Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Research strategies update 2011
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Research strategies update 2011

445
views

Published on

Updated version of strategies for conducting art history research at the University of Central Arkansas.

Updated version of strategies for conducting art history research at the University of Central Arkansas.


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
445
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Art History Research Strategies
  • 2. Types of Sources
    • While conducting your research, you will be looking for two types of sources to compose your paper:
      • Primary
      • Secondary
    • Both types of sources help to give you a clear and full understanding of your topic.
  • 3. Types of Sources
    • Primary sources come from your subject directly or by people who were there when the events took place. Primary sources are usually created at the same time events occurred (i.e. newspapers, diaries, interviews, personal narratives, and letters), but primary sources can also be written after the fact. These sources include autobiographies, memoirs, and oral histories recorded later. Another type of primary sources are published works by your research subject.
  • 4. Types of Sources
    • Secondary sources examine and evaluate primary sources. They are often written by people not directly involved in events and composed some time after the occurrence. These writers normally have special expertise on the subject (scholars), and may provide historical context or critical analysis. Secondary sources usually use primary sources as part of their research. These sources include, but are not limited to encyclopedias, textbooks, dissertations, and museum/exhibition catalogues.
  • 5. Types of Sources
    • While searching for sources for your paper, it is important to stick to scholarly ones. Look for the following:
      • Written by a scholar. The author’s biography should include their academic degrees and other professional credentials.
      • Source is used to advance study or present new material on subject. It is not used for entertainment, nor contains general information. It is very specific in content.
      • Any information will contain citations such as footnotes, endnotes and bibliography, leaving no doubt as to where the author found his/her research.
      • If you have any doubts whether your source is scholarly or not, check with your instructor.
  • 6. Types of Sources More recent exhibition catalogues are excellent sources for scholarly articles. Many are written using a variety of experts on the subject of the exhibition, with a range of topics. Most catalogues are classified as books, so they should be found doing a routine book search. If you are having difficulty, check museum websites for lists of current and past exhibitions, then search books for the exhibition name. Picture from Amazon.com Catalogue from the exhibition Van Gogh and Gauguin : The Studio in the South , shown at the Art Institute of Chicago 9/11/2001-01/13/2002 and the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam 02/09/2002-06/02/2002
  • 7. Types of Sources Note : Newspapers, journal articles and historical non-fiction books may be either primary or secondary sources. Evaluate who wrote the material and when to help decide which type of source it is.
  • 8. Finding Names
    • When looking for an artist's or place name or culture in an index, remember these guidelines:
    • Artists who use double names will usually be under the second name, unless the name is hyphenated. For example, Gurley-Brown will be listed under "G", while Gurley Brown will be under "B”
    • Last names beginning with a particle (d', da, de, de', del, de la, della, di, van, von) will be listed without the particle. (i.e. van Gogh is found under Gogh).
    • Some Renaissance artists will be found under their first names as per tradition (i.e. Leonardo da Vinci, Piero della Francesca).
    • When searching for Non-Western names, be sure to check for alternative spellings. For example, search for both "Inca" and "Inka".
    • When searching for ancient sites, be aware of any name changes. For example in Rome, the Temple of Portunus was once called the Temple of Fortuna Virirlis. Search for both names.
  • 9. Finding Names For Chinese names ,  there are two ways that Chinese characters have been translated into English; Pinyin and Wade-Giles. For example, one artist's name translates to "Chang Hsuan" in Wade-Giles, but is "Zhang Xuan" in Pinyin. Wade-Giles has been used since the mid-19th century, while Pinyin came into use in the 1950s. Therefore, older books and sources will be in Wade-Giles, while newer ones will be in Pinyin. The general rule is books published before 1979 will be Wade-Giles, but check for both translations in books published after 1979. Also, look for multiple combinations of a name. For example, search for both "Zhang Xuan" and "Xuan Zhang".  For an easy to use online converter from Pinyin to Wade-Giles see: http://chinese.dsturgeon.net/pinyin.pl?if=en          
  • 10. Cross-Referencing
    • When doing research, be sure to cross-reference your searches. Besides looking up your artist, also look at the work specifically, any group or time period in which the artist is associated, historical events that influenced the artist or work, and subject matter of the work.
    • When looking at Ancient or Non-Western art, check out the culture and history of the people.
  • 11.
    • For example, when searching for Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel, try these suggestions:
    • Michelangelo
    • Sistine Chapel
    • High Renaissance Painting
    • Florentine Art and Artists
    • Pope Julius II
    • Book of Genesis (specific scenes from mural)
    • Prophets and Sybils (specific to mural)
    • Family Tree of Jesus
    • Mural Painting
    • Art of the Vatican
    Cross-Referencing
  • 12. Cross-Referencing
    • Try to find the full picture of your work and artist.
      • Who is the artist?
      • How and where was the artist trained?
      • What is the subject matter?
      • How was it made?
      • What is the artist’s style?
      • Do any other works or artists influence the work?
      • Was it commissioned? For who and why?
      • Does location of the work have significance?
      • Did any historical event and/or person influence the work?
      • How was the work received?
      • Does the work have a specific purpose?
      • Did the culture of the artist have an impact on the work?
      • Did the work have an influence on future works?
  • 13. Book Resources
  • 14. Book Resources
    • To find book sources:
    • Start with the bibliography in your book.
    • Consult the online catalogue of the Torreyson Library at http://www.uca.edu/library/
  • 15. To search for books, click “books” on the Torreyson Library homepage
  • 16. You can search by author, title, subject or simple word search. Try using your subject for different types of searches, such as simple word search, author and subject. Each type of search may give different results. .
  • 17. Torreyson Library The books in the library are catalogued by the Library of Congress Classification System. Books on Art and Architecture can be found in the “N” section. (Photography is found in the“TR” section). The books are classified in the following order: N Visual Arts (includes museums and history of art) NA Architecture NB Sculpture NC Drawing, Design, Illustration ND Painting NE Print Media NK Decorative Arts NX Arts in General
  • 18. Torreyson Library The books are further classified into more specific areas. For example, let’s look at ND-Painting: ND49-816 History, individual artists ND 1470-1625 Techniques and materials ND 1700-2495 Watercolor Painting ND 2550-2888 Mural Painting ND 2890-3416 Illumination of Manuscripts and Books
  • 19. Torreyson Library
    • If you choose to browse the stacks, be sure to look at different sections for your artist and work. For example, N-History of Art and ND-Painting
    • Notice that the books in the general sections are organized first by continent (i.e Americas, Europe, Asia, etc..), then by country (USA, Mexico, France, Germany, etc..), and finally by artist in alphabetical order.
  • 20. Torreyson Library Art Books-”N” Section Photography –”TR” Section
  • 21. Torreyson Library
    • For Ancient and Non-Western Art, look for books in the D-World History and GN-Anthropology sections. Books on artworks by different cultures might be catalogued in these areas.
  • 22. Torreyson Library GN-Anthropology D-World History
  • 23. Reference Books Reference books are located on the first floor outside of Starbucks®. They are catalogued under “N” and cannot be checked out
  • 24. Reference Books
    • Dictionary of Art
    • Use as a general reference for biographical information on artist.
    • Also includes entries of processes, locations, and other art related items.
    • Bibliographical information found at the end of the article.
    • Look for more articles and books by author of dictionary entry.
  • 25. Reference Books There are many other reference books that might be useful. Some are specific to certain areas of art, such as American, Modern or Renaissance.
  • 26. Reference Books Reference Collection (recently moved)
  • 27. Book Resources
    • Once you have exhausted the university library, branch out to other sources.
    • If you find a book elsewhere that will be useful, record the bibliographic information and order it from Inter-library Loan
  • 28. Inter-Library Loan (ILLiad)
    • For books that are not available in the library, use the inter-library loan system ILLiad
    • 1. Register to use the system on the library website.
    • 2. Fill out the online form for book request.
    • 3. Always be nice to the interlibrary loan staff.
    • 4. Double check that the book is not already in the library.
    • 5. ORDER EARLY TO ENSURE ON TIME DELIVERY!!!!!!
  • 29. For Inter-Library Loan forms Inter-Library Loan (ILLiad)
  • 30. Inter-Library Loan (ILLiad) Interlibrary Loan - Place a request through the ILLiad system and the Interlibrary Loan Department requests the materials for you and notifies you when they arrive. You must register to use the system.
  • 31. Select “book” from navigation, then fill out form Inter-Library Loan (ILLiad)
  • 32. Inter-Library Loan (ILLiad)
    • You will need the following pieces of information to request books:
    • 1.Title (complete title)
    • 2.Author (last name, first name)
    • 3.Publisher
    • 4.Publication Place
    • 5. Publication Date
    • 6.Source where book was cited (internet source, journal, other book)
    • ** Everything you need for a bibliography entry.
  • 33. Inter-Library Loan (ILLiad)
    • For Example:
    • 1.Title (complete title) The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and Their Work
    • 2.Author (last name, first name) Greer, Germaine
    • 3.Publisher Tauris Parke Paperbacks
    • 4.Publication Place New York
    • 5. Publication Date 2001
    • 6.Source where book was cited (internet source, journal, other book) Amazon.com
  • 34. Inter-Library Loan (ILLiad)
    • To help out the inter-library loan staff and help expedite your request, include the ISBN number, or International Standard Book Number.
    • ISBN numbers are similar to bar code numbers, each book has it’s own unique number. It helps to eliminate any confusion.
    • ISBN numbers are located on the page with the other bibliographic information (usually after the title page), and are 10-13 digits long.
    • Example of an ISBN number: 1860646778
  • 35. Inter-Library Loan (ILLiad) Inter-Library Loan Offices
  • 36. Book Resources Check online book retailers like Barnes & Noble and Amazon. Some of the newest books on your subject may be found there.
  • 37. Book Resources Both Amazon and Barnes & Noble provide book reviews to help you determine if the book will be useful. Bibliographic information is also available.
  • 38. Check other online library catalogues like the Library of Congress (http://catalog.loc.gov/) Book Resources
  • 39. Book Resources Look at museum libraries like the National Museum of Women in the Art (http://www.nmwa.org/library/)
  • 40. Book Resources Watsonline is a searchable catalogue of the libraries of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • 41. Book Resources Search multiple art libraries at once using http://www.artlibraries.net With Artlibraries.net, you can simultaneously search across 22 international art library catalogs. Participants include the Getty Research Library and the National Art Library of the Victoria & Albert Museum among other art history institutions in Germany France, Australia, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, UK, and Switzerland.
  • 42. Book Resources Don’t forget other local libraries like Hendrix, Faulkner County Library, and Central Arkansas Library in Little Rock.
  • 43. Book Resources Also check online catalogues of major academic institutions such as Harvard, Princeton and the University of Chicago.
  • 44. Book Resources Don’t forget to check the bibliographies of books you look at during your research for more sources.
  • 45. Journals
  • 46. Journal Indexes
    • The most useful bibliographic tools for scholarly journal articles and exhibition catalogues are journal indexes.
    • Journal indexes are listings of journal articles and exhibition catalogues. Bibliographic information and a short description of the article are included in the index. Full articles can be found in the bound journals, electronic databases, or ordered from Inter-Library Loan.
    • Always begin with the most recent year and work your way back.
  • 47. Journal Indexes
    • These indexes are :
    • Art Index
    • BHA: Bibliography of the History of Art
    • RILA: International Repertory of the Literature of Art
    • ART bibliographies MODERN
    • The Art Index, BHA and RILA are available online through the library’s website.
  • 48. Journal Indexes To access the online indexes, click on “Article/Databases”
  • 49. Journal Indexes Next, click on “Databases A-Z”
  • 50. Journal Indexes To access the Art Index, click on “Art Full Text” or Art Retrospective”
  • 51. Journal Indexes Art Retrospective contains the index of articles from 1929-1984. Art Full Text contains indexing for articles from 1984-present, abstracts of articles from 1994-present, and full text articles from 1997-present. Depending on your subject, you may need to check both indexes.
  • 52. Journal Indexes Both selections will take you to Wilson Web where you will conduct your online search. It is possible to search both databases at the same time.
  • 53. Journal Indexes You can narrow your search terms further, and specify full text options and peer reviewed selections.
  • 54. Journal Indexes To see listing of journals included in the database, click on the tab “Journal Directory” on the top of the search page.
  • 55. Journal Indexes Titles are listed alphabetically and include the dates available to search.
  • 56. Journal Indexes The BHA and RILA indexes are combined into one online database.
  • 57. Journal Indexes Several search options are available.
  • 58. Printed Indexes ARTbibliographies Modern are available in the reference book section of the library. Instructions for use are found in the front of each volumne.
  • 59. Journals
    • For any articles that you cannot access the full text online, check the library to see if it is available in the collection. All journals, or periodicals, are located on the 2 nd floor of the library.
    • The most recent editions are located in the periodical room and are arranged in alphabetical order.
  • 60. Journals Microfilm (or Microforms) and Periodical Office
  • 61. Journals
    • The other editions are bound and located in the stacks. They are usually grouped together by year and filed in the “N” section.
    • Journals cannot be checked out, so remember to bring some change or your copy card if you want a copy of the article for yourself.
  • 62. Journals Bound Periodicals or Journals Art Journals
  • 63. Journals
    • After finding the bibliographic information on an article, check the online catalogue to see if the library has it in its holdings.
  • 64. Look for journal title under “Books”.
  • 65. Entry for bound journals
  • 66. Call number for bound journals and the years available.
  • 67. Journals
    • If the Torreyson Library does not carry the journal you need, then check the electronic resources.
  • 68. For electronic databases
  • 69. Journals Enter title of journal.
  • 70. List of online electronic resources that carry this journal
  • 71. Electronic Resources
    • Full-text journal databases (JSTOR, Academic Search Elite, ProQuest) are available online on library website.
    • You will need a library PIN to access them.
  • 72. Electronic Resources
    • JSTOR and other online services provide the full text and illustrations for a journal article. It is helpful if you already know the bibliographic information for an article, but general searches can provide other articles and sources. Some of the electronic indexes have an online tutorial or help section to assist you.
    • Search multiple databases. They may not contain the same information and sources.
  • 73. Article Databases Electronic Resources
  • 74. ProQuest ProQuest
  • 75. Insert search term into top box. ProQuest
  • 76. Refine search ProQuest
  • 77. Narrow search by type of article Read abstract for general information ProQuest
  • 78. Feature article means it is a full, complete article. Other types include book reviews and catalogues. Print full version of article including images ProQuest
  • 79. You will need a pdf reader to download the articles. ProQuest
  • 80. Academic Search Elite Academic Search Elite
  • 81. Academic Search Elite Enter search term. Narrow search to book, periodical (journal) or newspaper sources.
  • 82. Academic Search Elite Narrow search even further.
  • 83. Academic Search Elite Entries include summaries and bibliographical material. Some articles can be downloaded.
  • 84. JSTOR
  • 85. Individual databases are listed alphabetically in the “Databases A-Z”. Let’s look at JSTOR. JSTOR
  • 86. Tutorial will help you learn how to use JSTOR Enter search term in box.
  • 87. Item information provides viewing of first page.
  • 88. Make sure pop up blocker is off to view and print full version.
  • 89. Journals
    • If the article is not available through an electronic resource, then you can request it through inter-library loan (ILLiad).
  • 90. Click on “Article” in navigation, then fill out form.
  • 91. Fill out the form, then submit. The inter-libary loan office will send an email when your article arrives.
  • 92. Inter-Library Loan (ILL)
    • You will need the following pieces of information to request journal articles:
    • 1. Journal Title (complete title)
    • 2. Journal Volume
    • 3. Journal Number
    • 4. Journal Date
    • 5. Article Title (complete title)
    • 6. Article Pages
    • 7. Article Author
    • 8. Source (internet, bibliography, etc..)
    • ** Everything you need for a bibliography entry.
  • 93. Inter-Library Loan (ILL)
    • For example:
    • 1. Journal Title (complete title) Art Bulletin
    • 2. Journal Volume LXXXIX
    • 3. Journal Number 3
    • 4. Journal Date September 2007
    • 5. Article Title (complete title) Visualizing Appearance and Disappearance: On Caravaggio’s London Supper at Emmaus
    • 6. Article Pages 519-539
    • 7. Article Author Pericolo, Lorenzo
    • 8. Source (internet, bibliography, etc..) Art Index
  • 94. Other Sources
  • 95. Library of Congress Besides the online catalog, the Library of Congress has several online collections that might be useful. American Memory provides free and open access through the Internet to written and spoken words, sound recordings, still and moving images, prints, maps, and sheet music that document the American experience.
  • 96. Library of Congress The Digital Collections contain different print, pictorial and audio-visual collections. Notable collections include American History and Culture , Historic Newspapers , and Prints and Photographs .
  • 97. SIRIS SIRIS- Smithsonian Institution Research Information System http//:www.siris.si.edu SIRIS is a collection of resources for American Art and Artists
  • 98. SIRIS
    • SMITHSONIAN LIBRARIES 1.5 million printed books, manuscripts, periodicals, exhibition catalogs, and electronic versions of rare books and exhibitions.
  • 99. SIRIS Entry will give basic bibliographic information For more detailed information, click on “full description”.
  • 100. SIRIS
    • ARCHIVES, MANUSCRIPTS & PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTIONS 252,000 descriptions of personal papers, manuscripts, photographs, oral histories, films, and organizational records.
  • 101. SIRIS These collections contain papers and other first source materials. They are available only on microfilm and must be viewed in the library. The films can be ordered through Interlibrary Loan. Print this page out for the librarian. You will need the reel number to order.
  • 102. SIRIS SMITHSONIAN AMERICAN ART MUSEUM RESEARCH DATABASES 600,000 records of the Inventory of American Painting & Sculpture, Photograph Archives and Pre-1877 Art Exhibition Catalogue Index.
  • 103. SIRIS Use this database for detailed information on a work of art.
  • 104. World Cat/Fast Cat World Cat is a collection of tens of millions of bibliographic records that represent more than one billion items from libraries and depositories from around the world. It encompasses hundreds of languages and all formats, including books, articles, electronic resources and digital objects. It can be accessed on the “Databases A-Z” page.
  • 105. World Cat Enter search term for a general search.
  • 106. World Cat Search through all of the records, or look at specific types of results like books or articles.
  • 107. World Cat Entries will state if a book or article is available in your library.
  • 108. World Cat If the book or article is not available in your library, World Cat will provide you with the location of where it can be found.
  • 109. Melvyl http://melvyl.cdlib.org/ Melvyl is the online search engine for the University of California Libraries. Books and articles, as well as other media, can be searched.
  • 110. Melvyl From the drop-down box, select “University of California Libraries”.
  • 111. Melvyl Refine your search by author, format, year, etc….
  • 112. Melvyl Book entries include bibliographic material as well as summaries.
  • 113. Melvyl Articles cannot be printed from this site, but bibliographic information is available.
  • 114. Google Scholar Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. From one place, you can search across many disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions, from academic publishers, professional societies, online repositories, universities and other web sites. -From http://scholar.google.com/intl/en/scholar/about.html
  • 115. Google Scholar Books, articles and other media are searched at the same time.
  • 116. Google Scholar Articles may not be downloaded, but the bibliographic information is attached allowing you to find the full article another way.
  • 117. Google Scholar Google Books is also searched on Google Scholar. Google Books is an online source for electronic books.
  • 118. Newspapers
    • Newspapers can be searched two ways:
    • 1. Archives section of newspaper websites.
    • 2. Through ProQuest and Newspaper Source via the “Databases A-Z” page on the Torreyson Library website.
  • 119. Newspapers are a good source for reviews of exhibits and interviews with artists. Search the archives on websites. Newspapers
  • 120. Some sites may want you to pay for articles. Copy the bibliographic information and check electronic resources or in the Mircrofilm office to see if it is available. Needed information to request or search for article Newspapers
  • 121. Newspapers ProQuest contains several major newspapers including The New York Times and Washington Post . Newspaper source from Academic Search Elite(above) can be accessed through “Databases A-Z”.
  • 122. Newspapers
    • If articles cannot be downloaded via the newspaper website or through one of the newspaper databases, they may be found on microfilm in the library. The microfilm (or microform) office is in the same location as periodicals.
    • If the article is not on microfilm, then gather the bibliographic information and request it through Inter-Library Loan.
  • 123. Newspapers
    • You will need the following pieces of
    • information to request newspaper articles:
    • Name of Writer
    • Title of Article
    • Name of Newspaper
    • Date of Newspaper-be specific
    • Section of Newspaper
    • Edition of Newspaper
    • Page Number (if available)
    • Source
  • 124. Newspapers
    • For Example:
    • Name of Writer Niederkorn, William S.
    • Title of Article A Scholar Recants on His “Shakepseare Discovery”
    • Name of Newspaper New York Times
    • Date of Newspaper-be specific June 20, 2002
    • Section of Newspaper Arts Section
    • Edition of Newspaper Midwest Edition
    • Page Number (if available)
    • Source New York Times Online/Archives
  • 125. Museum Websites Check museum and gallery websites for more information on your topic. The National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. is a helpful site.
  • 126. Museum Websites Search for works and artists in “The Collections”. General information about the work.
  • 127. Museum Websites Some works contain bibliographies.
  • 128. Museum Websites The British Museum is another excellent source for information. Search under “Explore” for an object or artist.
  • 129. Museum Websites Detailed description of object. Related objects and articles. Bibliography
  • 130. Artists’ Websites Some artists have their own websites. They may contain detailed information on the artist’s works, biographies and contact information. http://oldenburgvanbruggen.com/
  • 131. Artists’ Websites Be sure it is approved by the artist and not a fan site. Look for endorsements like the one above. http://oldenburgvanbruggen.com/
  • 132. Websites
    • When evaluating a website, use the ABCD method from Harvard University.
    • A-Authority
    • B-Bias
    • C-Currency
    • D-Documentation and Delivery
    • See site below for a complete explanation of system:
    • http://hcl.harvard.edu/research/guides/evaluatingweb/index.html
  • 133. The Artist
    • If your artist is still alive, then contact him/her directly. They are the best source regarding their own work. Always be polite and gracious. Let them know who you are and why you are contacting them. DO SOME RESEARCH FIRST!!!! Asking informed questions will indicate that you are serious.
    • To find your artist, search for a gallery that represents them and contact the gallery for information, or search for the artist’s own website.
  • 134. Sources Not to Use
    • Do not use the following sources:
    • Wikipedia!!!!! It is not a scholarly source and should not be trusted.
    • Websites that do not cite their sources. If you don’t know where the information is coming from, don’t trust it.
    • Book reviews. Use them only to evaluate the content of the book, not as a substitute for the actual tome.
    • 4. Ask.com or other general search websites.
  • 135. Writing Your Paper
    • For help writing your paper see:
    • http://www.writingaboutart.org/index.html -an online guide to writing art papers
    • Barnet, Sylvan. A Short Guide to Writing About Art , 10 th ed. New York: Prentice Hall, 2010.
    • The UCA Writing Center, located in Thompson 109. They can help you with all aspects of your paper, from thesis statement to bibliography. Call for an appointment 450-5123.
  • 136. Images
    • It is very important to provide labeled illustrations with your paper.
    • A proper label includes the following information:
    • Figure number-make sure it corresponds with the text.
    • Name of the Artist (full name)
    • Title (should be underlined or italicized)
    • Date
    • Medium
    • Dimensions
    • Location
    • Source for Image
  • 137. Images
    • Example:
    Figure 1: Mary Cassatt, Self-Portrait , 1878 CE gouache on paper, 23 5/8 x 16 5/16 in. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York From: Mulberger, Richard, What Makes a Cassatt a Cassatt . New York: Viking, 1994, p. 6.
  • 138. Images
    • Make sure your images are clear.
    • If you mention an image extensively, then provide an illustration for it.
    • Include the figure number in the text so that the reader knows for certain to which image you are referring.
    • Do not insert images into the text itself. Images should be included as an appendix to your paper.
    • Always consult your professor’s instructions for specific requirements.
  • 139. Last Word
    • When in doubt, or in need of help, ask a librarian. They can show you various sources in the library’s collection or how to use the online databases.
    • Always be nice to the library staff !!!