How do you identify a text’s purpose?Word Level- look for:• fact and opinion• Subject specific words• Description e.g. adjectives, imagery...• Verb types e.g. imperatives or modal• Persuasive language e.g. rhetorical devices• Personal e.g. use of pronounsSentence Level – look for:• Tense and narrative voice• Balance of sentence functions e.g. interrogative, statement, exclamatory, imperative• Balance of sentence types e.g. simple, compound, complex, minorText Level – look for:• Topic sentences• Length of paragraphs• Layout and presentational devices e.g. Images, colour, headings...• Connectives• Order of information e.g. chronological
Audience• What is an audience?• Can you match these text types to their audience? TEXT AUDIENCEThe Gruffalo Adults, 18-34, with an interest in the horror genreThe Chris Moyles Radio For Year 10 and 11Show students studying science GCSENightmare on Elm Street Teenagers with an interest in rap musicA KS4 science textbook Children aged 2-5 and their parentsAn advertisement for the Adults who like animals,new Eminem album 25-60A leaflet for the RSPCA 18-45 year olds on their way to work/school
How do you identify a text’s audience?Word Level – look for:• Register• Complexity of words• Noun and verb forms e.g. use of abstract nounsSentence Level – look for:• Narrative voice• Complexity of sentence formsText Level – look for:• Presentational features like font size, amount of text versus image, colour, layout...
What is the text’s register? Register? A form of language appropriate to a particular situation i.e. formality. Formality has a spectrum:Highly formal Highly informal
What is the text’s register? Highly Highly formal informalWhere would you place the following situationson this spectrum:• A meeting between a teacher and the headteacher?• A conversation between a customer and a shopassistant?• A letter from a firm of solicitors?Why is the level of formality appropriate in eachsituation?
What is the text’s register?Look at the selection of texts:• Where on the spectrum would you placethem and why?• How has this influenced the basiclanguage features?
Word formalityA text’s register is determined by the waya writer uses language and structure.When a writer chooses their words theyhave any number of synonym choicesand have to decide on the formality of theword they want.Look at these words and put them onyour formality register:mate acquaintancefriend associatecolleague bropal buddychum comradeCan you think of any others?
Words can also have different meanings to a readerDenotation = literal meaning/dictionarydefinitione.g. Winter denotes the season betweenautumn and spring.Connotation = associated meanings ofwords/emotions and attitudes aroused bywordse.g. Winter connotes cold, dark,depressing.What does winter mean to you?
Denotation and connotation Explain the differences in the following sets of near synonyms, in terms of their differing connotations:Sets of DifferencesSynonymsMy house / my home / mypad / my placeFat / plump / big-boned /obeseCheap / inexpensive /bargain / economical
1. Adrenaline Junkies 3-42. A bigger wave 63. Walk into the past 104. Fact facts: the faces of poverty 125. People against poverty 146. Your country needs you 177. Noel Chavasse 188. Everyday life 19-209. Jaws 2210.I think I caught one 2311.How to... 2612.Cambodia 31-32
Some synonyms have different effects on the reader. Some are stronger or more forceful.Look at the words below. They are all synonyms for a evil person but some are more evil orpowerful than others. Put them on the line in the order of ‘evilness’.
Identifying Purpose, Audience and FormHow would you recognise ...?A persuasive textAn informative textA text for young childrenAn instructional textA text for scientistsA magazine articleA Website articleA reviewA text for teenagersWhat is the purpose, audience and form of the article ‘I think I’ve caught one’?
So when reading the extracts for the first time, you should identify…• Tone (friendly, argumentative, sad, shocking, excited etc.)• Purpose (persuade, argue, advise, inform, entertain etc.)• Audience (age, gender, interests, education...)• Form (e.g. letter, broadsheet article, tabloid article, leaflet etc.)
Tone What is tone?Tone is a literary technique that is a part ofcomposition, which encompasses the attitudestoward the subject and toward the audienceimplied in a literary work.Tone may be formal, informal, intimate,solemn, somber, playful, serious, ironic,guilty, condescending, or many otherpossible attitudes.Each piece of literature has at least one theme,or central question about a topic, and how thetheme is approached within the work is known asthe tone.Create a mindmap of potential tones a writer mayuse.
How do we evaluate the tone of a text?When you read a text for the firsttime you should be thinkingabout: meaning, tone and theresponse you think the writerwanted from the reader.The tone and reader responseare created by the overall text –the events and their order, thenarrative voice, the use ofimagery, the word choices, thelayout on the page...It is like looking at a picture andbeing able to sense the tone andmood an artist wanted to create.Or hearing a piece of music andhaving it put you in a particularmood.
How do we evaluate the tone of a text?• Listen to the songs. How does each make you feel? This is probably the mood and tone the artist was going for when they composed the song. They wanted to make the reader feel a particular way about an idea or issue. They also wanted to portray their own feelings.
TEACHER: choose some songs with clear tone and mood http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=ZWBfjjGGkNQ http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=e2KAI4FronQ e.g. Ride of the Valkyires, Swan Lake, The Lazy song Bruno Mars, Muse’s olympic theme, So what Pink... (all available on youtube – but just listen don’t watch)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9W0Z9_hMg8Q http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=66molzUEkWI
How do we evaluate the tone of a text?Take a look at the imagesthat follow. For each writedown the tone/mood in theimage and how you think theartist wanted the personlooking at it to feel. Whatemotion do they evoke inyou?
How do we evaluate the tone of a text? Any text is just like the songs or painting, it is a way of communicating an idea and feeling. Now take a look at these extracts of non-fiction writing :• What is the tone/mood of each extract? How does the writer feel about the subject of their writing?• How do you think the writer wanted the person reading it to feel? What emotion do they evoke in you?• How does the writer show the tone/mood in this extract?
1. What is happening to Britain? 2. Flying at 200mph might not sound One man is stabbed for wearing particulary thrilling. After all, a jeta Rolex. One girl is shot for airliner travels at three times thattexting on her mobile. One gran speed and that’s about as exciting as ais battered for the pennies in her bus ride. But when you’re flying onpurse. And no one seems to your side and so low that you thinkcare. your ear is going to brush the ground, it’s one hell of a buzz.3. I wonder whether we shouldn’tjust quietly do away with all 4. Imagine being beaten every day ofelderly people on the eve of their your life. Imagine being starved and60th birthday? It could be done left out in the cold by the person who isin a gentle fashion, with a supposed to love you. Imagine beingcelebrational (but suitably maliciously tortured and left to die inspiked) loving cup, and the agonising pain.system would carry with it many Sadly, this is the reality for thousandsadvantages... Statistics tell us of animals in Britain today.that one person in seven is nowover the age of 65. That makes 6. There’s an awful lot of8 million, and looking after them sentimentality around the concept ofcosts the nation £1 billion per extinction. We have the sense thatyear. So the answer is simple – when a species dies our we should allget rid of all the old grey fall to our knees and spend some timebeards... wailing. But why? Apart from a few impotent middle-class Chinamen or if5. Raising a cool £200k for you want a nice rug, it makes not thecharity is no mean feat even slightest bit of difference if Johnnywhen you have four feet to help. tiger dies out. It won’t upset ourMr Fowley, a large, 5 year old, 12 power supplies or heal the rift withand half stone Leonburger canine Russia.is one such fundraiser whoseadventures are to be published in 7. You never forget a close encounterpaperback next year. Through all with a bear. They can approachhis good work and many slowly., sedately, stealthily, but onceappearances on behalf of charity they are upon you, its is one of theMr Fowley has gathered celebrity most terrifying experiences you arestatus and now has a worldwide ever likely to have.fan club.
How do we evaluate the tone of a text?What are we looking for/at?•••••