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Suzanne Hayes Learning Presence CDL Conference 2013

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Presentation at Empire State College Center for Distance Learning Annual Conference 2013 …

Presentation at Empire State College Center for Distance Learning Annual Conference 2013





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  • 1. Social Presence, TeachingPresence, Cognitive Presenceand Now, Learning PresenceSuzanne HayesAcademic TechnologiesOffice of Integrated Technologies1Center for Distance Learning Annual Conference, April 2013
  • 2. Outline Overview of CoI Model Learning Presence How we uncovered it What it is How we measure it Implications for practitioners2
  • 3. Community of Inquiry Model Garrison, Anderson & Archer (2000) Widely referenced framework Describes and explains: Interactions among students and instructor What contributes to a deep and meaningfullearning experienceGarrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. Internetand Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87–105.3
  • 4. What is a Community of Inquiry?“A group of individuals whocollaboratively engage in purposefulcritical discourse and reflection toconstruct personal meaning and confirmmutual understanding.”4
  • 5. Community of Inquiry ModelSocialPresenceCognitivePresenceTeachingPresenceMeaningfulLearningExperience5
  • 6. Social Presence (SP)The ability of students & instructor to: Identify with the community Communicate purposefully in a trustingenvironment Develop inter-personal relationships Project their individual personalities6
  • 7. Teaching Presence (TP)Instructional orchestration of cognitive andsocial processes through: Design & organization Facilitation of discourse Direct instruction AssessmentNot limited to just the instructor7
  • 8. Cognitive Presence (CP)The extent to which learners are able toconstruct and confirm meaning through: Sustained reflection DiscourseProcess of individual cognition enhancedthrough social interaction8
  • 9. We knew we had encounteredsomething different…. In a study of TP we found interactions thatwere not SP, TP, or CP (Shea, Hayes, Vickers, 2010). Four small teams prepared arguments for anonline debate No instructor participation Planned and organized their efforts Acted with intentionality and purposefulness Assumed responsibility for their learning9
  • 10. Looked Liked Self-RegulatedLearning …. In Zimmerman’s model of SRL (1989, 2000)learners assume responsibility for: Forethought and Planning Performance (Monitoring & Strategy Use) Reflection Takes into account social interaction, e.g., Seeking help from others Seeking information from others10
  • 11. What is Learning Presence?“A proactive stance adopted by students whomarshal thoughts, emotions, motivations,behaviors and strategies in the service ofsuccessful online learning”Learners demonstrate agency, control andself-direction, rather than passivity orcomplianceShea, P., Hayes, S., Uzuner-Smith, S., Vickers, J., Wilde, J., Gozza-Cohen, M., & Jian, S.(2012). Learning presence: A new conceptual element within the Community of Inquiry(COI) framework. Internet and Higher Education, 15(2), 89-95.11
  • 12. Four Dimensions of LearningPresenceSetting GoalsPlanningCoordinatingTasksForethought& Planning Checking forUnderstandingIdentifyingproblemsEvaluatingquality ofproducts orprocessTakingcorrectiveactionMonitoring12
  • 13. Four Dimensions of LearningPresenceSeeking oroffering helpSeeking orofferinginformationReviewingNotingoutcomeexpectationsStrategyUse Noting achange inthinkingCausalattribution ofresults topersonal orgroup effortReflection13
  • 14. More LP in Debate Prep versusDebate Areas00.511.522.533.544.55All Prep Areas Debate DiscussionFPMOSUMOShea, P., Hayes, S., Uzuner-Smith, S., Vickers, J., Wilde, J., Gozza-Cohen, M., & Jian, S. (2012). Learning presence: A new conceptualelement within the Community of Inquiry (COI) framework. Internetand Higher Education, 15(2), 89-95.FP = Forethought & PlanningMO= MonitoringSU = Strategy Use14
  • 15. LP in Discussion vs LearningJournals6.5%51.6%19.4%22.6%0.0%58.4%32.1%9.5%Forethought &PlanningMonitoring Strategy Use ReflectionLearning Journals M6 DiscussionsShea, Hayes, Uzuner, et al. (Accepted) Online Learner Self-Regulation: Learning Presence, ViewedThrough Quantitative Content- and Social Network Analysis, International Review of Research in Onlineand Distance Learning 15
  • 16. TeachingPresenceLearningPresenceCognitivePresenceSocialPresenceRevised CoI Model WithLearning Presence16
  • 17. How can we promote LP?Create opportunities for students to: Assume greater responsibility for their learning Become more intentional and purposeful Pause and evaluate their understanding andprogress Develop self awareness of their learningprocesses (metacognition)17
  • 18. Forethought & PlanningStudents: Print out course schedule Estimate how much time is required to complete anactivityInstructors and Developers: Model how to scaffold project into smaller tasks Ask students to articulate their personal goals inicebreaker discussion or learning journals Require teams to develop team contracts to establishshared goals and expectations18
  • 19. MonitoringStudents: Keep track of their progress through the module(Moodle completion features) Check-in with peers to be sure they understand whatis due and when Identify gaps in their knowledgeInstructors/Developers: Provide self-assessments and rubrics for writtenassignments & projects Check student understanding using “muddiest point”19
  • 20. Strategy UseStudents: Take corrective action when they encounter problems Connect new information to prior knowledge Seek help from others Review their progress Recall their goals and personal expectations toidentify future benefits20
  • 21. Strategy Use (cont.)Instructors and Developers: Help students understand how online learning isdifferent from F2F Identify and assign first time online learners to a teamto encourage mutual support Create spaces in course where students can sharesuccessful approaches to: Overcome problems of understanding Study strategies Time management21
  • 22. ReflectionStudents: Pay attention to their learning processes -- What isworking and what is not Note changes in their understanding, i.e., priorassumptions, beliefs, and acknowledgement of otherpoints of view Find/apply personal meaning in course materialInstructors and Developers: Include learning journals for modules or projects Consider group reflection as discussion topic Have students evaluate their personal and groupefforts22
  • 23. LP consistent with findings of U.S.DOE Study of Online LearningWhat separates students who are successful inonline learning from those who are not? Self-regulation of learning Positive online learning outcomes tied to studentactive involvement in planning, monitoring, andreflectingMeans, B., Toyoma, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2009). Evaluationof Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Reviewof Online Learning Studies. U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C.23
  • 24. Questions?Suzanne Hayessuzanne.hayes@esc.edu24
  • 25. References Hadwin, A., & Oshige, M. (2011). Self-regulation, coregulation, and sociallyshared regulation: exploring perspectives of social in self-regulated learningtheory. Teachers College Record, 113(2), 240–264. Means, B., Toyoma, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2009). Evaluation ofEvidence-Based Practices in Online Learning. Structure. Washington, D.C. Shea, P., Hayes, S., Uzuner-Smith, S., Vickers, J., Wilde, J., Gozza-Cohen, M., &Jian, S. (2012). Learning presence: A new conceptual element within theCommunity of Inquiry (COI) framework. Internet and Higher Education, 15(2), 89-95. Shea, Hayes, Uzuner (In Press) Online Learner Self-Regulation: LearningPresence, Viewed Through Quantitative Content- and Social Network Analysis,International Review of Research in Online and Distance Learning Shea, P., Hayes, S., & Vickers, J. (2010). Online Instructional Effort Measuredthrough the Lens of Teaching Presence in the Community of Inquiry Framework:A Re-Examination of Measures and Approach. International Review of Researchin Open and Distance Learning, 11(3), 127–154. Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academiclearning, Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3). Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective.In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & Moshe Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–39). New York: Academic Press. 25