Notes from dna technology and its applications


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Notes from a Biology teacher to accompany a web quest and unit on DNA technologies and several applications for many of them.

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Notes from dna technology and its applications

  1. 1. DNA Technology and its Applications Some notes adapted from S. Livingstone
  2. 2. Practical applications of recombinant DNA…        Recombinant Vaccines (ie. Hepatitis B) Prevention and cure of sickle cell anemia Prevention and cure of cystic fibrosis Production of clotting factors Production of insulin Production of recombinant pharmaceuticals Germ line and somatic gene therapy
  3. 3. Another Major Application of Recombinant DNA Using the technology of recombinant DNA, we are able to introduce specific genes from one organism into another. A transgenic organism is an organism that has been genetically engineered to contain 1 or more genes
  4. 4. Applications of Transgenic Organisms  Transgenic Livestock  Farm animals that are genetically altered to synthesize marketable proteins.  Mice that urinate human growth hormone (HGH)  Goats that produce the malaria antigen for use in vaccines  Cows that produce a human protein in their milk  Pigs that are genetically altered so their organs can be transplanted into a human without rejection
  5. 5. Applications of Transgenic Organisms  Transgenic Plants   Plants that produce their own insecticides Crops that have increased drought and heat resistance
  6. 6. Genetic Engineering is…  The technique of removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule in order to change the information it contains. By changing this information, genetic engineering changes the type or amount of proteins an organism is capable of producing, thus enabling it to make new substances or perform new functions.
  7. 7. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)  Often, the label GMO and the term "transgenic" are used to refer to organisms that have acquired novel genes from other organisms by laboratory "gene transfer" methods.
  8. 8. What are the practical applications of gel electrophoresis?  DNA fragments produced by the gel electrophoresis can be used in other technologies like PCR, cloning and DNA sequencing  Or, the DNA fragments can be used by forensic scientists, conservation biologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, etc.
  9. 9. How is gel electrophoresis used by scientists?  Human DNA can be analyzed to  Provide evidence in criminal cases  Diagnose genetic diseases  Solve paternity cases  Samples of DNA can be obtained from tissue and body fluid      Cheek cells Skin Hair Blood Semen
  10. 10. What are the practical applications of gel electrophoresis?  Conservation biologists use DNA to determine genetic similarity among populations and individuals  Taxonomists use DNA to help distinguish species  Evolutionary biologists use DNA profiles to compare similarities and differences to construct family trees
  11. 11. What are the practical applications of PCR?  PCR creates high amounts of pure DNA, enabling analysis of DNA samples even from very small amounts of starting material to be used in other DNA technologies.
  12. 12. What are the practical applications of gene therapy?  potential to eliminate and prevent hereditary diseases such as      Cystic fibrosis hemophilia heart disease, AIDS cancer **There's a fair amount of risk involved in trials of this kind of therapy, and to date, only children who are seriously ill or have illnesses incurable by conventional means have been involved in clinical trials using gene therapy.