Chapter 6 pp modified ii

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Infant Toddler Cognitive Language Development II

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Chapter 6 pp modified ii

  1. 1. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Cognitive and Language Development inInfancy and ToddlerhoodChapter 6Part II
  2. 2. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Language• A social tool consisting of a complex set of rules for usingsymbols• Limited number of words provide an unlimited number ofmessages
  3. 3. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Necessary Skills for Language• Distinguish sound and sound patterns• Phonemes• Learn the meaning of words• Semantics• Learn to put words together• Syntax• Learn to use language in a social context• Pragmatics
  4. 4. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Distinguishing Speech Sounds• Languages differ in the number and types of phonemes used• At birth, infants can hear all phonemes• By 10 months, infants lose sensitivity to unused phonemes
  5. 5. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Early Speech Sounds• Cooing• Soft, repetitive vowel sounds such as “ahh”and “ooh”• Babbling• Repeating consonant-vowel combinationssuch as “mama” or “dada” two or moretimes
  6. 6. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.First Words• Receptive language• Children’s understanding oflanguage• Expressive language• Children’s ability to producelanguage• Receptive language precedesexpressive language
  7. 7. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Developmental Course• In the first year, infants• Communicate through gestures• Produce word-like sounds• Respond to words• 12 months• First word• Typically the name of common object or person• Indicates gains in abstract thinking• Holophrases• Individual words that convey as much meaning as sentences• i.e., “milk” may mean “I want milk.”
  9. 9. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Developmental Course• 12-18 months• Add about 3 words/month• 18-24 months• Vocabulary “explosion”• Use of words in social rituals• 2 years• Words indicating success (“hooray”) and failure (“uh-oh”) areused• New words are invented• Acquire about 10 words/day
  10. 10. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Over- and Under-Extending Meaning• Overextension• The use of words to refer to objects or things that are outsidethe bounds of the category named by the word• Underextension• The use of words to refer to fewer items than the word actuallynames• Both are common childhood language mistakes
  11. 11. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.First Sentences• Telegraphic speech• Early language in which only highly informative words are usedand less informative words are neglected• Order of words illustrates grammatical knowledge• Gradually becomes elaborated
  12. 12. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Early Talkers• Children between 11-20 months of age in the top 10% forvocabulary production• Early talkers are normal in comprehension but exceedinglyhigh in their production of speech
  13. 13. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Late Talkers• Children at the bottom of the vocabulary production scalerelative to peers• Mixed developmental outcome• About half catch up within 1 year• About half continue to show delays• Risk factors• Children in families of low socioeconomic status• Children with the greatest language development delays• Children with the smallest expressive vocabularies
  14. 14. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Reinforcement-Based Theories• Emphasis on environmental influences• Learning occurs via reinforcement of correct and grammaticalforms of speech• Caregivers encourage infants to talk and reinforce their talkingwith praise, affection, and attention• This motivates children to communicate• Learning also occurs via observation and imitation of others
  15. 15. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Environment-Based Theories• Rewards are less central than is exposure to the environment• The regularities children hear in speech provide the verbalinput for language• “Statistical learning”• Learning which sounds go together helps language acquisition
  16. 16. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Objections to Learning-Based Theories• Do not adequately explain the development of grammar• Parents rarely reward or punish children’s grammar• Children create novel words and phrases they could not haveheard anyone say before
  17. 17. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Innate Theories of Language• Humans have a species-specific capacity for learninglanguage• Children are born with a language acquisition device (LAD)in their brain that allows them to understand the universalgrammar of all human languages
  18. 18. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Evidence• Children all over the world acquire language in similar ways• The brain is specialized for language• Different aspects of language are processed in specific locations• These language “modules” are evidence of evolutionary wiring
  19. 19. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Critical Periods• Critical period for language acquisition from about 2 years -puberty• Rapid brain development in the first years of life is tied tolanguage abilities• Without language exposure during the critical period, the abilityto fully develop language is lost• Immigrants master languages more or less successfullydepending on age at immigration
  20. 20. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Social Interaction Theories• The social context of languageis a fundamental part oflanguage development• By talking to them, caregiversexpose infants to the rules,contexts, and patterns ofspeech• Child’s active participation iscrucial
  21. 21. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Child-Directed Speech• Simple, repetitive sentences spoken in a high-pitched voice• Exaggerated intonation to direct and maintain the child’sattention• A simple, repetitious vocabulary focused on present events• A modification of words that may be difficult for the child• There are both cultural and individual differences in theamount used
  22. 22. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Teaching by Exposure• Expansion and Extension• Taking young children’s simplified language and adding complexityand completeness to it• So, if a child says, "Puppy outside....”• We can expand this utterance by saying, "Puppy IS outside“• Weve expanded because weve kept the word order the same (puppy is the firstword, outside is the second- and we havent changed this), but weve made it just abit longer• We can extend this utterance instead by saying, "Hes barking"• Weve extended the conversation by adding a bit more information. This is the keyto extension• Acts as scaffolding
  23. 23. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Language Learning in Deaf Children• Deaf children learn sign language at the same rate andin the same pattern as speaking children• Even if not exposed to sign language, they will attemptto communicate with gestures
  24. 24. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.The Resiliency of Language• Hearing children of deaf parents will learn to speak with only5-10 hours/week of exposure to hearing speakers• Blind children do not experience delays in languagedevelopment• Children with left hemisphere brain damage can oftenrecover language abilities
  25. 25. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.The Fragility of Language• Not all aspects of language are resilient• The ability to acquire language diminishes with age• The sensitive period for acquisition gradually closes• This is supported by brain imaging studies, especially forgrammar

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