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It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
It social and emotional development s13 part i
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It social and emotional development s13 part i

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  • 1. Chapter 7Part ISocial and Emotional Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
  • 2. 2What are emotions and feelings?• Emotions– Come from within an individual, though they may bemotivated by external events• Feelings– Refers to a physical sense of, or an awareness of, anemotional state– Involve the capacity to respond to an emotional state
  • 3. 3The Development of Emotions and Feelings• Newborns’ emotions are related to immediateexperiences and sensations• Young infants’ emotional responses are not wellrefined• Toddlers may express pride, embarrassment,shame, and empathy
  • 4. 4The Development of Emotions and Feelings• All feelings are good.– All feelings carry energy and have a purpose– Some are “yes!” feelings, while others are “no!”feelings
  • 5. 5The Development of Emotions and Feelings• Examples of “yes!” feelings include:– Joy, pleasure, delight, satisfaction, and power• Examples of “no!” feelings are:– Fear and anger
  • 6. 6Developing a Sense of Trust• Erikson’s Psychosocial Development– Trust versus Mistrust Stage– First year of life– If infant’s needs are consistently met, they learn todevelop a sense of basic trust– Sets the stage for positive emotional life• Trust requires– Physical comfort– Minimal fear– A predictable, consistent and accepting caregiver
  • 7. 7Smiling• Newborn children sometimes smile, but their smiles arenot enduring or strong and occur most often while theyare asleep• Endogenous smiles– Smile that is triggered by change in nervous system activity– Involves only lower face muscles– By 2-3 weeks, infants smile when gently stimulated by high-pitched sounds or by soft stroking of their abdomens
  • 8. 8Smiling• Newborn children sometimes smile, but their smiles arenot enduring or strong and occur most often while theyare asleep• Exogenous smiles– Smile that is triggered by external stimuli• Visual, tactile, auditory– Smiles are fuller and more expressive
  • 9. 9Smiling• Social smile– Around 6-8 weeks of age– Smile triggered by social stimuli– Longer lasting, involves the entire face• Instrumental smiling– Around 10 weeks of age– Smiling to achieve a goal• Smiling is a genetic adaptation that promotes closecontact and emotional ties
  • 10. 10Laughter• Appears at 4 months inresponse to physicalstimulation• At 6 months, infantslaugh in response tovisual and social stimuliPhoto credit of Gabriela Martorell.Children progress from laughter based on physical stimulationto laughter based on cognitive interpretations
  • 11. 11Laughter: Cross-Cultural Issues• The development of smiling and laughter issimilar cross-culturally• However, the behaviors caregivers use varyby culture– E.g., using toys, using physical contact
  • 12. 12Social Referencing• Using caregivers as a source of informationabout how to respond to an uncertainemotional situation or condition• The infant will assess the caregiver’s emotionalappraisal of the situation as a guide to theirown behavior– They “catch” emotional responses from caregivers
  • 13. 13Crying• Mechanism by which infants communicatetheir needs• Crying begins as a reflex response that hassurvival value and progressively becomesmore controllable• Crying increases over the first 6 weeks of lifeand then decreases
  • 14. 14Crying• Crying progresses frominternal to external sourcesof stimulation• As infants become older,their crying graduallybecomes more related tocognitive and emotionalconditions than to physicalones Elizabeth Crews/Image Works
  • 15. 15Types of Cries• Basic cry– Rhythmic, then brief silence, short inhalation whistle,and then another brief silence• Anger cry– Excess air is forced through vocal cords; gives the cry amore breathy sound• Pain cry– Sudden, loud, longer duration, followed by a briefperiod of breath holding• Hunger cry– Braying sound, accompanied by kicking in the samerhythm as the crying
  • 16. 16Developmental Course• Infants cry most in the first 3 months of life– Average is about 2 hours/day• Typically, infants are fussy in the evening• As the infant ages, the fussy period switchesto feeding times
  • 17. 17Cultural Issues• People have different responses to crying infants– Some cultures discourage crying– Some cultures do not discourage crying– Understand how a culture views inner control versusexternal control
  • 18. 18Anger – Developmental Course• 9 months– Infants develop a sense of control– Anger and temper tantrums emerge out offrustration• 12 months– Infants become aware of and frustrated by thelimits they experience
  • 19. 19Three Important Changes During Toddlerhood• Increased ability to express anger– Crying decreases, defiant language increases• Limitations in social understanding– Difficulty waiting, sharing, patience• Strivings towards autonomy– Their newfound want for independence conflicts withwhat is best for them
  • 20. 20Self-Conscious Emotions• Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory– Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt– Late infancy and toddler years• Self-conscious emotions emerge– Pride, shame, embarrassment, guilt– These emotions involve injury to or enhancementof one’s sense of
  • 21. 21Self-Conscious Emotions• Toddlers assert their independence, and hence feel pridebut if they are restrained or punished too much, they mayfeel shame• In order for self-conscious emotions to develop, childrenmust have:– A conscious awareness of themselves versus others– A recognition that certain rules and expectations need to be met– The ability to evaluate behavior in relation to these standards– A sense of responsibility for meeting or not meeting thesestandards
  • 22. 22Self-Recognition• Rouge test– Does the baby recognize herself in a mirror?– A spot of rouge is dabbed on the nose– Once a baby has self-awareness, she will touch hernose and/or appear embarrassed• Ability develops between 15-24 months of age
  • 23. 23Gender Differences• Girls are more likely to show shame at a failedtask– Difference begins in toddlerhood and remainsthrough adulthood• Gender differences in shame expression maybe due to socialization
  • 24. 24Play• Play provides opportunities to learn about theworld• Play provides young children with theopportunity to experiment with emotions in arelatively stress-free environment• Infants’ and toddlers’ play is often repetitiousand ritualistic

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