1. Reading for interpretationPresentational Features
2. Describe the picture below to the person sitting back toback with you so that they can draw a perfect version of it.
3. Now swap and try this one. Think about describingeverything: the image, the text, the layout, the font, the colour...
4. Question 2a This question relates to the second text• Question 2(a) is worth 6 marks and focuses on presentational features of the text.• This is a ‘How?’ question so analysis is needed, linking the presentational features to the purpose, audience and tone.• The question will direct you to comment on the effect of specific features.• You are given just short of a page to answer this question.• Examiners are looking to reward evidence of the ability to analyse. Generic answers about the size of font or the colourfulness of pictures will not score highly. You need to identify specific items (e.g. a title or caption) and go on to analyse their precise effects.
5. The connotations of a Presentational Devices presentational or layout feature may help you to explain it’s use in the text. Appearance is often an important factor in the success of a text. There is a range of PRESENTATIONAL DEVICES that writers and designers can use to give a text more visual impact. List as many presentational devices as Illustrations, including Bullet points Logos and slogan photographs and you can. What does each add to a text? drawings Captions Charts and diagramsHeadlines A range of fonts, styles, Subheadings Colours sizes and effects
6. What are presentational devices of layout and design?• Images • Font style and size• Captions • Colour• Diagrams • Balance of text to• Labels image• Headings • Layout of page• Subheadings • Shape of text• Bullet points • Logo• Text boxesThe connotations of a presentational or layout featuremay help you to explain it’s use in the text.
7. There are three main reasons for using presentational devices: mood, memory, clarity.Mood A piece of writing will always try to express feelings. The mood created could be fun and excitement (eg in a brochure for a theme park) or perhaps fear and concern (eg in an advice sheet about road safety). The feelings should always be in tune with the target audience. Devices to look out for in mood:• Pictures• Fonts• Colour Clarity Most non-fiction texts are written for people in• Quotes a hurry, so it is important that the purpose and audience of a text is clear. This will make theMemory right people pick it up and read it. TheIf the main purpose of a piece of non-fiction information within the text also needs to bewriting is to inform, then it is important that clearly presented otherwise people will stopreaders find and remember key bits of reading.information. These can include website addresses Devices to look out for to aid clarity:or phone numbers, advice or statistics. •Bold textDevices to look out for that are used to aid •Bullet pointsmemory: •Sub-headings•Bold text •Paragraphs•Headlines and sub headings •Colour•Bullet points •Images and captions•Diagrams, maps and illustrations •Quotes
8. Representation, Denotation and ConnotationEvery time we encounter a media text, we are notseeing reality, but someone’s version of it.So, we need to think about how the writer wants us tosee and read their work.
9. What do you think of when you see...? Americans
10. Representation Stereotypes are a type of representation. A stereotype is a simplification of a person or a group of people. For example: Blonds = not very clever but are glamorous and girly. What stereotypes do we have about:• The Scottish• Women drivers
11. Denotation and Connotation DENOTATION: the common sense descriptive level of meaning in an image or sound. CONNOTATION: the secondary level of meaning by which images and sounds are interpreted. CONNOTATION:DENOTATION: Red roses areA red flower, associated with loveconsisting of petals, – handing someonea green stem and a red rose couldseveral thorns. symbolise your love for them. A Red Rose
12. Try to complete the following grid: Image Denotation Connotation
13. Let’s look again at this advertisement. Which presentational devices can we see? How are the presentational devices supporting the purpose, audience and tone?
14. Purpose and Audience Remember, the first two things writers need to consider when they start to write are: • Purpose- why am I writing this? What do I want to achieve? How am I going to achieve this? • Audience- Who am I writing this for? Is anyone else likely to read it? How can I get my readers’ attention?When you are reading a text you need to: Identify the intended purpose(s) and audience(s) Assess how successful the writer has been in targeting these
15. TASKS1. Make a list of 5 points which explain why and when writers might use charts and diagrams2. Add 4 more slogans to the table below: Logo/Slogan Associated What it suggests with Olympic games Unity – working together – shared interests3. Look at the headlines below. Which one – uses a rhetorical question; uses alliteration; is made to sound dramatic; uses a play on words (pun)? Add this to the table, with the effect.Headline Techniques EffectI thought we would never get out aliveWho will trust the spin doctors now?Dyeing for a Boy-band-binge weekendUnited’s double act shatters sorry Spurs
16. Presentation and Layout Look at the charity leaflet.1. How do the illustrations: • Link to the writing • Provide information in a visual form • Add interest to the text?2. Who do you think the designer chose those colours for? What impact do they have?3. How are the headings used in the text?
17. (a) Explain how the following contribute to the effect of the leaflet on the reader:6 marks = 9 minutes •The headings •The images
18. Evaluate the effect of these presentational devices.You will need to refer to the purpose, audience and form of the text to fully evaluate them. 1. A graph in a Telegraph newspaper article on global warming. 2. A green background on a leaflet encouraging students to recycle. 3. An image of a puppy looking sad and scraggly on a RSPCA poster placed at bustops. 4. A caption below a picture of a footballer in a tabloid newspaper which reads ‘Beckham’s Fury Fopar’.
19. What does a 6 mark answer look like?
20. CRITERIA The Mark CriteriaCandidates should demonstrate that they can:• Explain and evaluate how writers use presentational features to achieve effects and engage and influence the reader (AO2 iii).Higher Band responses [Bands 4 and above] are likely both to identify the headingand pictures and to make reasonably sustained comments about the effects on thereader. At the top end there will be clear evidence that specific effects of thesepresentational features are being analysed rather than described or merely listed.Middle Band responses [Bands 5 and 6] are likely to be characterised by a generalawareness of the effects of the heading and pictures, and by a descriptive rather thananalytical approach. Examples at this level may be simply listed and amount to little morethan feature-spotting, with some basic and generalised comment.Lower Band responses [Bands 7 and below] are likely to show only a basicunderstanding of the effects of the heading and pictures. Comments on presentationare likely to be basic and generalised, at the level of spotting more obvious features suchas use of large fonts and colourful pictures.
21. Explore how Mhairi Aitken’s experience in‘Tales from the Bush’ is reflected in the:*Headline*Images 6 marks 6 marks = 9 minutes
22. Model ResponseAitken’s experience is one that has a happy ending and this is reflected inthe presentational devices used throughout the article. The text isaccompanied by a headline: ‘The Bear Essentials’ a playful pun on the word‘bear’ and ‘bare’. This tells the reader that the story contained in the articlemay be a light-hearted one – certainly it doesn’t suggest a tragic tale.The article also uses colour and image to give the same cheery impression.The images are bright, sunny pictures of the forest and of a bear – who ispictured in a non-threatening pose, facing away from the camera andobscured by ferns. The colours, greens and sky blues, all have positiveconnotations of a pleasant walk in the woods and give the reader theimpression the article that follows is of the same sunny tone. The picturesare accompanied by captions which add to the light-hearted feel of the text:‘If you go down to the woods...’ being a line from a children’s nursery rhymeand ‘So, how close does a bear...?’ a rhetorical question which gives thereader something to think about and with it’s conversation tone from the ‘so’it also seems jovial. Even the picture of Aitken’s herself with the by-line is abright, cheerful picture in which she is smiling. All these presentationalfeatures work together to present the article as a light-hearted entertainingread.
23. Avoiding the generic In order to analyse and explore a text in detail, and reach those higher bands, you have got to avoid those awful generic phrases: this is effective... this draws the reader in... It is powerful... Instead think about:• This draws the reader in = it creates a friendly tone/ excitement/ shock/mystery/tension BY ...• It is powerful = technique X makes the reader feel.../causes the reader to feel...• This is effective = the effect of X is to make the writer’s point.../ is to make the reader feel.../ is to highlight the...
24. Reading for interpretation Presentation and layout The exam question will ask you about the EFFECT of two specified presentational features STEP 1: What is the P.A.F.T. of the text? STEP 2: Read the question and identify the features you are being asked about. STEP 3:Using paragraphs to give a clear structure for the marker, write about each feature linking the features to their effect on the purpose, audience, form or tone of the text. Higher level responses consider effectiveness of the feature on the target audience. TIP: Rather than stating your explanation as a fact, use modality to express uncertainty: ‘It could/may/might be that/makes me think/suggests’. This will make you sound considered and thoughtful. Try it with the next text: How does the text use presentation and layout to persuade people to train as teachers?
25. Explain how the images and thetitles contribute to the purpose of the World Vision leaflet. 6 marks 6 marks = 9 minutes
26. CRITERIA The Mark CriteriaCandidates should demonstrate that they can:• Explain and evaluate how writers use presentational features to achieve effects and engage and influence the reader (AO2 iii).Higher Band responses [Bands 4 and above] are likely both to identify the headingand pictures and to make reasonably sustained comments about the effects on thereader. At the top end there will be clear evidence that specific effects of thesepresentational features are being analysed rather than described or merely listed.Middle Band responses [Bands 5 and 6] are likely to be characterised by a generalawareness of the effects of the heading and pictures, and by a descriptive rather thananalytical approach. Examples at this level may be simply listed and amount to little morethan feature-spotting, with some basic and generalised comment.Lower Band responses [Bands 7 and below] are likely to show only a basicunderstanding of the effects of the heading and pictures. Comments on presentationare likely to be basic and generalised, at the level of spotting more obvious features suchas use of large fonts and colourful pictures.
27. Peer Assessment We are not making writing in Section A unless the expression is so bad that it impedes communication and is effectively self-penalising.• Indicate by the letter P in the text each presentation point clearly made.• Put a bracket round the letter P if a point has not been made clearly.• If a point has been repeated, use a capital R.• Tick explanatory/analytical comments. This will help to determine the extent of any analytical comment when making judgements about the relevant band in which to place an answer.• Use the band descriptors in conjunction with the standardisation scripts to arrive at your mark but do not reward mark per point in this question.• Write a brief comment at the end of the answer to explain your mark, include a ‘wish’ for something they could do next time.
28. Question 2aMARK DESCRIPTOR 6 •Clear and reasonably sustained analytical response •Use of well-selected detail for support 5 •Some evidence of analytical comment •Use of some appropriate details for support 4 •Begins to develop a response; mainly descriptive •Reference to some relevant detail 3 •Some relevant comment •Reference to a little detail 2 •Straightforward points •Features merely identified 1 •Simple points •Little, if any, specific detail
29. Model Response ParagraphExplain how the images and the titles contribute to the purpose of the World Vision leaflet. The ‘Thirsty’ leaflet is a persuasive text which seeks to encourage adults between the ages of 30 and 60 to make a donation to the World Vision charity. One way this is done is through the use of pictures of the children. All of which are colourless to represent their lives as dull and hard. Some are taken from a high angle to make them seem weaker and fragile and all are close ups of the children’s faces to show the emotion on their faces. Also in none of the pictures do they show any sort of happy emotion. It’s all sad and looks of despair. All of these put together create very depressing images for the reader to look at and think about...
30. (a) Explain how the followingcontribute to the effect of theadvertisement on the reader:•The title•The images 6 marks = 9 minutes