Communication between cultures                                                            8TH EDITION        Chapter 3   T...
Key Ideas• Social Institutions and deep structures of  culture• The family’s influence on culture• Cultural variants in fa...
Social Institutions and Deep Structure• Deep structure is conscious and unconscious  assumptions of how world works   – Un...
Social institutions and deep structure• Carry the culture’s most important messages   – Right and wrong   – Fate of power ...
Social institutions and deep structure• Carry messages that deal with personal  identity   – Variety of identities      ba...
Family• The importance of family   – First and chief socializing agent   – Oldest, most fundamental of all human     insti...
Family defined A family is any sexually expressive orparent-child or other kin relationship inwhich people—usually related...
Forms of Family• Nuclear - two-generation: parent/child   – common in developed nations   – elderly reside in retirement c...
Forms of Family• Extended - includes grandparents, relatives   – common in developing and underdeveloped     nations   – c...
Forms of Family• Alternate forms   – Family of orientation - family you’re born into       Family formed with mate - marri...
Transforming families in the U.S.• Social Changes   –   Economic changes   –   Technological innovations   –   Demographic...
Transforming families in the U.S.• New family types   – Traditional” married couples   – Children living with one parent  ...
Globalization and families• Mass media   – New technologies offer family members different     set of value   – Families s...
Functions of the family• Reproduction - allows a culture to perpetuate  itself• Economic - providing for practical needs• ...
Communication, culture and family• The family is both the product of  communication and the context in which  communicatio...
Cultural variants in family interaction:                  Gender roles        US                      Asia                ...
Cultural variants in family interaction:             Gender roles• Westernization and globalization changing  gender roles...
Individualism and Collectivism• Dimension or continuum along which a culture is placed  – Individualistic cultures value i...
Individualism and Collectivism• Individualism and the family   – Emphasis on independence and individual     autonomy   – ...
Individualism and Collectivism• Collectivism and the family   – Family interdependence is stressed   – Extended families r...
Cultural variants in family interaction:                 The elderly         US                         Asia              ...
Cultural variants in family interaction:             Social Skills• Communicating  – Starting and stopping a conversation ...
Cultural variants in family interaction:             Social Skills• Aggression   – Encourage   – Avoid• Decision making   ...
Communication between cultures                                                            8TH EDITION        Chapter 3   T...
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Com 108 Ch3 narration

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  1. 1. Communication between cultures 8TH EDITION Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons from the Family Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from© Cengage 2012 1 the Family
  2. 2. Key Ideas• Social Institutions and deep structures of culture• The family’s influence on culture• Cultural variants in family interaction © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 2
  3. 3. Social Institutions and Deep Structure• Deep structure is conscious and unconscious assumptions of how world works – Unifies collective actions – Deals with significant universal questions• Influenced by social institutions – Family (clans) – State (community) – Religion (worldview/0 © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 3
  4. 4. Social institutions and deep structure• Carry the culture’s most important messages – Right and wrong – Fate of power or free choice – Loyalties – Where you should reside – Preparing for death• Carry enduring messages• Carry messages that are deeply felt © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 4
  5. 5. Social institutions and deep structure• Carry messages that deal with personal identity – Variety of identities based on “I” / based on “we” – Ethnic and cultural identities views we share with our in-groups – Membership in family, faith, community identifies us © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 5
  6. 6. Family• The importance of family – First and chief socializing agent – Oldest, most fundamental of all human institutions – Most basic unit of society, most basic unit of government – Universal © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 6
  7. 7. Family defined A family is any sexually expressive orparent-child or other kin relationship inwhich people—usually related by ancestry,marriage, or adoption—(1) form aneconomic unit and care for any young, (2)consider their identity to be significantlyattached to the group, and (3) commit tomaintaining that group over time.(Lamanna and Riedman 2009, p.26)© Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 7
  8. 8. Forms of Family• Nuclear - two-generation: parent/child – common in developed nations – elderly reside in retirement communities, nursing homes; to take in aged parents regarded as economic burden, threat to household’s privacy, independence – exploration and creativity encouraged © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 8
  9. 9. Forms of Family• Extended - includes grandparents, relatives – common in developing and underdeveloped nations – collection of relatives gathered for economic reasons – share workload of raising the children – more obedience, more organized around rules © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 9
  10. 10. Forms of Family• Alternate forms – Family of orientation - family you’re born into Family formed with mate - marriage, life partnership © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 10
  11. 11. Transforming families in the U.S.• Social Changes – Economic changes – Technological innovations – Demographics – Gender roles and opportunities for women U.S. Census Bureau reports that the number of children under the age of 18 living with both parents declined between 2000 and 2010. Stanford University study calculates that more than 7% of America’s 59 million married couples are interracial (compared to under 2% in 1970) © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 11
  12. 12. Transforming families in the U.S.• New family types – Traditional” married couples – Children living with one parent – A heterosexual woman and man who have cohabited and have children, but have never married – Two gay men or two lesbians who have adopted a child – A single woman or man who has adopted a child (Andersen and Taylor 2011, pp. 319-323) © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 12
  13. 13. Globalization and families• Mass media – New technologies offer family members different set of value – Families struggle to blend traditional patterns with new ones• Migration – To escape poverty, wage-earners separated for long period – Personal closeness of family deteriorates due to absence – Core family values affected © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 13
  14. 14. Functions of the family• Reproduction - allows a culture to perpetuate itself• Economic - providing for practical needs• Socialization - teaching important traditions and social skills as well as values and morals• Identity - most important social identity; precursor to all others © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 14
  15. 15. Communication, culture and family• The family is both the product of communication and the context in which communication takes place• The family teaches many communication skills – Introduces people to language – Tells people how to employ language © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 15
  16. 16. Cultural variants in family interaction: Gender roles US Asia Latino Indian ArabMales socialized to Confucianism Male undisputed Hinduism positions Islam characterizesbe successful, made men authority (oldest masculinity and males asaggressive, sexual, relevant members son assumes role femininity as physically,self-reliant of society; task when father oppositional mentally, morally functional absent) stronger;Females: nurturing, Women relegated Motherhood Males superior; Koran addressessensitive, to social sacred; women females devoted men only; directsinterdependent, dependence; homemakers to husband’s women to obeyappearance social/cultural welfare husbands;conscious functional Men valued; women viewed through prism of family, honor, chastity © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 16
  17. 17. Cultural variants in family interaction: Gender roles• Westernization and globalization changing gender roles – Women increasingly incorporated into world economy – Must guard against applying Western standards to all © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 17
  18. 18. Individualism and Collectivism• Dimension or continuum along which a culture is placed – Individualistic cultures value individual over group self-motivation, autonomy, independent thinking – Collectivists share intense feelings of dependence, loyalty collective interests of the group placed before personal harmony sought; disapproval avoided © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 18
  19. 19. Individualism and Collectivism• Individualism and the family – Emphasis on independence and individual autonomy – Mother and child are distinct – Child is encouraged to leave the nest – Child encouraged to think for themselves © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 19
  20. 20. Individualism and Collectivism• Collectivism and the family – Family interdependence is stressed – Extended families rely on each other for care of children, friendship and support – The family is ahead of the individual © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 20
  21. 21. Cultural variants in family interaction: The elderly US Asia Latino ArabPrefers youth to old Devotion, Elderly respected Young peopleage, resulting in age obligation to past, and cared for encouraged tobias. Exceptions: elders, ancestors Compadrazgo listen to and learn (godparents) from eldersNative American held in highelders safe-keepers, esteem, integralcarriers of tribal to familyoral traditions structureAfrican Americangrandmothers mostcentral role infamily © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 21
  22. 22. Cultural variants in family interaction: Social Skills• Communicating – Starting and stopping a conversation – Turn taking – When not to interrupt – Using silence – Appropriate topics of conversation – Using humor – Use of nonverbal communication © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 22
  23. 23. Cultural variants in family interaction: Social Skills• Aggression – Encourage – Avoid• Decision making – How to make choices – How to come to conclusions – In person-oriented families more a verbally expressive child or spouse may play a larger role in decision making © Cengage 2012 Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from the Family 23
  24. 24. Communication between cultures 8TH EDITION Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons from the Family Chapter 3 The Deep Structure of Culture: Lessons Learned from© Cengage 2012 24 the Family
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