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Living things classification

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  • 1. Classifying Organisms
  • 2. Why Do Scientists Classify? Classification is the process of grouping things based on their similarities. Biologists use classification to organize living things into groups so that the organisms are easier to study. The scientific study of how living things are classified is called taxonomy.
  • 3. Is it living or not?
  • 4. MRS GREN
  • 5. MRS GREN
  • 6. MRS GREN
  • 7. MRS GREN
  • 8. MRS GREN
  • 9. MRS GREN
  • 10. MRS GREN
  • 11. Levels of Classification of living things Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Organisms are grouped by their shared characteristics. Invented by Linnaeus, a Swedish plant scientist (since modified)
  • 12. Kingdoms • Any grouping of organisms into kingdoms is based on several factors: – Presence of a nucleus – Unicellular or multi-cellular – How organisms get their food. • Five different kingdoms of organisms are generally recognized by scientists today – Protists – Monerans – Fungi – Plants – Animals
  • 13. The five kingdoms of living things Why do you think they have been grouped this way?
  • 14. Monera Monera are single-celled organisms that don't have a nucleus (Prokaryote cells). Bacteria make up the entire kingdom. There are more forms of bacteria than any other organism on Earth. Some bacteria are beneficial to us, such as the ones found in yogurt. Others can cause us to get sick. Some monerans absorb nutrition from the environment around them (heterotrophs) and others photosynthesize to make their own food (autotrophs). Some monerans can move around, while others stay in one place. Monerans are asexual meaning they split in two to reproduce with identical offspring.
  • 15. Protist Protists are mostly single-celled organisms that have a nucleus (Eukaryote). They usually live in water. Some protists move around, while others stay in one place. Protists either absorb and ingest nutrition from their environment (heterotrophs) or photosynthesize to make their own food (autotrophs). Protists can be asexual (split in two to reproduce with identical offspring) or sexual (fertilisation happens to produce offspring combining genes of the parents). Examples of protists include some algae, paramecium, and amoeba.
  • 16. Fungi Fungi cells have a nucleus (Eukaryote) and all except yeast are multi-cellular. They are usually motionless organisms. They reproduce sexually (fertilisation happens to produce offspring combining genes of the parents) and are spread by producing millions of microscopic spores. They cannot produce their own food so feed on dead plants or animals and help to recycle their nutrients. Some fungi are edible but some are very POISONOUS! Fungi live in all kinds of places including your intestines and your feet! Most people have 80 types of fungus on the heel of their foot alone. Some are beneficial to people (penicillin) and others can make you sick (black mould). They include mushrooms, molds, and yeasts. Mycelium Fruiting body Hyphae Athletes’ footIntestinal fungi
  • 17. Plants Plants cells contain a nucleus (Eukaryote) and are multi-cellular. They contain chlorophyll, a green pigment necessary for photosynthesis, a process in which plants convert energy from sunlight into food. Their cell walls are made sturdy by a material called cellulose, and they are fixed in one place. Plants reproduce sexually (fertilisation happens to produce offspring combining genes of the parents).Plants are divided into two groups: flower- and fruit-producing plants and those that don't produce flowers or fruits. They include garden flowers, agricultural crops, grasses, shrubs, ferns, mosses, and conifers.
  • 18. Animals Animals are the most complex organisms on Earth. Animals are multi- celled organisms, eat food for survival, and have nervous systems. Animas reproduce sexually (fertilisation happens to produce offspring combining genes of the parents). They are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates and include mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fish.
  • 19. Understanding Venn Diagrams What statements can be generated from this?
  • 20. Understanding Venn Diagrams What statements can be generated from this?
  • 21. Understanding Venn Diagrams What do these mean? 
  • 22. Your task Now complete the Venn diagrams using the information provided in the slides about each of the kingdoms. You can also add ideas of your own. Below is some vocabulary you might find useful. Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Unicellular Multicellular Asexual Sexual Doesn’t move Moves Autotroph Heterotroph
  • 23. We know the kingdom. Now what?
  • 24. We know the kingdom. Now what? The next group to further classify living things is the Phylum. In the animal kingdom, the two phylum are invertebrates and invertebrates. Fun fact 98% of all animals are invertebrates! Have a backboneHave a backbone No backbone No backbone
  • 25. Your task Create a two column table in your book titled ‘Vertebrates and Invertebrates. Write down the names of these animals under the appropriate heading.
  • 26. How did you go?
  • 27. We know the kingdom. Now what? The next step is to group animals by class. Can you name two animals for each class?
  • 28. We know the kingdom. Now what? Every class needs a little order! The class ‘Mammals’ has 26 orders in all. Here are five examples.
  • 29. We know the kingdom. Now what? Families come next. The order ‘Primates’ is organised into 13 families. We are part of the family called Hominidae family Family – Hominidae (great apes)
  • 30. We know the kingdom. Now what? Animals in the same genus are very closely related. Our genus is called ‘Homo’ and includes all great apes that showed evidence of tool use, language and culture leading up to our own species. Genus – Homo
  • 31. We know the kingdom. Now what? We made it! The species is each type of animal. Our species is ‘Sapiens’ and we are the only surviving species of the homo genus. Species - Sapiens
  • 32. Binomial Nomenclature • The Swedish scientist, Linnaeus, also devised a simplified system of naming organisms based on their classification: the first name shows the genus and the second the species to which the organism belongs, as in Panthera leo (the lion). This naming system is called binomial nomenclature. • Therefore, our official title is Homo Sapien.
  • 33. How can I remember all that!!! A good way to remember lists is to make up a sentence using the first letters in a list. In this case we want to remember Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species: K, P, C, O, F, G, S Here are some sentences: Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach. Koalas Prefer Chocolate Or Fruit, Generally Speaking King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti Keeping Precious Creatures Organized For Grumpy Scientists Or how about this...