Explicit grammar instruction and the
young foreign language learner
Rowena Hanan
Dr Emma Marsden
What?
• Classroom-based study
• Experimental study
Pre-test
Intervention
Post-test
Delayed Post-test
• 135 pupils from 3 l...
Teaching intervention Processing Instruction
Making the correct form – meaning connection
English: Word order fixed (SVO)
...
Teaching intervention Processing Instruction
Explicit Information
+
Structured Input activities
Key components:
Which picture matches the sentence?
Der Mann verfolgt den Computer.
Processing InstructionTeaching intervention
Which picture matches the sentence?
Den Gorilla begrüßt der Bär.
Processing InstructionTeaching intervention
Processing InstructionTeaching intervention
Listen carefully to the sentence.
Which picture matches the sentence?
Processing InstructionTeaching intervention
Listen carefully to the sentence.
Which picture matches the sentence?
Decide which noun fills each gap so that the
sentence matches the picture!
Der _________ füttert den _________.
Processing...
Decide which noun fills each gap so that the
sentence matches the picture!
Den _________ erschreckt der _________.
Process...
Teaching intervention Comparison Instruction
Explicit Information
+
Enriched Input & Attention to Form
Key components:
Der ________ verfolgt den Computer.
Which word fills the gap?
Frau
Mann
Now click on the two words for the in the sentence...
Den Gorilla begrüßt der ________.
Which word fills the gap?
Bär
Pferd
Now click on the two words for the in the sentence!
...
Explicit Information
+
Enriched Input &
Attention to Form
Intentional practice in attending
to the form-meaning connection...
Comprehension Production
Written
(time to think)
Sentence Matching Gap-Fill
Oral
(no time)
Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out P...
Comprehension Production
Written
(time to think)
Sentence Matching Gap-Fill
Oral
(no time)
Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out P...
Sentence Matching task (Written; Comprehension)
A. Der Opa umarmt das Baby. A B
B. Das Baby umarmt den Opa.
SVO Sentence P...
Sentence Matching task (Written; Comprehension)
Comparison
Pre
(Week 1)
Post
(Week 7)
D. Post
(Week 15)
12
14
16
18
20
22
...
Comprehension Production
Written
(time to think)
Sentence Matching Gap-Fill
Oral
(no time)
Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out P...
Gap-fill task (Written; Production)
Die Tochter fotografiert __________ (the father).
SVO sentence + object missing
Das Au...
Gap-fill task (Written; Production)
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
10
**
**
TotalScore(outof24)
Processing Instruction
Comparison
Pr...
Comprehension Production
Written
(time to think)
Sentence Matching Gap-Fill
Oral
(no time)
Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out P...
Act-Out Comprehension task (Oral; Comprehension)
1. Listen to the sentence
2. Act out using the soft toys
• SVO sentence
•...
Act-Out Comprehension task (Oral; Comprehension)
12
14
18
10
**
**
16
8
TotalScore(outof18)
Pre
(Week 1)
Post
(Week 7)
D. ...
Comprehension Production
Written
(time to think)
Sentence Matching Gap-Fill
Oral
(no time)
Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out P...
Act-Out Production task (Oral; Production)
1. Watch action
2. Produce sentence to describe action
Act-Out Production task (Oral; Production)
Processing Instruction
Comparison
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
10
**
**
TotalScore(outo...
Comprehension Production
Written
(time to think)
Sentence Matching Gap-Fill
Oral
(no time)
Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out P...
Sentence Reconstruction task (Metalinguistic)
1. Arrange words to make a sentence to describe the picture
2. Explain why t...
Sentence Reconstruction task (Metalinguistic)
Sentence Reconstruction task (Metalinguistic)
die Frau schlägt den Computer
Sentence Reconstruction task (Metalinguistic)
Conclusions
Clear improvement on all tasks
Improvement in comprehension and production
• Written and oral modality tasks
E...
Conclusions
Is explicit grammar instruction useful
for young learners learning within
the foreign language classroom?
Yes!
My supervisor Dr Emma Marsden
Research assistants David O’Reilly and
Anna Capinska
With thanks to …
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London 28 june final

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  • Der Koalabär sieht den Löwen.
  • London 28 june final

    1. 1. Explicit grammar instruction and the young foreign language learner Rowena Hanan Dr Emma Marsden
    2. 2. What? • Classroom-based study • Experimental study Pre-test Intervention Post-test Delayed Post-test • 135 pupils from 3 local primary schools  L1 English L2 German • Grammatical feature:  Masc. acc. article den  der = subject den = object
    3. 3. Teaching intervention Processing Instruction Making the correct form – meaning connection English: Word order fixed (SVO) German: Case-marking Word order flexible Den Hund verfolgt der Mann. The dog (acc) chases the man (nom). The man chases the dog.
    4. 4. Teaching intervention Processing Instruction Explicit Information + Structured Input activities Key components:
    5. 5. Which picture matches the sentence? Der Mann verfolgt den Computer. Processing InstructionTeaching intervention
    6. 6. Which picture matches the sentence? Den Gorilla begrüßt der Bär. Processing InstructionTeaching intervention
    7. 7. Processing InstructionTeaching intervention Listen carefully to the sentence. Which picture matches the sentence?
    8. 8. Processing InstructionTeaching intervention Listen carefully to the sentence. Which picture matches the sentence?
    9. 9. Decide which noun fills each gap so that the sentence matches the picture! Der _________ füttert den _________. Processing InstructionTeaching intervention Hund Mann
    10. 10. Decide which noun fills each gap so that the sentence matches the picture! Den _________ erschreckt der _________. Processing InstructionTeaching intervention Vogel Bär
    11. 11. Teaching intervention Comparison Instruction Explicit Information + Enriched Input & Attention to Form Key components:
    12. 12. Der ________ verfolgt den Computer. Which word fills the gap? Frau Mann Now click on the two words for the in the sentence! Comparison InstructionTeaching intervention
    13. 13. Den Gorilla begrüßt der ________. Which word fills the gap? Bär Pferd Now click on the two words for the in the sentence! Comparison InstructionTeaching intervention
    14. 14. Explicit Information + Enriched Input & Attention to Form Intentional practice in attending to the form-meaning connection Explicit Information + Structured Input activities Intentional practice in attending to the form only Processing Instruction Comparison Instruction Teaching intervention
    15. 15. Comprehension Production Written (time to think) Sentence Matching Gap-Fill Oral (no time) Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out Production Metalinguistic task Sentence Reconstruction Tests at pre, post, and delayed post-test
    16. 16. Comprehension Production Written (time to think) Sentence Matching Gap-Fill Oral (no time) Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out Production Metalinguistic task Sentence Reconstruction Tests at pre, post, and delayed post-test
    17. 17. Sentence Matching task (Written; Comprehension) A. Der Opa umarmt das Baby. A B B. Das Baby umarmt den Opa. SVO Sentence Pair OVS Sentence Pair A. Die Mutter verfolgt der Sohn. A B B. Den Sohn verfolgt die Mutter.
    18. 18. Sentence Matching task (Written; Comprehension) Comparison Pre (Week 1) Post (Week 7) D. Post (Week 15) 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 10 ** ** TotalScore(outof24) Processing Instruction
    19. 19. Comprehension Production Written (time to think) Sentence Matching Gap-Fill Oral (no time) Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out Production Metalinguistic task Sentence Reconstruction Tests at pre, post, and delayed post-test
    20. 20. Gap-fill task (Written; Production) Die Tochter fotografiert __________ (the father). SVO sentence + object missing Das Auto wäscht __________ (the elephant). OVS sentence + subject missing
    21. 21. Gap-fill task (Written; Production) 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 10 ** ** TotalScore(outof24) Processing Instruction Comparison Pre (Week 1) Post (Week 7) D. Post (Week 15)
    22. 22. Comprehension Production Written (time to think) Sentence Matching Gap-Fill Oral (no time) Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out Production Metalinguistic task Sentence Reconstruction Tests at pre, post, and delayed post-test
    23. 23. Act-Out Comprehension task (Oral; Comprehension) 1. Listen to the sentence 2. Act out using the soft toys • SVO sentence • OVS sentence
    24. 24. Act-Out Comprehension task (Oral; Comprehension) 12 14 18 10 ** ** 16 8 TotalScore(outof18) Pre (Week 1) Post (Week 7) D. Post (Week 15) Processing Instruction Comparison
    25. 25. Comprehension Production Written (time to think) Sentence Matching Gap-Fill Oral (no time) Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out Production Metalinguistic task Sentence Reconstruction Tests at pre, post, and delayed post-test
    26. 26. Act-Out Production task (Oral; Production) 1. Watch action 2. Produce sentence to describe action
    27. 27. Act-Out Production task (Oral; Production) Processing Instruction Comparison 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 10 ** ** TotalScore(outof24) Pre (Week 1) Post (Week 7) D. Post (Week 15)
    28. 28. Comprehension Production Written (time to think) Sentence Matching Gap-Fill Oral (no time) Act-Out Comprehension Act-Out Production Metalinguistic task Sentence Reconstruction Tests at pre, post, and delayed post-test
    29. 29. Sentence Reconstruction task (Metalinguistic) 1. Arrange words to make a sentence to describe the picture 2. Explain why that order was chosen der Vogel verfolgt den Hund
    30. 30. Sentence Reconstruction task (Metalinguistic)
    31. 31. Sentence Reconstruction task (Metalinguistic) die Frau schlägt den Computer
    32. 32. Sentence Reconstruction task (Metalinguistic)
    33. 33. Conclusions Clear improvement on all tasks Improvement in comprehension and production • Written and oral modality tasks Evidence of ability to use grammatical feature correctly in more spontaneous language tasks Demonstrated solid metalinguistic knowledge
    34. 34. Conclusions Is explicit grammar instruction useful for young learners learning within the foreign language classroom? Yes!
    35. 35. My supervisor Dr Emma Marsden Research assistants David O’Reilly and Anna Capinska With thanks to …
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