Chapter 2 pp part i

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Chapter 2 pp part i

  1. 1. Chapter 2Understanding and Studying Child Development Part I
  2. 2. Scientific Theories • Developmental scientists formulate theories or hypotheses about the causes of behavior and use these to design studies about development and make sense of their findings. • Theories of child developmental help developmental scientists decide what to focus on when they study or work with children. • People develop implicit theories to help them understand and explain other people’s behavior.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|2
  3. 3. Scientific Theories • A structured sets of ideas that attempts to organize and explain facts (an objective statement of truth.) • Opinions result from an individual’s “feelings” about a given item and may or may not be based on fact. • Different theories provide different frames of reference for interpreting facts, and there is a tendency to interpret facts in ways that fit the theory.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|3
  4. 4. Evaluating Theories of Development • A good theory is: – Understandable – Predicts future events – Explains facts – Provides practical guidance – Stimulates new knowledge – Empirically based (based on observation and experimentation) – testableCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|4
  5. 5. Theoretical Approaches to Child Development • BIOLOGICAL THEORIES • ETHOLOGICAL THEORIES • NEURODEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES • PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES • LEARNING THEORIES • COGNITIVE THEORIES • CONTEXTUAL THEORIESCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|5
  6. 6. BIOLOGICAL THEORIES • Biology-based theories assume that powerful organic or inherited forces influence behavior – Evolutionary factors – Physiological development (i.e., brain functioning)Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|6
  7. 7. BIOLOGICAL THEORIES: Evolutionary Theory • Focus on how behaviors promote the survival of the individual and the species • Research areas include – social behavior – mate selection – language – reasoning abilities – cooperation, etc.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|7
  8. 8. BIOLOGICAL THEORIES: Ethological Theory • Focus on – Evolutionary causes and adaptive value of behavior – Ethologists propose that there are critical and sensitive periods in development where a specific type of learning occurs rapidlyCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|8
  9. 9. BIOLOGICAL THEORIES: Attachment Theory • Attachment theorists argue – Attachments form as infants give cues to which caregivers respond, increasing the likelihood of infant survival – Over the first few years of life, children develop inner working models about themselves and others; based on the kind of care they have received, a specific type of learning occurs rapidlyCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2|9
  10. 10. BIOLOGICAL THEORIES: Neurodevelopmental Approaches • Focus on the relationship of brain development to behavior and thinking • The kinds of experiences a child has help to determine the patterns of connections in the brain Doug Plummer/Photo ResearchersCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 10
  11. 11. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES • Have their origins in the belief that the most important causes of behavior are rooted in the unconscious drives and forces that develop within the mind of an individual • Not often used to guide research; however, they continue to influence the ways people think about human behaviorCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 11
  12. 12. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES: Freud’s Psychosexual Theory • Human behavior arises from the dynamic internal energy resulting from biology • The libido is the source of action and sexual desireCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 12
  13. 13. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES: Freud’s Psychosexual Theory • The human personality, or psyche, consists of the id (the pleasure principle), the ego (the reality principle), and the superego (the conscience) • During each stage of development, the increased sensitivity of a particular area of the body makes it an erogenous zone where libidinal energy is invested and pleasure is experiencedCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 13
  14. 14. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES: Freud’s Psychosexual Theory • Problems with Freud’s theory are – It is not based on solid scientific evidence – Freud never studied children directly – Aspects of his theory are untestable – It reflects cultural biasesCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 14
  15. 15. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES: Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory • Individuals go through a series of stages representing psychosocial crises • Crises represent critical periods in personality developmentCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 15
  16. 16. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES: Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory • Erikson believed that Freud’s theory – Gave too little recognition to social and cultural influences – Failed to recognize developmental changes beyond adolescence – Did not give enough emphasis to ego development – Focused primarily on the development of neurotic and maladaptive behavior and did not give enough consideration to healthy developmentCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 16
  17. 17. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES: Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory • Erikson’s major contribution was the detailed definitions he provided of eight stages and the psychosocial crises associated with each • Erikson’s theory – Was a life span approach – Viewed outcome of stages not permanent – Recognized cultural differences – Emphasized the development of identify (the external reflection of the ego)Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 17
  18. 18. LEARNING-BASED THEORIES • Maintain the environment in which people live and the experiences they have are major determinants of behavior. • Behavior changes only occur when the environment is changed. • Learning-based studies focus on factors that determine how behavior changes in response to everyday events.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 18
  19. 19. LEARNING-BASED THEORIES: Classical Conditioning • Conditioned responses to previously neutral stimuli could be taught • Principles discovered accidentally by Pavlov in dogs • Later extended by Watson to infantsCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 19
  20. 20. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 20
  21. 21. LEARNING-BASED THEORIES: Operant Conditioning • Focus on how the consequences of a behavior affect the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated • Behavior is more likely to occur after the presentation of – a positive reinforcement (food, praise, etc.) – A negative reinforcement (removing a negative condition)Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 21
  22. 22. LEARNING-BASED THEORIES: Operant Conditioning • Reinforcement – Increases the probability that a behavior will be repeated • Punishment – Application of unpleasant consequence – Decreases the probability that a behavior will be repeated – However, punishment is effective for only a short time and may have unintended negative side effectsCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 22
  23. 23. LEARNING-BASED THEORIES: Operant Conditioning • A more effective strategy for reducing unwanted behavior may be extinction in which all positive consequences are withheld. • Complex strings of behavior are learned through shaping – a process of rewarding behaviors that approximate the desired behavior.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 23
  24. 24. LEARNING-BASED THEORIES: Social Learning Theory • Bandura • Much of children’s learning occurs by watching the consequences that others experience for their behaviors through a process called vicarious reinforcement Elizabeth Crews/Image WorksCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 24
  25. 25. LEARNING-BASED THEORIES: Social Learning Theory-Modeling Processes • Through modeling, individuals learn new behaviors, the contexts appropriate for those behaviors, and their consequences • The four processes involved in modeling behavior are: – Attention – Retention – Motor reproduction – Reinforcement and motivationCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 2 | 25

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