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Industrial Revolution

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  • As you now know about the inventions that were created during the Ind. Rev, now let’s take a closer look at the first factories.
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    • 1. Today we are learning how the world was effected by the inventions of the Industrial Revolution.
    • 2.  Arkwright’s water frame  Spin yarn/thread faster/stronger than spinning jenny  Too big for home operation  Need for special buildings near water  Need for worker in area Crompton’s spinning mule  Spinning jenny + water frame Cartwright’s power loom  Used steam to produce product faster than man power  The Luddites  Disgruntled workers feared job loss or lower wages  Australia bound What does this lead to? New labor system  Shift work & Rural worker issues
    • 3.  Mid 18th century- Eng – no forest  Man/horse power – too slow Coal = answer  Problem- Mines filled w/ water
    • 4.  Thomas Savery’s steam- powered pump  Very dangerous, often exploded  – no movable parts
    • 5.  Thomas Newcomen’s true steam-powered engine  Boiler, piston, & cylinder
    • 6.  James Watt’s engine  Fixed both Thomas’ problems  Steam cool away from cylinder  More efficient and produced more raw power
    • 7.  Before 18th century no change from Middle Ages in Iron production. Henry Cort’s puddling furnace  Allowed pig(raw) iron to be refined w/coke(coal-H2O)  Produced stronger iron Iron Production Stats: 1740 1780s (after Cort’s invention) 1852 17,000 tons 70,000 tons 3 million tons What does this lead to?
    • 8.  Iron Industry  Henry Cort, puddling (produces high quality iron)  Stronger iron allows for new machines, esp. trains Railroad  Richard Trevithick, steam-powered locomotive  George Stephenson, Rocket, 1830 Ripple effect  Prices of goods fall; markets grow larger; increased sales mean more factories and machinery; thus, self- sustaining The Industrial Factory  Workers in shifts  Workers come from rural areas  Regulations
    • 9.  Population Growth and Urbanization  European population 1750 -140 million 1850 - 266 million  Decline of death rate  Less war  Less disease  More food  Growth of cities  Poor living conditions  Sanitation poor
    • 10.  Potato crop infested w/fungus 1/3 of population depends on potato to survive 1 million people died 1 million moved to US
    • 11.  New Social Classes: The Industrial Middle Class  New bourgeoisie/New elite  Constructed the factories, purchased the machines, figured out where the markets were  Reduce the barriers between themselves and the landed elite New Social Classes: The Industrial Working Class  Poor working conditions  12-16 hours per day, 6 days a week  Women and children  Paid ½ of what men get  Factory Act of 1833 – minimum age to work - 9 Efforts at Change  Socialism – society (govt) owns factors of production  Utopian socialists – all fail
    • 12. Today we are learning about working conditions during the Industrial Revolution
    • 13.  Not until the 1820s Why work in a factory? Cottages works – step backwards  No more setting own schedule Machinery  Very dangerous
    • 14.  Entire families hired  All worked in home, so all worked in factories Men  Hardest labor Women  Operated machines Children  Swept  Picked up scraps  Worked on machines

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