Suzanne Hayes Learning Presence CDL Conference 2013


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Presentation at Empire State College Center for Distance Learning Annual Conference 2013

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Suzanne Hayes Learning Presence CDL Conference 2013

  1. 1. Social Presence, TeachingPresence, Cognitive Presenceand Now, Learning PresenceSuzanne HayesAcademic TechnologiesOffice of Integrated Technologies1Center for Distance Learning Annual Conference, April 2013
  2. 2. Outline Overview of CoI Model Learning Presence How we uncovered it What it is How we measure it Implications for practitioners2
  3. 3. Community of Inquiry Model Garrison, Anderson & Archer (2000) Widely referenced framework Describes and explains: Interactions among students and instructor What contributes to a deep and meaningfullearning experienceGarrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. Internetand Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87–105.3
  4. 4. What is a Community of Inquiry?“A group of individuals whocollaboratively engage in purposefulcritical discourse and reflection toconstruct personal meaning and confirmmutual understanding.”4
  5. 5. Community of Inquiry ModelSocialPresenceCognitivePresenceTeachingPresenceMeaningfulLearningExperience5
  6. 6. Social Presence (SP)The ability of students & instructor to: Identify with the community Communicate purposefully in a trustingenvironment Develop inter-personal relationships Project their individual personalities6
  7. 7. Teaching Presence (TP)Instructional orchestration of cognitive andsocial processes through: Design & organization Facilitation of discourse Direct instruction AssessmentNot limited to just the instructor7
  8. 8. Cognitive Presence (CP)The extent to which learners are able toconstruct and confirm meaning through: Sustained reflection DiscourseProcess of individual cognition enhancedthrough social interaction8
  9. 9. We knew we had encounteredsomething different…. In a study of TP we found interactions thatwere not SP, TP, or CP (Shea, Hayes, Vickers, 2010). Four small teams prepared arguments for anonline debate No instructor participation Planned and organized their efforts Acted with intentionality and purposefulness Assumed responsibility for their learning9
  10. 10. Looked Liked Self-RegulatedLearning …. In Zimmerman’s model of SRL (1989, 2000)learners assume responsibility for: Forethought and Planning Performance (Monitoring & Strategy Use) Reflection Takes into account social interaction, e.g., Seeking help from others Seeking information from others10
  11. 11. What is Learning Presence?“A proactive stance adopted by students whomarshal thoughts, emotions, motivations,behaviors and strategies in the service ofsuccessful online learning”Learners demonstrate agency, control andself-direction, rather than passivity orcomplianceShea, P., Hayes, S., Uzuner-Smith, S., Vickers, J., Wilde, J., Gozza-Cohen, M., & Jian, S.(2012). Learning presence: A new conceptual element within the Community of Inquiry(COI) framework. Internet and Higher Education, 15(2), 89-95.11
  12. 12. Four Dimensions of LearningPresenceSetting GoalsPlanningCoordinatingTasksForethought& Planning Checking forUnderstandingIdentifyingproblemsEvaluatingquality ofproducts orprocessTakingcorrectiveactionMonitoring12
  13. 13. Four Dimensions of LearningPresenceSeeking oroffering helpSeeking orofferinginformationReviewingNotingoutcomeexpectationsStrategyUse Noting achange inthinkingCausalattribution ofresults topersonal orgroup effortReflection13
  14. 14. More LP in Debate Prep versusDebate Areas00.511.522.533.544.55All Prep Areas Debate DiscussionFPMOSUMOShea, P., Hayes, S., Uzuner-Smith, S., Vickers, J., Wilde, J., Gozza-Cohen, M., & Jian, S. (2012). Learning presence: A new conceptualelement within the Community of Inquiry (COI) framework. Internetand Higher Education, 15(2), 89-95.FP = Forethought & PlanningMO= MonitoringSU = Strategy Use14
  15. 15. LP in Discussion vs LearningJournals6.5%51.6%19.4%22.6%0.0%58.4%32.1%9.5%Forethought &PlanningMonitoring Strategy Use ReflectionLearning Journals M6 DiscussionsShea, Hayes, Uzuner, et al. (Accepted) Online Learner Self-Regulation: Learning Presence, ViewedThrough Quantitative Content- and Social Network Analysis, International Review of Research in Onlineand Distance Learning 15
  16. 16. TeachingPresenceLearningPresenceCognitivePresenceSocialPresenceRevised CoI Model WithLearning Presence16
  17. 17. How can we promote LP?Create opportunities for students to: Assume greater responsibility for their learning Become more intentional and purposeful Pause and evaluate their understanding andprogress Develop self awareness of their learningprocesses (metacognition)17
  18. 18. Forethought & PlanningStudents: Print out course schedule Estimate how much time is required to complete anactivityInstructors and Developers: Model how to scaffold project into smaller tasks Ask students to articulate their personal goals inicebreaker discussion or learning journals Require teams to develop team contracts to establishshared goals and expectations18
  19. 19. MonitoringStudents: Keep track of their progress through the module(Moodle completion features) Check-in with peers to be sure they understand whatis due and when Identify gaps in their knowledgeInstructors/Developers: Provide self-assessments and rubrics for writtenassignments & projects Check student understanding using “muddiest point”19
  20. 20. Strategy UseStudents: Take corrective action when they encounter problems Connect new information to prior knowledge Seek help from others Review their progress Recall their goals and personal expectations toidentify future benefits20
  21. 21. Strategy Use (cont.)Instructors and Developers: Help students understand how online learning isdifferent from F2F Identify and assign first time online learners to a teamto encourage mutual support Create spaces in course where students can sharesuccessful approaches to: Overcome problems of understanding Study strategies Time management21
  22. 22. ReflectionStudents: Pay attention to their learning processes -- What isworking and what is not Note changes in their understanding, i.e., priorassumptions, beliefs, and acknowledgement of otherpoints of view Find/apply personal meaning in course materialInstructors and Developers: Include learning journals for modules or projects Consider group reflection as discussion topic Have students evaluate their personal and groupefforts22
  23. 23. LP consistent with findings of U.S.DOE Study of Online LearningWhat separates students who are successful inonline learning from those who are not? Self-regulation of learning Positive online learning outcomes tied to studentactive involvement in planning, monitoring, andreflectingMeans, B., Toyoma, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2009). Evaluationof Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Reviewof Online Learning Studies. U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C.23
  24. 24. Questions?Suzanne Hayessuzanne.hayes@esc.edu24
  25. 25. References Hadwin, A., & Oshige, M. (2011). Self-regulation, coregulation, and sociallyshared regulation: exploring perspectives of social in self-regulated learningtheory. Teachers College Record, 113(2), 240–264. Means, B., Toyoma, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2009). Evaluation ofEvidence-Based Practices in Online Learning. Structure. Washington, D.C. Shea, P., Hayes, S., Uzuner-Smith, S., Vickers, J., Wilde, J., Gozza-Cohen, M., &Jian, S. (2012). Learning presence: A new conceptual element within theCommunity of Inquiry (COI) framework. Internet and Higher Education, 15(2), 89-95. Shea, Hayes, Uzuner (In Press) Online Learner Self-Regulation: LearningPresence, Viewed Through Quantitative Content- and Social Network Analysis,International Review of Research in Online and Distance Learning Shea, P., Hayes, S., & Vickers, J. (2010). Online Instructional Effort Measuredthrough the Lens of Teaching Presence in the Community of Inquiry Framework:A Re-Examination of Measures and Approach. International Review of Researchin Open and Distance Learning, 11(3), 127–154. Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academiclearning, Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3). Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective.In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & Moshe Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–39). New York: Academic Press. 25