t he ar t i cl e. Don’ t f or get t hat sent ence st r uct ur e and punct uat i on can hel p bui l d descr i pt i on.
  • 33. ANSW THESE QUESTI ON I N YOUR BOOK ER1. Look at t he sec ond par agr aph, f i nd and wr i t e down 2 ver bs whi ch show how t he bal l oon l ands. Fi nd and wr i t e down 2 ver bs whi ch show t he m em ov ent of t he m en i n t he bal l oon. What ef f ect does t he wr i t er ’ s use of ver bs cr eat e?2. W ar e ‘ . . . bounc i ng al ong t he t ops of t he wav es l i k e a hy st one, sk i m ed by a gi ant hand. . . ’ and ‘ r i di ng t he wav es m l i k e a bat ht ub t oy ’ ef f ect i ve ways of descr i bi ng. Expl or e eac h i ndi vi dual l y.3. How do you k now t hat Li ndst r and i s f r i ght ened and pani ck i ng?4. I n par agr aph 3, what i s sugges t ed by t he phr ase ‘ sl umped i n a s eat ’ ?5. I n par agr aph 6, How does Ri char d f eel ? How does t he l anguage show t hi s ?6. How does t he l anguage used i n t he f i nal par agr aph show how Ri c har d’ s f eel i ng change as he get s t he bal l oon under cont r ol ?7. ‘ : 75, 100, 200, 500 f eet ’ W hat does t he use of t he col on i ndi cat e? What ef f ec t does t hi s hav e?8. I n t he second par agr aph, why ar e som of t he sent ences i n e t hi s par agr aph i n i t al i c s? What i s t he ef f ect of t hi s?
  • 34. An ext r act f r om an account of Ri char d Br anson and Per Li ndst r and’ s f at edat t empt t o br eak t he wor l d r ecor d f or a l ong- di st ance bal l oon f l i ght .W hast i l y consi der ed our di f f i cul t si t uat i on. e W nd speed was m i uch hi ghert han we had expect ed, and i f i t car r i ed on i n t he sam di r ect i on, we coul d be eswept m l es of f t he coast by t he t i m dar kness f el l . i e A gr ound l andi ng wasm uch t oo unpr edi ct abl e. I nst ead, we wer e at t em i ng t o br i ng t he bal l oon ptdown now, on a beach i f possi bl e, or near one. Li ndst r and began br i ngi ng i tdown. W had r ehear sed t he pr ocedur e f or such a l andi ng count l ess t i m e es i nour heads. Li ndst r and woul d push t he t wo r ed i gni t i on but t ons t o f i r e t heexpl osi ve bol t s and r el ease t he bal l oon f r om t he capsul e. I f t he bal l oonr em ned at t ached t o t he capsul e, i t woul d ei t her dr ag i t uncont r ol l abl y aiacr oss t he sea or t ur n t he capsul e i nt o a subm i ne, dr aggi ng i t bel ow t he arwaves wi t h i t s wei ght , and al m ost cer t ai nl y dr owni ng t he bot h of us. I f al lwent t o pl an, however , t he bal l oon woul d be r el eased, l eavi ng t he capsul e t of l oat saf el y on t he wat er unt i l we coul d be col l ect ed.The capsul e bounced on t he wat er wi t h a r esoundi ng t hum p, shaki ng us bot h.Li ndst r and punched f r ant i cal l y at t he i gni t i on but t ons f or t he expl osi vebol t s. “ The y ha v e n ’ t g o n e o f f ! Ge t o u t , Ri c ha r d ! Ge t o u t ! ” Li ndst r andpr i sed of f t he canopy, and cl am ber ed ont o t he t op of t he capsul e, wi t h m ecl ose on hi s heal s. The capsul e was ski ddi ng and bounci ng al ong t he t ops oft he waves l i ke a st one, ski m ed by a gi ant hand, t he bal l oon f l appi ng and mbi l l owi ng ahead. Then Li ndst r and was shout i ng, “ Ju mp , Ri c ha r d , f o r g o o d n e s ss a k e , j u mp ! ” – and Li ndst r and was gone. I was al one!I pul l ed m ysel f t o t he edge of t he r ai l , wher e Li ndst r and had been j ustm ent s bef or e, and l ooked down. om The bal l oon was r i si ng upwar ds l i ke anexpr ess el evat or : 75, 100, 200, 500 f eet above t he wat er . I t was t oo l at e t oj um now. p Looki ng down ont o t he gr ey wat er I coul d see no si gn ofLi ndst r and. I cl amber ed back t hr ough t he r oof i nt o t he capsul e, sl um ped i n aseat , and t ugged at t he handl e of t he bur ner s t o gi ve m ysel f t i m t e o t hi nk.The bal l oon was ascendi ng at what seem ed t o be an ast oundi ng r at e, i nt o t hi ck
  • 35. Above m t he bur ner s gave of f a t hi n and wat er y l i ght . e I was f i ndi ng i t har d t obr eat he. I had r i sen m uch f ur t her and f ast er t han I had or i gi nal l y t hought . Ipul l ed t he oxygen m ask on and t ook sever al deep br eat hs t o cal m m ysel f down.“ Thi nk, Ri char d, t hi nk! ” I coul d par achut e out .I st r apped on m par achut e and y l i f er af t and cl am ber ed back ont o t he r oof of t hecapsul e. W t hi s goi ng t o be as i t ? For a f l eet i ng m ent , I bel i eved I was omabout t o di e. I pul l ed mysel f back i nt o t he capsul e, f ound a penci l and paperand scr i bbl ed a not e t o m f am y i l y. “ I l ove you. ” Then I cl am ber ed back outagai n.The m al on t he capsul e r oof was f r eezi ng col d and dam t o t he t ouch. et p Ishi ver ed. I f el t ver y, ver y al one. Peer i ng over t he edge I coul d see onl yt hi ck m st . i I t was i m possi bl e t o t el l whet her I was over l and or wat er , but It hought t hat som ewher e I coul d hear t he chat t er of hel i copt er r ot or bl ades. Idi d not want t o j um p. A f eel i ng of nausea cam i nt o m t hr oat . e y I had t o j ump.But wai t . Supposi ng I j um ped, l anded i n wat er , and wasn’ t seen. W dn’ t oulever ybody assum t hat I and Per wer e st i l l i n t he bal l oon? Nobody woul d be el ooki ng f or m i n t he sea. e Per woul d dr own, i f he hadn’ t dr own al r eady! Iwoul d dr own t oo. It m ade m e sense t o st ay i n t he bal l oon; t hat i s what t he orr escue ser vi ces woul d be wat chi ng out f or . I m ust br i ng t he bal l oon downm ysel f , t hen I coul d t el l t hem wher e t o l ook f or Per ; t hen we woul d bot h besaf e.Shi ver i ng, I pul l ed m ysel f back i nsi de t he capsul e. How l ong had I been up her eby m ysel f ? Ten m nut es? Twent y? I t seem i ed l i ke an hour . I set t l ed mysel fi nt o m seat . y I was br eat hi ng m e evenl y now, t uggi ng at t he l ever s whi ch orcont r ol l ed t he bur ner s, vent i ng t he bal l oon. Ever yt hi ng accor di ng t o pr ocedur e. The bal l oon was descendi ng sl owl y now; t he cl oud t hi nni ng. And t hen i t was
  • 36. NOW TRY W TI NG A RESPONSE TO RITHI S QUESTI ON: How does t hi s ext r ac t c onv ey t he em i ons of t hi s ot bal l ooni ng event ? I n your ans wer , wr i t e about t he l anguage us ed by t he w t er. ri
  • 37. READI NG FOR I NTERPRETATI ON Part of reading for interpretation is looking at the use of facts and opinions in a text – which we have been looking at in previous lessons. It can also mean looking at other language choices a writer makes and their effect on the text/reader. Over this series of lessons, we are going to: Be able to identify different language techniques in a text Develop our ability to explore HOW writers use different language techniques in their writing Develop our ability to explore HOW readers are affected by different language techniques in writing
  • 38. LANGUAGE TECHNIQUE 6: WRITINGTO ADVISE
  • 39. LANGUAGE TECHNIQUE 7: WRITINGTO REVIEW
  • 40. LANGUAGE Language use can be l i nked t o audi ence and/ or pur pose and/ or f or m and/ or t one. So you need t o i dent i f y pur pose, audi ence, f or m and t one bef or e you can answer successf ul l y expl or e t he l anguage use. Hi ghl i ght t he l anguage f eat ur es i n a t ext bef or e you wr i t e a r esponse t o a l anguage quest i on. Then choose t he best 3- 4 f eat ur es t o wr i t e about . Your answer m ust expl or e speci f i c l anguage use i n det ai l – l i st i ng t he f eat ur es i n a t ext won’ t get you ver y m any m ks. ar Your answer m ust f ocus on speci f i c wor ds and phr ases, t hen com ent on t hei r ef f ect m – gener al com ent s about t he use of , f or m exam e, al l r het or i cal quest i ons m pl aki ng t he r eader t hi nk, won’ t get you ver y m any
  • 41. READI NG FOR I NTERPRETATI ON Par t of r eadi ng f or i nt er pr et at i on i s l ooki ng at t he use of f act s and opi ni ons i n a t ext – whi ch we have been l ooki ng at i n pr evi ous l essons. I t can al so m ean l ooki ng at ot her l anguage choi ces a wr i t er m akes and t hei r ef f ect on t he t ext / r eader . Over t hi s ser i es of l essons, we have l ear nt t o: Be abl e t o i dent i f y di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n a t ext Devel op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW wr i t er s use di f f er ent l anguage t echni ques i n t hei r wr i t i ng Devel op our abi l i t y t o expl or e HOW r eader s ar e af f ect ed by di f f er ent l anguage
  • 42. LANGUAGE TECHNI QUE 8: PUNCTUATI ON For each of t he sent ences bel ow expl ai n what ef f ect t he di f f er ent punct uat i on has: The pr obl em had been ongoi ng t he s whol e t r i p: r ai n, m ssi ng t ent pol es, i no m ches. . . and now, 60 m at ph wi nds!W hat wer e t hey t o do? W d t he bear oul get bor ed and l eave? W d i t go t o oul sl eep? Or woul d i t si m y st ay wher e pl i t was, wai t i ng f or t hem ? The cause of t he pr obl em was cl ear l y t he chi l dr en; t he gi r l s wer e al ways chat t er i ng and pl ayi ng wi t h t hei r m obi l e phones.
  • 43. LANGUAGE FEATURES R EM ER TH ALW EM B EY AYS LIN TO: P P K UR OSE, AUDIENCE, FOR AN M TONE Fact s and Opi ni ons Bi as Em i ve wor ds, m ot aki ng t he r eader f eel posi t i ve or negat i ve or sad or . . . about t he subj ect of t he t ext Evi dence / qual i f i cat i on l i ke anecdot es, st at i st i cs. . . Per suasi ve t echni ques l i ke r het or i cal quest i ons, t hr ee poi nt l i st s, count er ar gum ent s, r epet i t i on . . . Descr i pt i ve t echni ques l i ke si m l es, m aphor , onom opoei a. . . i et at Adj ect i ves, adver bs and super l at i ves W ds al l l i nked t o t he sam subj ect ( sem or e ant i c f i el d) Techni cal vocab Im per at i ve ver bs t o com and m Di r ect and i ndi r ect speech Punc t uat i on ( don’ t f orget t hi s ) Regi st er : l evel of f or m i t y i . e. Use of al com ex wor ds or pl col l oqui al i sm St r uct ur e – t he or der of t he poi nt s, t he evi dence pr ovi ded, concl usi on. . . Sent ence use i . e. Use of si m e sent ences t o em pl phasi se or com ex t o pl add descr i pt i on. . .Denot at i on and c onnot at i on:Denot at i on: what i s t he l anguage use?Connot at i on: what t he l anguage m akes t he r eader t hi nk or f eel . Theconnot at i ons of a l anguage f eat ur e m ay hel p you t o expl ai n i t ’ s use i nt he t ext and t hi s i s wher e al l t he m ks ar e. ar
  • 44. THE EXAM – QUESTI ON 2B Ques t i on 2( b) , i s a ‘ H ? ’ ques t i on. ow It i s al l oc at ed 14 m arks and a page and a hal f t o ans w er i t . You s houl d s pend about 20 m nut es on i t . i The ques t i on w l l f oc us on how t he t ext i us es i nf orm i on and l anguage t o at c om uni c at e i t s s ubj ec t - m t er. m at Suc c es s f ul ans w ers w l l i nc l ude bri ef , i ac c urat e quot at i ons and prec i s e anal yt i c al c om ent on s pec i f i c l anguage m c hoi c es . General i s ed c om ent about l anguage and m s pot t i ng of devi c es or l i s t i ng of
  • 45. W TI NG ABOUT LANGUAGE RIYOU SHOULD LOOK FOR THE W AYS A W TER USES RILANGUAGE I N ANY M EDI A/ NONFI CTI ON TEXT.  WORD BANK STEP 1: I dent i f y t he pur pos e, audi ence, f or m and t one of t he t ex t . To sound thoughtful: STEP 2: Annot at e t he l anguage f eat ur es as you can f i nd i n t he t ex t . STEP 3: Sel ect 3 or show analysis:t o wr i t e about . To 4 f eat ur e STEP 4:  W i t e 3 or 4 par agr aphs – par agr aphs gi v es a c l ear r s t r uct ur e f or t he mTokcontinue your point: ar er t o see.  Li nk each poi nt t o t he m essage/ audi ence/ at t i t ude/ f eel i ngs/ pur pos e/ . M ake sur e evi denc e i s pr ov i ded wher e poss i bl e.TI P: Rat her t han st at i ng your expl anat i on as a f act , use m odal i t y t o expr ess unc er t ai nt y: ‘ It c oul d/may/m ght be t hat /m i akes m t hi nk/s ugges t s ’ . e Thi s wi l l m ake you sound consi der ed and t hought f ul .Rem ber t o use wor ds whi ch show anal ysi s, l i ke: ems ugges t s , i m i es , gi ves us t he i m pl pres s i on t hat ,s how , hi ghl i ght s , i ndi c at es . . . sI f you want t o m ake t he sam poi nt usi ng a di f f er ent eexam e, use: f urt hers , em pl phas i s es , rei nf orc es . . .
  • 46. TRY THI S ASSESSMENT STYLEQUESTI ON:I t hi nk I ’ ve caught one M k Cur r i e’ s shar k at t ack st or y m ar akes an exci t i ngnewspaper ar t i cl e. Expl ai n how t he newspaper r epor t er t el l s t he st or y i n a way t hat keeps t he r eader on t he edge of t hei r seat . I n your answer you shoul d wr i t e about : How he shows t he danger M k was i n ar The wor ds and phr ases he uses Rem ber t o use t he P em EEEEL st r uct ur e t o suppor t your answer f ul l y. Let ’ s br eak i t
  • 47. I THI NK I ’ VE CAUGHT ONE Som det ai l s and em i ons i n a t ext ar e e ot not m ade expl i ci t t o t he r eader . They ar e l ef t f or us t o i nf er and deduce. W can do e t hi s by l ooki ng at t he l anguage a wr i t er uses t o t el l t hei r st or y. I n t he openi ng sect i on of t he ar t i cl e ( up t o ‘ l i ke an ant i n a j ar ’ ) , t he wr i t er bui l ds t he dr am a, descr i bi ng t he m ost dr am i c par t s of M k’ s st or y. at ar Under l i ne al l of t he wor ds whi ch ar e used to m ake t he r eader f eel exci t ed about t he st or y. I dent i f y t hree of t he wor ds t he wr i t er uses t o cr eat e t he exci t em ent , and br i ef l y expl ai n t he ef f ect of t he each wor d on t he r eader ( annot at e besi de t hem . )
  • 48. The r est of t he ar t i cl e i s adet ai l ed descr i pt i on of t heshar k at t ack. I dent i f y wor dsand phr ases, f r om t he f ourt hparagraph t o t he sevent h, t hatt he wr i t er uses t o cr eat e asense of how t er r i f yi ng t heevent s wer e, and br i ef l yexpl ai n t he ef f ect of 2 of t hewor ds on t he r eader ( asdet ai l ed annot at i ons) .
  • 49. A t ext can be anal ysed i n par t s.However , a t ext i s desi gned t o be r eadas a whol e. To be a good, anal yt i calr eader you need t o al so be abl e t ol ook at t he overal l ef f ec t a t ext hason t he r eader .Thi nk about t hi s newspaper ar t i cl e.What does t he r eader f eel by t he endof i t ? How do we f eel about t heevent s we’ ve r ead about and t he m anwhose st or y i t i s?
  • 50. NOW ANSW THE QUESTI ON: ERI t hi nk I ’ ve caught one M k Cur r i e’ s shar k at t ack st or y m ar akes an exci t i ngnewspaper ar t i cl e. Expl ai n how t he newspaper r epor t er t el l s t he st or y i n a way t hat keeps t he r eader on t he edge of t hei r seat . I n your answer you shoul d wr i t e about : How he shows t he danger M k was i n ar The wor ds and phr ases he uses Rem ber t o use t he P em EEEEL st r uct ur e t o suppor t your answer f ul l y.
  • 51. 14- 12 marks A good r ange of poi nt s secur e under st andi ng of showi ng a t he ways i n 2B MARK SCHEME whi ch i nf or m i on and l at anguage cont r i but e t o t he t ext ’ s pur pose 7- 6 marks Car ef ul suppor t i ng r ef er ences and  A l i t t l e evi dence t hat t he t ask has som anal yt i cal com ent e m been under st ood Sound awar eness of t ext and t ask  Poi nt s l i kel y t o concent r at e on11- 10 marks si m er i nf or m i on and basi c pl at Task has been addr essed f or t he m n ai l anguage f eat ur es par t  Asser t i ons pr edom nat e, wi t h m ni m i i al A r ange of poi nt s showi ng a sound or no t ext ual evi dence i n suppor t under st andi ng of t he ways i n whi ch 5- 4 marks i nf or m i on and l anguage cont r i but e at  Consi der abl e m sunder st andi ng of t he i t o t he t ext ’ s pur pose passage and/ or t ask Appr opr i at e suppor t i ng r ef er ences and  Som si m e descr i pt i ve poi nt s e pl an at t em pt at an anal yt i cal appr oach  M uch i ndi scr i m nat e r e- t el l i ng of i9- 8 marks t he cont ent , or par aphr ase Som f ocus on t he t ask e 3- 2 marks Easi er i nf or m i on poi nt s t oget her at  Al most com et e m sunder st andi ng of pl i show som under st andi ng of t he t ext ’ s e passage and t ask pur pose  Onl y gl anci ng r ef er ences t o t he t ask Com ent s t end t o be descr i pt i ve m r at her t han anal yt i cal , and  M ay consi st ent i r el y of r ef er ences may be i ner t i ndi scr i m nat e r e- t el l i ng, wi t hout i expl anat i on or com entm
  • 52. MODEL RESPONSES
  • 53. THE ARTI CLE ENCOURAGES YOU TO Foundation SUPPORT TONY ALLAN’ S VI EW ON W S ATER SHORTAGE. How does t he l anguage i n t he ar t i cl e hel p t o do t hi s?  I n your answer you shoul d r ef er are o: looking What t we • I nf or m i on i n t he l eaf l et at? at Spend about 25 minutes on this question • Som of t he wor ds and phr ases eREM BER: EM ( 14 m ks) ar I dent i f y t he pur pose, audi ence and f or m W hat i s t he wr i t er wr i t i ng about ? How does he f eel about i t ? What ar e hi s t hought s on i t ? How does he want t he r eader t o f eel ? I dent i f y t he t one. On t he f oundat i on paper t he quest i on wi l l som i m et es hel p you wi t h t hi s. Go over t he t ext agai n and annot at e:  Use of wor ds or phr ases t hat r ef l ect t he t one t o t he audi ence.  Look f or t he bal ance of f act and opi ni on and, i f i t i s a si gni f i cant f eat ur e of t he l anguage use, hi ghl i ght sever al good exam e of each. pl  Next – havi ng i dent i f i ed t he pur pose – l ook f or t he f eat ur es t ypi cal t o t hi s t ype of wr i t i ng e. g. r het or i cal devi ces i n ar gument at i ve wr i t i ng. Choose at l east 3- 4 t hi ngs poi nt s t o answer t he quest i on. W i t i ng i n cl ear par agr aphs, answer t he quest i on usi ng evi dence f r om t he r
  • 54. 14- 12 marks A good r ange of poi nt s secur e under st andi ng of showi ng a t he ways i n 2B MARK SCHEME whi ch i nf or m i on and l at anguage cont r i but e t o t he t ext ’ s pur pose 7- 6 marks Car ef ul suppor t i ng r ef er ences and  A l i t t l e evi dence t hat t he t ask has som anal yt i cal com ent e m been under st ood Sound awar eness of t ext and t ask  Poi nt s l i kel y t o concent r at e on11- 10 marks si m er i nf or m i on and basi c pl at Task has been addr essed f or t he m n ai l anguage f eat ur es par t  Asser t i ons pr edom nat e, wi t h m ni m i i al A r ange of poi nt s showi ng a sound or no t ext ual evi dence i n suppor t under st andi ng of t he ways i n whi ch 5- 4 marks i nf or m i on and l anguage cont r i but e at  Consi der abl e m sunder st andi ng of t he i t o t he t ext ’ s pur pose passage and/ or t ask Appr opr i at e suppor t i ng r ef er ences and  Som si m e descr i pt i ve poi nt s e pl an at t em pt at an anal yt i cal appr oach  M uch i ndi scr i m nat e r e- t el l i ng of i9- 8 marks t he cont ent , or par aphr ase Som f ocus on t he t ask e 3- 2 marks Easi er i nf or m i on poi nt s t oget her at  Al most com et e m sunder st andi ng of pl i show som under st andi ng of t he t ext ’ s e passage and t ask pur pose  Onl y gl anci ng r ef er ences t o t he t ask Com ent s t end t o be descr i pt i ve m r at her t han anal yt i cal , and  M ay consi st ent i r el y of r ef er ences may be i ner t i ndi scr i m nat e r e- t el l i ng, wi t hout i expl anat i on or com entm
  • 55. MODEL ANSWER: I n Tony Al l an’ s newspaper ar t i cl e he ar gues t he ‘ wor l d i s not dr yi ng up’ and t hat t her e i sn’ t a need i n t he m oder n day f or poor er nat i ons t o have i nsuf f i ci ent wat er . He expr esses t hi s opi ni on i n hi s openi ng usi ng a l i st of t hr ee ef f ect s of wat er shor t age t hat he see’ s as unnecessar y: ‘ f i ght s wi t h nat i ons’ over wat er ; ‘ dyi ng f or want of cl ean wat er ’ ; and ‘ dr ought s t o cause m ass st ar vat i on’ . Thi s r het or i cal devi ce of l i st i ng i n t hr ee has a per suasi ve ef f ect on hi s ar gum ent – m aki ng i t seem t hat t her e ar e m any ef f ect s of l ack of wat er . The l anguage of t hese opi ni ons i s al so em i ve; he uses em i ve adj ect i ves i n, ‘ poor est ot ot peopl e’ and ‘ m ass st ar vat i on’ . These adj ect i ves wor k t o m ake t he r eader f eel a sense of suf f er i ng and Al l an i s per haps ai m ng t o m i ake t he r eader f eel pi t y. Thi s f eel i ng wi l l t hen per haps m ake t he r eader m e suppor t i ve of Al l an’ s bi ased ar gum or ent . Tony Al l an goes on t o cont r ast t he wat er usage of , as he cl asses t hem ‘ t he r i ch’ . , Thi s use of a col l ect i ve noun t o descr i be any count r y wher e wat er shor t age i s not l i f e t hr eat eni ng r ef l ect s Al l an’ s f eel i ngs t hat t her e i s a di vi de i n r i ch and poor t hat needs t o be br i dged. He gi ves t wo exam es t o suppor t hi s ar gum pl ent t hat t he r i ch do not have t o st r uggl e f or wat er i n: ‘ gar dener s i n Ham pshi r e or Cal i f or ni an homeowner s wi t h pool s t o f i l l ’ . These exam es i l l ust r at e t o t he r eader t he wat er t hat we per haps t ake f or pl gr ant ed. I n t al ki ng about t hese ‘ r i ch’ peopl e he r epeat ed uses t he pr onoun ‘ t hei r ’ and ‘ t hey’ separ at i ng hi m sel f f r om t he peopl e he sees as wast er s of wat er and r ef l ect i ng hi s f eel i ngs on t he
  • 56. I n t he f i nal sect i on of t he ar t i cl e, Al l ani nt r oduces som f act s i nt o hi s pr evi ousl y eopi ni onat ed ar gum ent . He poi nt s out how ‘ about onei n si x . . . do not have a saf e and secur e wat ersuppl y’ . Thi s f act i s used t o suppor t hi s t hought sabout wat er pover t y and has t he ef f ect of shocki ngt he r eader , a r eact i on t hat wi l l no doubt encour agesym pat hy wi t h Al l an’ s ar gument .The t one of t he ar t i cl e i s one of concer n andout r age at t he econom c and wat er pover t y t hat iexi st s. Thi s t one i s car r i ed t hr ough t he ar t i cl eby wor ds such as ‘ cat ast r ophi c’ and ‘ sel f i sh’ wi t har e em i ve i n cr eat i ng a sense of negat i vi t y i n ott he r eader .Tony Al l an cl ear l y f eel s st r ongl y t hat wat er i ssom hi ng ever yone shoul d have access t o and even eti n hi s t i t l e uses t he i r oni c ‘ wat er , wat erever ywher e’ t o hi ghl i ght what he f eel s i s t he
  • 57. LANGUAGE TECHNIQUE 6: TABLOIDNEWSPAPER LANGUAGE – PUNS, BIAS ANDCOLLOQUIALISMS TUBBY TEDDY’S “INBRED” GAG IS NO LAUGHING MATTER Fill in the table below using examples from the tabloidPortly TV funny man Ted Chance has newspaper article:outraged residents of Greenford by ignorantlyslamming them all as “imbred yokels who Language Examplethink gurning is great entertainment”. TypeHe made the offensive quip at a comedyfestival last week and has left the townfuming. Locals have since made it clear Biasthere’s fat Chance Ted will be welcome in thetown from now on. EmotiveLocal man Paul Drake launched a stingingattack on Chance’s comments, saying “Theman’s just shown how ignorant he is. He Slangshould stop and think before he opens his bigfat mouth.” NicknamesThe ‘Cheeky Chancer” tried to defend his gagyesterday, claiming it was tongue-in-cheek.He retorted: “I don’t think anyone would have Punsthought twice about it if they hadn’t been sotouchy.”
  • 58. Reading for interpretation: Writing to ArgueOne writer may argue in favour of banning violent films on TV. Another may argue that all children should stay in school until the age of 17. Yet anothermay argue that all cigarette advertising should be banned.An ARGUMENT is a series of reasons or points presented to support a particular point of view.Argumentative Writing1. STRUCTURE – a series of reasons/points This is called2. EVIDENCE – back up each reason with evidence. QUALIFICATION3. EXAMPLES – use examples to further support your reasons4. CONVINCING LANGAUGE – how are you going to make it sound like a good argument? What words or phrases will you use to impress or convince the reader?5. AUDIENCE – make sure that you clearly aim the argument at the correct reader6. COHESION – use connectives and topic sentences to signpost for the reader and logically lead them through your argumentQualificationOnce you have identified the central points that the writer is making, you then need to understand how they try to support them. Writers will use a varietyof techniques to qualify and explore the main idea that are proposed in the topic sentences of their text.Rhetorical Questions TASK 1:These are questions to which no answer is required. They are often used Reread the newspaper article: Should cannabis now be legalised?for dramatic effect and to draw the reader in. Label at least two examples of: •Rhetorical questionAnecdotal evidence •FactThis is personal evidence, usually in the form of a short account of an •Opinionincident (an anecdote), that is used to support a point. •Anecdote •GeneralisationFacts •Counter ArgumentWriters may refer to facts to support the points they make. Convincing Language How are you going to make it sound like a good argument?Opinions What words or phrases will you use to impress or convince the reader?It’s important to recognise that an argument is almost always based onopinion and the writer’s interpretation of the ‘facts’ Writing to argue and persuade share a set of Rhetorical Devices that writers can use to make their point more persuasive.GeneralisationsPersonal experience or facts are used to form general conclusions When reading to interpret you should be looking out for these and HOW they are used in the text to support the text’s purpose or get a reaction from the reader.Counter ArgumentWriters may present a view which is an alternative to their own and then Turn over for the complete list of rhetorical devices.say something to ‘counter’ or go against it.
  • 59. LANGUAGEWHICH LINGUISTIC DEVICE IS BEING USED IN EACHOF THESE EXAMPLES? HOW IS THE PURPOSE ANDAUDIENCE SUPPORTED BY THESE DEVICES?You’re feeling a bit frustrated A highly effective dermatologicalat the mo’, ‘cause there’s lots shampoo containing salicylicof stuff you wanna get done acid and piroctone olamine.and you don’t seem be Can be used up to four times amaking much progress. week, What is happening to It is an outrage to leave Britain? One man is stabbed vulnerable kids like these out on for wearing a Rolex. One girl the streets, a prey to the cruelty of is shot for texting on her the winter weather and to every mobile. One gran is battered unsavoury character who offers for the pennies in her purse. them ‘help’. And no one seems to care. As soon as I walked into the house, the squalid, unhygienic conditions were impossible to ignore.

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