Chapter 2 pp part ii

384 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
384
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 2 pp part ii

  1. 1. Chapter 2Understanding and Studying Child Development Part II
  2. 2. COGNITIVE THEORIES: Piaget • Cognition-based theories emphasize the role of mental processes such as memory, decision making, and information processing in influencing development. • Piaget speculated that children of different ages use different kinds of thought processes.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|2
  3. 3. COGNITIVE THEORIES: Piaget • Intelligence is an active process; people acquire information by interacting with objects, ideas, and other people • Children’s abilities to interact with the environment are based on their schemes – cognitive guides, or blueprints, for processing information – Infants use schemes based on their senses – Children use schemes based on appearanceCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|3
  4. 4. COGNITIVE THEORIES: Piaget - Adaptation • Children develop their problem-solving abilities through two continually occurring processes of adaptation: – Assimilation • Directly processing information that fits a scheme – Accommodation • Changing the scheme to fit the new informationCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|4
  5. 5. COGNITIVE THEORIES: Piaget - Stages of Development• Intelligence undergoes dramatic changes over time, referred to as stages in cognitive development.• Each stage is marked by specific types of thinking and problem-solving skills. – Sensorimotor – Preoperational – Concrete Operational – Formal OperationalCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|5
  6. 6. COGNITIVE THEORIES: Piaget - Sensorimotor Stage • Birth to 2 years • Learning occurs via senses and motor skills • Object permanence – the understanding that objects continue to exist even when the child cannot see them Photo credit of Gabriela Martorell.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|6
  7. 7. Preoperational Stage • 2 to 7 years of age – Think in symbols – Are egocentric – Believe that everyone sees the world as they do – Fooled by the appearance of an object; their thinking is based on that appearanceCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|7
  8. 8. COGNITIVE THEORIES: Piaget - Concrete Operational Stage • 7 to 11 years of age – Use of logic to solve problems – Understand that things maintain their identity even through their outward appearance may be changedCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|8
  9. 9. COGNITIVE THEORIES: Piaget - Formal Operations Stage • Begins at 11 years of age – Application of logical principles to abstract situations – Increased interest in broader social issuesCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|9
  10. 10. COGNITIVE THEORIES: Vygotsky • Proposed a theory of development based on the idea that children use psychological tools such as language, numbering systems, and maps to develop higher levels of thinking • Social interaction as key determinant of developmentCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 10
  11. 11. COGNITIVE THEORIES: Vygotsky • Learning occurs via interactions with more sophisticated others • Zone of proximal development – The distance between what a child can do unaided and what a child can do through interaction with skilled helpersCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 11
  12. 12. COGNITIVE THEORIES: Vygotsky • Through their routine interactions, caregivers and teachers provide meaningful assistance to children in developing cognitive, social, and emotional skills • These guidance messages become the silent inner speech that is used to guide behaviorCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 12
  13. 13. COGNITIVE THEORIES: Information Processing Theory• People have limited capacities for learning but can flexibly apply strategies to find ways around those limitations – The sensory register • Briefly retain visual, auditory, and other information taken in through the senses – Short-term memory • Holds information long enough for the person to evaluate and selectively act on inputs – Long-term memory • Unlimited capacity for storing information over long periods of timeCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 13
  14. 14. CONTEXTUAL THEORIES: • To truly understand child development, one must study children in their historical, social, and cultural contexts.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 14
  15. 15. CONTEXTUAL THEORIES: Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory • The child’s experiences are viewed as subsystems within larger systems, or a set of nested structures • Child interacts with the environment, those interactions are the engine of developmentCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 15
  16. 16. Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Model • microsystem – immediate environment – i.e., toys, structure of the environment, roles and relationships of family members • mesosystem – connections among settings – includes the child and how these connections affect the child – i.e., relationships at school affect home relationshipsCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 16
  17. 17. Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Model • exosystem – connections among settings – does not include child but indirectly affects the child – i.e., parents’ job, friends, neighborhood • macrosystem – larger society values, historical changes and social policiesCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 17
  18. 18. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 18
  19. 19. CONTEXTUAL THEORIES: Dynamic Systems Theory• Complex systems form from basic and simple conditions without requiring a master plan for development• The individual parts of a system – control parameters – interact in ways that eventually lead to advancement to a new level or a new form• The rate-limiting component – is the last developing part of the system; this is when the system evolves into a new formCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 19
  20. 20. The Scientific Method • Goal: finding the probable explanation • Designed to produce results that are – objective – reliable – validCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 20
  21. 21. The Scientific Method • Steps – Formulating a hypothesis – Designing a study – Collecting evidence – Interpreting and reporting the evidenceCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 21
  22. 22. Topics in Developmental Science • Basic developmental research – Designed to answer broad, fundamental questions • Applied developmental research – Designed to solve practical problemsCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 22
  23. 23. Research Strategies • CASE STUDIES • CLINICAL INTERVIEWS • SURVEY STUDIES • NATURALISTIC STUDIES • CORRELATIONAL STUDIES • EXPERIMENTAL STUDIESCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 23
  24. 24. Case Studies • In-depth examination of a single person • May not be generalizable to others • Often useful for unusual or rare conditionsCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 24
  25. 25. Clinical Interviews • Detailed interview with participant • May be biased by participant telling experimenter what they think he/she wants to hear • Participant must be language proficient • Flexible method • Offers insightCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 25
  26. 26. Survey Studies • Involves responses to sets of structured questions • Data is easy to obtain • Self-presentation issues (participant may answer questions so interviewer may see them in a positive light)Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 26
  27. 27. Naturalistic Studies • Observation of people in their natural environments • People tend to behave normally • Difficult to generalize from one setting to another • No control over settingCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 27
  28. 28. Correlational Studies • Are two variables related to each other? – Correlation coefficient • Cannot establish causality – does one cause the other? • Provides ethical means to study sensitive topicsCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 28
  29. 29. Experimental Studies • Used for determining causality – does one cause the other? • Provides experimental control • Involves creation of manipulated situation in a laboratory – Can lead to artificial responses from participantsCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 29
  30. 30. Measuring Change over Time • Cross-Sectional Studies – Individuals of different ages are tested at the same point in time, and the results from each age group are compared • Longitudinal Studies – Tests the same group of individuals at different points in time • Cohort-Sequential Research Design – Children of different ages are involved and studied over timeCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 30
  31. 31. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 31
  32. 32. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 32
  33. 33. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 33
  34. 34. Measuring Children’s Behavior • Physiological measures – Record responses of the body • Behavioral measures – Direct assessment of behavior through observation • Self-report – Asking people questions; usually questionnaire- based • Projective measures – Indirectly assess individuals’ psychological statesCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 34
  35. 35. Challenges in Research with Children • self-report and projective measures cannot be used with infants and young children • young children, even if verbal, may lack insight into their behavior • testing infants is difficult • ethical issues; particularly non-verbal children and their refusal to participateCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 35

×