Artificial Intelligence (AI) is usually
defined as the science of making
computers do things that require
intelligence when done by humans.
A.I is the study of ideas that enable
computers to be intelligent.
The collective attributes of a
computer, robot, or other device
capable of performing functions such
as learning, decision making, or other
intelligent human behaviors.
The real emergence of AI (in computer technology) came during the years 1945-
Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, and J.C. Shaw
were founders and pioneers of Artificial Intelligence.
These innovators of AI broke away from conventional approaches and examined
how to implement human thought in computers.
The first term of Artificial Intelligence was first applied in 1956 by John McCarthy
during the Dartmouth Conference.
The Dartmouth Conference was the first gathering of all researchers to develop
and focus on applying intelligence to computers.
Logic Theorist was considered the first AI program. (In 1956)
• Although some all-purpose languages such as C, C++ and Java are used to create
intelligent software, two languages are specifically designed for AI: LISP and
• LISP (LISt Programming) was invented by John McCarthy in 1958. As the name
implies, LISP is a programming language that manipulates lists.
• PROLOG (PROGRAMMING IN LOGIC) is a language that can build a database of
facts and a knowledge base of rules. A program in PROLOG can use logical
reasoning to answer questions that can be inferred from the knowledge base.
Artificial intelligence works with the help of
Artificial Neurons (Artificial
• Artificial neural networks are composed
of interconnecting artificial neurons
(programming constructs that mimic the
properties of biological neurons).
• An expert system is a computer program that is designed to hold the accumulated
knowledge of one or more domain experts.
• It reasons with knowledge of some specialist subject with a view to solving problems
or giving advice.
• They are tested by being placed in the same real world problem solving situation.
• Expert systems like: Super computers that are mainly used for weather forecasting.
• Autonomous robots that are used in scientific field and medical field works with their
The special ability of artificial intelligence is to reach a solution based on facts
rather than on a preset series of steps—is what most closely resembles the
thinking function of the human brain.
Human Intelligence Artificial Intelligence
• Intuition, Common sense,
Judgement, Creativity, Beliefs
• The ability to demonstrate their
intelligence by communicating
• Plausible Reasoning and Critical
• Ability to simulate human
behavior and cognitive processes.
• Capture and preserve human
• Raise legal and ethical concerns.
• Humans are fallible.
• They have limited knowledge
• Information processing of serial
nature proceed very slowly in the
brain as compared to computers.
• Humans are unable to retain large
amounts of data in memory.
• No “common sense”.
• Cannot readily deal with
• May have high development
• Fast Response. The ability to
comprehend large amounts of
We achieve more than we know. We know more than we understand. We understand more than we
can explain (Claude Bernard, 19th C French scientific philosopher)
3 Main Components of A.I.:
2 Main Software/Programming languages:
The artificial creation of human speech through a speech synthesizer.
It then uses a process called text-to-speech which changes the text into speech.
The quality of speech synthesis is often judged by how well its understood, and
how well it resembles actual human speech.
Speech synthesis is also used with speech recognition in other A.I. technologies.
Converts audio signals into text, or takes spoken input and changes it to written
It maps the audio signals to form an abstract meaning of the spoken input.
Digital input is then
broken down in (x)
Program then compares the
phonemes to words in its
Program then decides what it
thinks the word is and displays
the best choice
*Phoneme-symbol or unit
that represents sounds of
The logical reasoning process calculates results from specific variables in the
More or less the variables have to be definite rather than a slight chance or good
chance of being accurate.
The only results suitable are those that logically follow the inputted variables.
• IBM’s Watson.
• Driver-less Transportation.
• Automated Assembly Lines and
• Surgery Aid Robots.
• Next-Generation Traffic Control
• IBM’s Watson is currently being put to work in healthcare and finance.
• Natural language processing - to help understand the complexities of unstructured
data which makes up as much as 90% of the data in the world today
• Hypothesis generation and evaluation - by applying advanced analytics to weight
and evaluate a panel of responses based on only relevant evidence
• Evidence-based learning - to improve based on outcomes to get smarter with each
iteration and interaction
Watson in Medicine:
• Watson can incorporate treatment guidelines, electronic medical record data, doctor's
and nurse's notes, research, clinical studies, journal articles, and patient information
in order to better inform the doctor of a proper diagnosis
Watson in Finance:
• Capable of performing deep content analysis and evidence-based reasoning to
accelerate and improve decisions, reduce operational costs, and optimize outcomes.
• Google has been investing in a driverless car, and has completed over 480,000
autonomous-driving miles accident-free.
• Through the use of cameras, sensors and special software built into vehicles
manufacturers have been able to build cars that park themselves at the touch of a
• Driverless trains carry passengers from city to city in Japan without the need for
• Google’s driverless car relies on lasers and sensors to spot obstacles, interpret signs
and interact with traffic and pedestrians.
• Artificial intelligence takes away the responsibility from the drivers, and also
eliminates the danger of distracted driving and boasts a reaction time much faster
than that of any human.
• Some countries have put smart robots to work disabling land mines and handling
radioactive materials in order to limit the risk to human workers.
• Ford is using an Artificial Intelligence based approach for vehicle assembly process
planning, ergonomics analysis, and a system that uses machine translation to
translate assembly-build instructions for assembly plants that don't use English.
• Other Companies such as GM have developed robots with Artificial Intelligence
techniques to inspect cars made by humans.
• Cedars-Sinai Medical Center relies on special
software to examine the heart and stop heart
attacks before they occur
• Artificial muscles feature smart technology that
allows them to function more like real muscles.
• Penelope, a Robotic Surgery Assistant
developed at Columbia University can not only
pass the correct tools to doctors, but also keep
track of these tools and learn about a doctor's
preferences through artificial intelligence.
• The most advanced surgical robots are
programmed to perform the entire surgery on
their own, except for the suturing or the cutting.
In these operations, a surgeon stands by just in
case something goes wrong.
• Miniature intelligent robots are being
developed for eye surgeries.
Right now, A.I. is at level comparable to less
intelligent animals or insects.
Is it possible to go farther, to reach human
“Cognitivists”, who believe the human
conscious can be simulated, and “Anti-
Cognitivists” who believe it to be impossible.
2050: Estimated date of the emergence of the
Singularity, or greater-than-human super-
At this point, it’s thought that certain machines
will exceed the human brain in terms of
It’s believed that this breakthrough will lead to a
rapid advancement in technology, as super
intelligent A.I. designs new computers and
machines at a rate no human could
Strong A.I. is intelligence that matches or
exceeds that of human intelligence.
Ultimate goal of A.I. research.
Weak A.I. is narrow/more focused than strong
Whole Brain emulation- Mapping and re-
creating the human brain through neuro-
One basic problem lies in the question of what
intelligence is exactly.
How can we recreate a learning, thinking
mind with technology? Is it even possible?
Some do not think so.
David Gelernter, a Yale professor, says A.I.
is “lost in the woods”.
What is the human conscious? Gelernter argues that we can’t construct a conscious
A.I. without even knowing what exactly the conscious is.
“Without this cognitive continuum, AI has no comprehensive view of thought: it
tends to ignore some thought modes (such as free association and dreaming), is
uncertain how to integrate emotion and thought, and has made strikingly little
progress in understanding analogies--which seem to underlie creativity.”
Scientists need to figure out the “algorithms of thought”, basically a way to
mathematically simulate the human thought process.
The human brain relies on chemistry and physics of different molecules in order to
function. How could scientists ever replicate this process?
For Humans Intelligence is no more than
TAKING a right decision at right time
For Machines Artificial Intelligence is no more
than CHOOSING a right decision at right time
I think Artificial intelligence is the Second
intelligence ever to exist
Be Not Afraid Of Falling Be Afraid Of Not Trying