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The home front

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  • 1. The Home Front & The Aftermath of the War
  • 2. USSR• Leningrad – under siege for 900 days• Battle of Machines – entire factories were moved to the interior and produced war munitions.• Soviet women worked in industries, mines, railroads, some served in the military as snipers and aircrew.
  • 3. U.S.• American economy mobilization for war• Turmoil – Housing & schools shortage – Racial tensions & race riots – Segregation in U.S. military• Japanese Americans – 110,000 moved to internment camps
  • 4. Germany• To maintain morale Hitler refused to cut consumer goods production or to increase the production of armaments• 1942 order massive increase in armaments, Albert Speer was put in charge (too late)• 1944 Schools, theaters, and cafes were closed• Women were encouraged to enter the work force, few did
  • 5. Japan• Wartime Japan was highly mobilized• Young Japanese men were encouraged to volunteer in suicide mission against the U.S. (kamikaze)• Female employment increased in farming and the textile industry – Chinese and Korean labors were brought in to meet the Kamikaze attack on the LST534 labor shortage
  • 6. Bombing of Cities• Most thought that bombing civilian populations would be an effective way to force governments to make peace.• Battle of Britain – proved this theory wrong!• British began bombing German cities – Destruction of Dresden• Incendiary bomb create firestorms• 500,000 civilians die in bombing – survivors were not more determined to fight to the death• Bombing did not slow down production of war goods
  • 7. Bombing of Cities cont.• The bombing of civilians reached a new level with the first atomic bomb. U.S. B-29 Superfortress
  • 8. Harry Truman• Harry Truman – U.S. Pres after FDR dies – Has to decide if U.S. should use atomic bomb
  • 9. Atomic Bomb• Use of Atomic Bomb – Allow U.S. to avoid invasion of Japan • Estimated 90% casualty rate to invade JAP – Aug 6 – 1st bomb dropped on Hiroshima – Aug 9 – 2nd bomb dropped on Nagasaki • Both cities leveled • Hiroshima: 71,379 instantly killed, 70,000 die later from radiation poisoning. • Nagasaki: 25,000 instantly killed, 45,000 die by end of year from radiation poisoning
  • 10. Atomic Bomb cont.• Almost everything within a one-mile radius of the explosion’s center spontaneously combusted.• Granite stone melted• People vaporized left ghostly images imprinted on stone walls & sidewalks.*Information from Everything World War II
  • 11. Peace & a New War• WWII was followed by a period of political tensions known as the Cold War• Tehran Conference• Yalta Conference• Potsdam Conference
  • 12. End of the War• Aug 14 – Emperor Hirohito surrendered – 17 million dead in battle – 20 million dead civilians – Some estimate total dead 50 million – Immediately after the war, Russia and the U.S. went their separate ways – This rivalry between east & west was known as the Cold War
  • 13. End of the War in Europe• Alliespushed inland & brokeGer defenses•August 1944 –Allies liberatedParis•Russians defeated Germans atBattle of Kursk•Soviets move on to occupyWarsaw–Jan 1945•March 1945 – crossed RhineRiver into Germany•End April 1945 – Allies in N.Germany moved toward Elbe R& linked w/Soviets •Hitler committed suicide April 30, 1945-2•Allies entered Berlin April 23, days later Mussolini is killed1945 •May 7, 1945-Germans surrendered -VE Day
  • 14. • Nuremberg Trials – Dachau Trials – Prosecutor Colonel Denson (Bham, AL) – Alleged former Nazi deported to Austria from U.S. Nuremberg Trials
  • 15. • West thought Soviets were pushing Communism world-wide• Soviets viewed the West especially America pushed global capitalism• March 1946 “Iron curtain” divided EU into two hostile camps